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343 five he had not only retrieved his character, but had become the boldest of his tribe.

8. He was brother to the Shawanese chief called the Prophet, whose men General Harrison defeated in the battle of Tippecanoe; but, at the time of that conflict, he was absent. When the war of 1812 commenced, he was made a brigadier-general in the British army, and he continued to fight for his royal masters till his death.

9. Tecumseh was distinguished, through life, for truth and temperance, as well as for his disregard of all external marks of office or rank. When he was made a general, a sash was given him, but he returned it with every manifestation of contempt. He was truly a savage; he neither gave nor accepted quarter in war; though elsewhere he was generous, disinterested, hospitable and humane.

10. He was greatly distinguished for his eloquence. His speeches, it is said, might bear a comparison with those of the most celebrated orators of Greece and Rome, though this was doubtless an exaggeration. He was about five feet and ten inches in height, and beautifully formed. Tecumseh was, in truth, a man of remarkable endowments, and, with the advantages of civilization, might have attained an enviable fame.



1. THE war being ended in the north-west, General Harrison left General Cass at Detroit, with one thousand men, and repaired to Buffalo, to join General Wilkinson, who had, just before this time, succeeded in the chief command to General Dearborn. The great object of the army now was to take Kingston and Montreal.

2. The army consisted of five thousand troops at Fort George, two thousand at Sackett's Harbor, and four thousand at Lake Champlain ; making, in all, eleven thousand men: in addition to which, a considerable body was every day expected to arrive under General Harrison. Beside all this, the fleet, under Commodore Chauncey, held itself in readiness to co-operate with the army.

3. The secretary of war, General Armstrong, arrived at Sackett's

8. What office did he hold in the British army? 9. How was Tecumseh distinguished? What of him in war? In peace? 10. What of his eloquence? His speeches? Personal appearance?

CHAP. CLXX.-1. What did General Harrison do? What was now the great object of the American commanders? 2. Of what did the army consist? 3 What of General Armstrong? What was now done by the army?

Harbor, early in September. The plan of attacking Kingston was given up, and the army was ordered to proceed at once to Montreal, chiefly by marching a distance of one hundred and eighty miles. They left Sackett's Harbor September 30th.

4. They were delayed as they passed along, in various ways, espe cially by the attacks of small parties of the British on the Canada shore; and at Williamsburg a severe contest ensued. General Boyd commanded in this battle, General Wilkinson being indisposed. Both parties may be said to have been beaten, for both retreated with great loss.

5. Difficulties arose about this time among the American officers, especially between General Wilkinson and General Hampton. The troops of General Harrison, moreover, from some cause or other, did not arrive. A council of war was held, at the request of General Wilkinson, at which it was decided to give up the expedition for that season, and go into winter-quarters.

6. The place selected for this purpose was called French Mills, more than a hundred miles from Sackett's Harbor, and fifty or sixty from Plattsburg. Here they remained till February, when, two thousand of them having been detached and sent to the Niagara frontier, the remainder, after having destroyed their barracks, proceeded to Plattsburg.



1. SCARCELY had the northern army gone into winter-quarters at French Mills, when the public mind became directed to a war which had broken out with the Creek Indians. The Creeks appear to have led the way in this strife, by their seizure of Fort Mimms, and the massacre of three hundred men and women, who had fled to it for safety. This sad event occurred August 30th.

2. News of this murder having been received, two thousand men from Tennessee, under the command of Major-General Jackson, and five hundred under General Coffee, were ordered out against them. The Creeks were defeated at Tal-lus-hatch'-es, Tal-la-de'-ga, Au-tos'-se,

4. How were they delayed? 5. What was determined upon? was made of the troops?

What was the result of the battle at Williamsburg! 6. Where were their winter-quarters? What division

CHAP. CLXXI.-1. What outrages had the Creek Indians committed? What troops went against them? 2. Where were the Indians defeated?



E-muc-fau', and several other places, though not without severe loss on the part of the Americans.

3. Still they were by no means subdued. They erected a breastwork at a place called the Horse-Shoe Bend, on the Tal-la-poo'-sa River, and posted a hundred men there. Here they held out for some time. At last it was determined to dislodge them. The scattered forces of the country, with General Jackson at their head, were at length before their fort.

4. The attack was made on the 27th of March, 1814. General Jack. son assailed the fort, while General Coffee attacked a village near by, to drive the inhabitants to the fortifications. As soon as they were all fairly within them, General Jackson led his forces on, with fixed bayonets, to the breastwork, where they fought the Indians for some time through the portholes.

5. At length, however, the soldiers scaled the breastwork, and pursued the work of death within the fort. The contest here became terrible. The Indians who survived escaped, but not till the ground was covered with dead bodies. Three hundred women and children were taken prisoners. The number who perished did not fall much short of six hundred.

6. Thus terminated the struggle. A treaty was made with the Creeks by General Jackson on the 9th of August, by which they agreed to give up a portion of their territory to the whites, to pay the expenses of the war, to allow roads to be cut through their lands, to permit the free navigation of their rivers, and to take no more bribes of the British.

7. The following is the speech of Weatherford, their leader, at the treaty: "I am in your power. Do with me what you please. I have done the white people all the harm I could. I have fought them, and fought them bravely. There was a time when I had a choice; I have none now; even hope is ended.

Once I could animate my warriors; but I cannot animate the dead. They can no longer hear my voice; their bones are at Tallushatches, Talladega, Emucfau, and To-hope'-ka."

3. Where did they intrench themselves? 4. Describe the attack by General Jackson. Describe the contest within the fort, 6. What treaty was made with the Indians? Repeat the speech of Weatherford, the leader of the Creeks.


MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-Russian Mediation offered.-Measures for prosecuting the War.

1. THE offer of the Emperor of Russia to mediate between the United States and Great Britain, had not been accepted by the latter, but it was proposed to negotiate without any foreign interference. This proposal was at once approved by the government of the United States, and commissioners were appointed, on both sides, to meet at Got'-ten-burg. The place of meeting, however, was afterward changed to Ghent, in Flanders, a part of Belgium.

2. They did not assemble till August, and, in the mean time, the war, which has been mentioned, with the Creeks, had been prosecuted, and many more battles fought by land and by sea. Congress had also held two sessions-the regular session of the winter and an extra session, which commenced in May, 1814, and continued to August.

3. At these meetings of Congress, provision had been made for raising men and money, and especially for strengthening the navy, protecting our commerce, and regulating the revenue. The treasury was rather empty, and an expensive war could not be conducted, on a frontier thousands of miles in extent, and on the ocean too, without a large amount of money.

4. Among the measures which had been adopted in the winter of 1813-'14, was the laying of an embargo. This, however, was repealed the next April. The extra session of 1814 was chiefly spent in devising means for replenishing the treasury; for, though the offer of a bounty of one hundred and twenty-four dollars to every soldier who would enlist for five years, or during the war, had procured men, yet these men must be paid.

5. A system of internal or domestic taxation was at length resolved on, and laws were passed laying taxes on lands, houses, carriages, distilled liquors, refined sugars, retailers' licenses, etc. In addition to the five millions and a half of dollars which it was expected would be raised in this way, it was decided to borrow seven millions and a half


6. One additional measure was adopted, which met with some op position on account of the expense. This was the construction of one

CHAP. CLXXII.-1. What proposal was made by the Emperor of Russia? What did Great Britain propose? What of the commissioners? 2. When did they assemble! What of Congress? 8. What provision had been made by Congress? What was the state of the treasury? 4. How was the entire session of Congress in 1811 spent? 5. What taxes were laid? What money was to be borrowed? 6 For what project was half a million of dollars raised?



or more steam batteries, to be employed in the defence of our ports, rather than in carrying on the war at sea. For this object, half a million of dollars was appropriated.

7. It should not be forgotten that the party, in the United States, who had always been opposed to the war, continued their opposition. They even charged the government party with being influenced by an undue attachment to the French; in proof of which they cited the fact that war was declared just at the time when the forces of Britain were most needed in Europe to repel the ambitious projects of Napoleon.



the Ocean.

1. THE spring of 1814 opened with the loss of the United States frigate Essex, of thirty-two guns, Commodore Porter, in the bay of Val-pa-rai-so, in Chil'-i. The Essex had been cruising in the Pacific Ocean a long time, and had taken many prizes, and, though she had run into a neutral port, the British were determined not to spare her.

2. She was attacked on the 28th of March by a force greatly superior to her own, consisting of the British frigate Phoebe, of thirty-six guns, and a sloop of war called the Cherub, of eighteen guns. The contest was long and severe, and the loss of the Essex was very great, amounting to above one hundred and fifty in killed and wounded. Both vessels were much injured: the Phoebe could hardly be kept from sinking immediately.

3. On the 29th of April, the United States sloop of war Peacock, commanded by Captain, afterward Commodore, Warrington, while, off the coast of Florida, fell in with and captured the British brig Epervier, of eighteen guns. The battle lasted forty-five minutes. The British had eighteen killed and thirteen wounded; the Americans had only two wounded.

4. The United States sloop Wasp, also of eighteen guns, took the British sloop of war Reindeer, of eighteen guns. The loss was considerable on both sides. The action lasted twenty-eight minutes. It was fought near the coast of Great Britain, and the Reindeer was destroyed to prevent a recapture.

7 What of the party opposed to the war?

CHAP. CLXXIII.-1. What ship was lost by the Americans in 1814? 2 Describe the capture of the Essex 8 What passed between the Peacock and the Epervier? 4 What naval action was there on the coast of Great Britain?

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