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Visit to Powhatan.-Account of the Indians in this Quarter-Sad Condition of the Colony.

1. WHILE a part of the colonists were busy in clearing the soil and building suitable huts and fortifications, Captain Newport, in company with Captain John Smith, ascended the James River to the Falls, and visited Pow-ha-tan', the chief of the Indians in those parts, at his principal seat, just below where Rich'-mond now stands.

2. The Indians in these regions were quite numerous, though the place where Powhatan lived had only twelve houses. These were, like the other dwellings of the savages, mere huts or tents made of sticks, bark, and leaves, and were called wigwams.

3. The visitors found Powhatan and his tribe to be in a very rude and savage state; they lived chiefly by fishing and hunting, though they cultivated Indian corn and a few other articles. They were nearly naked, but sometimes wore the skins of wild beasts. They were often at war with other tribes; their chief weapons in war and the chase were the bow and arrow and the tomahawk, the latter being a kind of small axe.

4. After a short stay, Captain Newport left the colony for England. No settlement was ever left in a more pitiable condition. To say nothing of the danger from savage foes, their provisions were poor and insufficient, the water was unwholesome, and the summer heat intolerable to those who had been accustomed to a cooler climate: many of them were ill, and those who were not so were discouraged.

5. In less than a fortnight after the departure of the fleet, hardly ten of them were able to stand; and scarcely five were fit to guard the fort, or plant crops for future sustenance. The sickness increased, till, in some instances, three or four died in a night. Fifty of them, or about half the colony, perished before autumn came on.

6. To complete the catalogue of evils, they quarrelled among themselves. They first excluded Captain Smith from the council, professodly on account of sedition, but really and truly from motives of envy. Text they deposed Mr. Wingfield, the president, and appointed Mr. Ratcliff in his stead, who was no better, and thus things, for some time, went on.

7. They discovered, at last, that Captain Smith, whom they had so

CHAP. XI.-1-8. What of Captain Newport and Captain Smith? 4. What was the state of the colony when Captain Newport departed with the fleet? 5. What soon followed? 6. What added to the evils of the colony?



much hated, was the best man among them, and their chief dependence. In truth, as it afterward proved, they could not do without him in peace or in war. Money, with him, was not, as with most men, and especially those of this colony, a main object: the good of his fellow men seems to have been the higher motive in his breast.

8. Captain Smith became so identified with the history of the colony, and, indeed, with the history of our country and our race, that it may be well to give a more particular account of him-his birth, education and adventures in early life.


Captain John Smith.-His remarkable Life and Adventures.-He joins the Expedition to Virginia.-Makes Treaties with the Indians, etc.

1. THIS most remarkable man of all the first settlers of Jamestown,


ariny, then engaged in a war with the Turks. adventures, and not a few hazardous exploits in

was born in Lincolnshire,



land, in 1579. He

was put as an apprentice to a merchant, at the age of fifteen, but, disliking the business, he left his master, proceeded to Holland, enlisted for a time as a soldier, and at length found his way to Austria.

2. Here he entered the Austrian After many singular single combat-hav

ing, in three several instances, cut off the heads of his antagonists

7. What of Captain Smith? 8. Why is it proper to tell the story of Captain Smith in detail?

CHAP. XII.-1. When and where was Captain John Smith born? What of his early life? 2. What happened to him in Austria?

he was at length wounded, taken prisoner, and, on his recovery, sold as a slave.

3. In this situation he behaved so well as speedily to win the confidence of his new mistress, who, with a view to restore to him his freedom, sent him to her brother, an officer at the Cri-me'-a, in Russia. Here, contrary to her expectations, he was put to the severest drudgery, and his life made a burden.

4. Determined to escape from his new master, he at length found a convenient opportunity. He was employed in threshing, about three miles from the house. Here his master visited him once a day. Watching his opportunity, Smith dispatched him with the flail, hid his body in the straw, and, mounting his horse, fled to the woods.

5. After wandering several days, uncertain of his fate, he came to a guide-post. By means of the marks on this, he found his way. Thus he returned, through Russia, Poland, Germany, and France, to his native country; though on his way he passed through Spain, and visited the kingdom of Mo-roc'-co, in Africa, where he spent a short time.

6. He reached England just as companies were being formed for Fettling the new continent of America. As he had lost none of his courage or energy, he was admirably adapted to the hazardous undertaking. He was immediately attached to the expedition under Captain Newport, and made, as we have seen, one of the members of the Virginia council.

7. Small bodies of men, when exposed to great danger, are, for the most part, united among themselves. But it was not so, as we have seen, with the Jamestown colony. There was no bond of union, even in the hour of danger. To restore harmony, then, was the first object to which Smith, who had now recovered his influence, directed his attention.

8. Peace and order, by his efforts, being at length restored, he found leisure to do something toward defending the colony from foes without. The Indians threatened them; but he made treaties with them, and thus succeeded in quieting them for the present, as well as in removing the fears which had agitated the colony.

3. What happened to him among the Turks? 4, 5. What of his escape? 6. What of Smith respecting the American colony? 7. What was the state of the colony when Smith recovered his influence? 8. What did he do?




Captain Smith goes on an Exploring Voyage.-He is taken Prisoner, and carried before Powhatan.

1. As soon as the colony became secure, and was well supplied with provisions, Smith undertook a voyage of discovery. An opinion preailed among the first voyagers to America, into which Smith had fallen among the rest, that it was only a little way across the country to the South Sea, then deemed the ocean path to every kind of wealth. They supposed that by ascending almost any river which came from the north-west, they could soon find a passage by water thither.

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2. The Chick-a-hom'-i-ny River is a branch of the James, uniting with it a little above Jamestown. With a small number of associates, Smith ascended it in a barge as far as it was boatable, and then, leaving the barge with a part of the men, who were to remain on board, ascended in a canoe still higher up the stream.

CHAP. XIII.-1. What opinion had Smith adopted? 2. What river did Smith ascend with an exploring party?

3. He had no sooner left the boat, than the crew went ashore at the very spot where a brother of Powhatan, with some Indians, lay in ambush. They seized one of the men, and, after having compelled him to tell them which way their commander had gone, they cruelly murdered him, and then went in pursuit of Smith and his party.

4. Having proceeded about twenty miles, they overtook and attacked them, killing the companions of Smith, and wounding him. They then surrounded and attempted to take him; but, though wounded, he defended himself until he had killed three of his assailants, when he sank deep in a marsh and was captured.

5. Smith knew the character of the Indians, and set about devising expedients to prolong his life. He took from his pocket a compass, and amused his captors by showing them the vibrations of the needle. He thus excited their curiosity, and by various means arrested their immediate purpose of taking his life.

6. He was, however, detained, and was obliged to exercise his ingenuity to amuse the savages. He endeavored to give them some faint notions of the earth and the visible heavenly bodies; he also wrote a note on a piece of paper and sent it to the colonists at Jamestown, thus showing that by this means he could communicate with his friends.

7. Thus the savages came to the conclusion that their prisoner was a magician, and it might not be safe to destroy him; therefore they at length concluded to conduct him to Powhatan. He was bound for this purpose and brought before the king, whom he found seated on a wooden throne, with two girls, his daughters, at his side. After a consultation with his principal men, it was determined to put him to death, and they proceeded to make the preparations.



The Story of Pocahontas.-She saves Captain Smith's Life, and becomes the Friend of the English.-She is married to Rolfe.


1. Two large stones were brought in, and laid at the feet of the savage king, and Smith's head was placed on one of them, while the

3. What occurred after Smith left the boat? 4. How was Smith pursued and taken! 5. What did Smith do? 6. What particularly astonished the Indians? 7. What did the savages believe Smith to be? Why did they take him to Powhatan? What did Powhatan determine to do?

CHAP. XIV.-1. What preparations were made for the death of Smith?

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