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1. SEVERAL battles were fought by the two contending nations of Great Britain and America, after a treaty of peace was actually signed. but before the news had reached this country. The most important of these was at New Orleans, and occurred on the 8th of January, 1815

2. A large British fleet had arrived on the coast, east of the Missis sippi River, as early as December. This fleet had on board fifteen thousand troops, under the command of Sir Edward Packenham. Geu

CHAP. CLXXX -1. When did the battle of New Orleans take place? 2. What of the British fleet? What was the number of the British troops? Who commanded them! Who commanded the United States troops!

BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS.

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eral Jackson, who had so distinguished himself in the war with the Creek Indians, now had the command of the troops of the United States in this quarter.

3. As there was good reason to believe that the enemy were meditating a blow at New Orleans, General Jackson proceeded to fortify the place as fast and as strongly as the time and the circumstances would permit. Batteries, consisting mostly of bales of cotton, were extended from the river, eastward, in such a manner as to form a strong line of defence, fronted by a deep ditch.

4. The enemy came to the attack in solid columns, to the number of twelve thousand; they were well-tried and thoroughly disciplined troops. The forces under General Jackson scarcely amounted to half their number, and were chiefly militia. A part of them, only, had seen fighting before. Yet nearly all were accustomed to the use of the rifle, and were the best marksmen in the country.

5. No opposition was made to the British till they came fairly within reach of the American batteries, when some twenty-five or thirty cannon at once began the work of death. The British, however, coutinued to advance till they came within reach of the muskets and rifles, when their destruction became so great that their progress was slow.

6. From the nature of the ground, the British seemed obliged to advance in solid columns; but this made their destruction only so much the more dreadful. The cannon of the Americans were mowing down whole rows of them at every discharge. Unable to stand the shock, they at last began to fly.

7. But the officers rallied them again, and led them on as far as the very intrenchments of the Americans, where they found a ditch with five feet of water and a steep and slippery bank beyond it. At the moment of this desperate approach, the two principal British generals, Packenham and Gibbs, were killed, and their third, General Kean, was wounded.

8. Finding it impossible to scale the batteries of the Americans, and unable to stand the shower of death which was poured upon them, they retreated down the river. They did not embark immediately on board their shipping, but they made no more attempts against New Orleans.

9. The results of this battle were as singular as they were dreadful. No less than seven hundred men, out of the five thousand who were near enough to the batteries to be actually engaged, slept the sleep of

8. What was done by General Jackson? What were the American batteries composed of? 4. What forces were opposed to each other? 5. Describe the attack. 6. How were the British cut down? 7, 8. Describe the attack after the rally. What British genera's were killed? 9. What was the loss of the British in this battle?

death, and fourteen hundred were wounded. Five hundred more were prisoners. Yet all this destruction was effected with the loss on our part of only seven men killed and six wounded!

CHAPTER CLXXXI.

MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-Closing Events of the War.-The Dartmoor Massacre.-The Peace of Ghent.

1. OUR little navy continued its operations, as well as the army on shore, ignorant, of course, of what had been done at Ghent. Many prizes were taken, and not a few severe battles fought after the commencement of the year 1815. Among the last mentioned were the following:

2. The British ship Levant, of eighteen guns, and the frigate Cyane, of thirty-four, were taken by the American frigate Constitution while on a cruise, in the Mediterranean Sea, about the 20th of February. The battle lasted, with some intermission, three hours and a half, but was not very destructive.

3. Again, on the 23d of March, the Hornet, of the United States, commanded by Captain Biddle, fell in with and took the British brig Penguin, of eighteen guns. The battle lasted about twenty-two minutes, and was warmly contested-the forces of the two vessels being nearly equal.

4. An event of an adverse nature occurred about the beginning of this year. The United States frigate President, commanded by Commodore Decatur, in attempting to put to sea from New York, was pursued by the Endymion, a frigate of forty guns, and a battle ensued, during which other vessels came to the aid of the Endymion, and the President was captured.

5. But the war was now over. The treaty signed at Ghent between the commissioners* of the United States and Great Britain December 14th, 1814, had been ratified by the United States on the 17th of February following. By certain provisions of the treaty, with regard to captures which should be made after it was ratified, the President was

CHAP. CLXXXI.-1. What was done by our navy after the commencement of the year 1S15? 2. What ships were taken by the Constitution? 8. Describe the engagement of March 23d. 4. Describe the capture of the United States frigate President. 5 What of the treaty signed at Ghent?

*These commissioners were: on the part of the United States, John Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry Clay, Jonathan Russell, and Albert Gallatin; on the part of Great Britain, Admiral Lord Gambier, Henry Goulborn, and William Adams.

DIFFICULTIES WITH ALGIERS.

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a lawful prize to the British as much as if she had been taken earlier: and the Cyane and Levant also belonged to the United States.

6. The return of peace, in the United States, was hailed with great joy by both political parties. Much as people love war, they at length become tired of it; even when it happens, as in the present instance, that they do not appear to have gained the ends for which they fight.* If the soldiers were not glad to exchange the sword for the ploughshare, the nation at least was glad to have them do it.

7. One sad incident connected with the war, which was just now brought to a close, remains to be mentioned. It is the story of the massacre of American prisoners, which took place at Dartmoor, in Devonshire, England, April 6th, 1815. The war was, of course, over, and known to be over, at this time, but the prisoners had not all been exchanged.

8. These prisoners at Dartmoor were fired upon by the guard of the prison, by order of the agent. Seven of them were killed and sixty more or less wounded. The British did not defend the act; it was an act of cruelty that could not be justified. On the contrary, much sympathy was expressed, even by the monarch on the throne, for the widows and families of the sufferers.

9. Peace was established in the manner we have mentioned, and it was this very year that the Massachusetts Peace Society was formed.. This institution, by itself, its numerous auxiliaries and its periodicals, has done much, both in this country and in Europe, to sow the seeds of a far different spirit from that which has long prevailed even in the greater part of the Christian world.

CHAPTER CLXXXII.

MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-Difficulties with Algiers.

1. THE difficulties between the United States and Algiers had pro ceeded to such an extent, that, in 1812, the American consul was sudlenly ordered by the Dey to leave the capital. The immediate excuse

6. How was the return of peace received? 7, 8. Describe the fate of the prisoners at Dartmoor. 9. When was the Massachusetts Peace Society formed? Its influence?

* It is a curious fact, that upon the subjects for which the war had been professedly declared the encroachments upon American commerce and the impressment of American seamen, under the pretext of their being British subjects-the treaty thus concluded was silent! The termination of the European war, however, put an end to the former, and Great Britain has since virtually relinquished her pretensions to the latter.

for a command so unexpected and so singular was, that a cargo of naval and military stores which our government had sent them was not satisfactory.

2. Whether the stores were really such as the Dey pretended, or whether he only sought a pretext for commencing anew his system of piracy, is uncertain. One thing is, indeed, well known, which is, that depredations were immediately commenced, and that our vessels were not only plundered, but several of them captured and condemned, nd their crews sold into slavery.

3. During the session of Congress which commenced in December, 1814, the president, in a message, suggested the importance of taking measures to prevent further piracy on our vessels from this quarter. The subject was agitated in Congress, and at length, in March, 1815, they declared war against the Dey.

DECATUR.

4. Soon after this, an American squadron, under the gallant Decatur, sailed for the Mediterranean, to make a descent upon the Algerines. On the 18th of June, they captured an Algerian frigate of forty-four guns and six hundred men, and a brig. The victorious squadron then sailed for Algiers, to humble the Dey, if possible, still further.

5. Such was the terror inspired by the American arms, that it was not difficult to procure a treaty, on our own terms. The Dey not only agreed to give up the property and men he had taken from us, and exempt

us from tribute in time to come, but actually to pay six millions of dollars for previous damages. This treaty was signed June 30th of the same year.

6. Decatur then sailed for Tunis, and afterward for Tripoli, and obained indemnity of the rulers of both, for past wrongs, and security against future ones.

CHAP. CLXXXII.-1. What reason was given by the Dey of Algiers for sending away the American consul? 2. What depredations were committed? 8. What was done by Congress? When was war declared against the Dey? 4. What was done by an American equadron? 5. What did the Dey agree to do in the treaty? When was this treaty signed? 6. What did Decatur do as to Tunis and Tripoli?

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