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between this country and Mexico. At the same time, the United States became bound to pay the Spanish government five million dollars, on account of injuries and losses which they had sustained from us.

2. On the 2d of March of this year, A-la-ba'-ma was admitted to the Union. This was the twenty-second member of the confederacy. Arkansas was made a territorial government the same year, but was not formed into a state till nearly twenty years afterward.

3. Alabama, with its deep, rich soil, and, in many places, healthful and happy climate, remained till after the Revolutionary War a mere hunting-ground of the savages. From the peace of 1783 till 1802, the territory was claimed by Georgia; and the lands were sold to settlers and speculators accordingly.

4. Among other sales was one of twenty-five millions of acres for five hundred thousand dollars; and the money was received and put into the treasury. But, at a subsequent meeting of the legislature, the validity of the sale was called into question; and finally, the records respecting it were ordered to be burnt and the money restored to the purchasers.

5. In the year 1802, the state of Georgia ceded all her western territory to the United States for twelve hundred and fifty thousand dollars. This and the act by which the records were destroyed or casioned lawsuits, which cost the parties great trouble and much money. In 1800, as we have seen elsewhere, the present state of Alabama became a part of the Mississippi Territory -from which it was separated when Mississippi became a state.

CHAPTER CLXXXVII

MONROE'S ADMINISTRATION. CONTINUED.-The States of Maine and Missouri admitted into the Union.-The Missouri Compromise.

1. In the year 1638-the same year in which New Haven was settled-Ferdinando Gorges obtained a charter from the king, of all the lands from the borders of New Hampshire, on the south-west, to Sagadahoc, on Kennebec River, on the north-east, under the name of the Province of Maine. It remained a separate province till the year 1652, when it became a part of Massachusetts.

2. What can you say of Alabama and Arkansas? 8. How was Alabama occupied till after the Revolution? What of the claims of Georgia? 4. What took place respecting one of the sales? 5. What was done by Georgia in 1802? What of Alabama in 1800 ? CHAP. CLXXXVII.-What of the charter granted to Gorges, respecting the Province of Maine? When did Maine become a part of Massachusetts ?

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2. The history of the settlement of this province has been alluded to in connection with the history of the colony of Massachusetts. Various attempts were made during the latter part of the eighteenth century to form it into an independent state, but none of them succeeded.

3. The most important of these attempts was made in 1785. A convention then met for the purpose at Portland. The next year, the question of a separation from Massachusetts was submitted to the people in their town meetings, on which it appeared that a majority of the freemen were opposed to the measure. A similar attempt was made in 1802, and with similar results.

4. In 1819, a large majority were found to be in favor of a separation. A convention was called, and a constitution prepared and adopted, and in 1820, Maine became the twenty-third pillar of the American Union. At present, this state has about six hundred thousand inhabitants, and is not only large and populous, but flourishing.

5. Toward the end of the year 1820, when Congress had come together, the question was brought before them whether Missouri should be admitted into the Union. The discussion which followed involved another inquiry—that of the extension of slavery—and occupied much of the session. Provision was, however, at length made for its admission upon certain conditions;* and these having been complied with, Missouri, in August 1821, became the twenty-fourth member of our confederacy. 6. This state, together with all the territory then belonging to the United States west of the Mississippi River, was included in the purchase of Louisiana from the French, in the year 1803. Louisiana was afterward divided into the "Territory of Orleans," or Louisiana proper, and the Territory of Missouri.

7. In 1819, this latter territory was divided into Arkansas, in the south, and Missouri, in the north; and it was about this time that the northern or Missouri division took the requisite steps to form a state constitution. Since its admission, in 1821, its progress, in population and improvement, has been exceedingly rapid.

2. What attempts were made during the latter part of the eighteenth century? 8. What attempt was inade in 1785? In 1802? 4. What was done in 1819? What of Maine at this time? 5. What discussion was had about Missouri in 1820? When did Missouri become a state? What of the Missouri Compromise? 6. What was included in the purchase of Louisiana? How was Louisiana afterward divided? 7. How was Missour divided? What of it since 1821 ?

*In this debate, the Northern members generally urged that in Missouri, slavery should be prohibited; the Southern members took the ground that slavery should be tolerated. The discussion caused great excitement, as well in Congress as in the country at large. This state was finally admitted, permitting slavery, connected, however, with a general act prohibiting it in all new states, north of latitude 36.80; that being the northern limit of Arkansas, and the southern limit of Missouri. This act called the Missouri Compromise continued to be regarded by Congress, until the year 1854, when it was repealed by what is called the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, to territories of these names being thereby organized

8. In 1855 and 1856 great excitement took place in Missouri, in consequence of the agitation of the slavery question in the contiguous territory of Kansas. Many of the inhabitants, strongly in favor of the establishment of slavery in Kansas, passed into that territory, and used their influence to promote that object. For two years the whole United States was disturbed by the agitations which ensued.

CHAPTER CLXXXVIII.

MONROE'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-Territorial Or ganization of Florida.-History of Florida.—Apportionment of Representatives in Congress at various epochs. 1. DURING the session of Congress which closed in the spring of 1823, a territorial government was established for Florida; and William Duvall, of Kentucky, was appointed by the president, with the concurrence of the Senate, to be the governor.

2. The unsuccessful attempt of Ponce de Leon to settle this country has been mentioned in its place. The Spaniards made several transient settlements here at an early date, but the first permanent colony was established on the river May, in 1664. Even this came near being broken up by starvation the next year. The settlers had been at war with the natives-had lost many of their number; and those who were alive had been obliged to subsist on acorns and roots.

3. Spain held the possession of Florida from the time of its discovery till 1763, when it was ceded to Great Britain. In 1781, West Florida again fell into the hands of the Spanish; and in a treaty made in 1783, both provinces were given up to Spain, in whose hands they remained, with the temporary interruption occasioned by the movements of General Jackson, till 1819.

4. In the progress of the year 1819, a transfer of the whole province was made, by treaty, to the United States. This treaty, after much delay, was ratified by Spain, and still more tardily by the United States. This act, on the part of the United States, took place in February, 1821; and possession was given in the following July. 5. This territory, at the census in 1840, contained fifty-four thou sand four hundred and seventy-seven inhabitants, and March 3d, 1845, became a state. Tal-la-has'-see, the seat of government, contains

8. What agitation took place in Missouri in 1855 and 1856?

CHAP. CLXXXVIII.-1. What was done by Congress as to Florida in 1823? 2. Whe formerly attempted to settle the country? What of the first permanent settlement? 3. Into whose hands did Florida successively pass? 4. What was done in 1819? What took place in 1821?

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about two thousand inhabitants; and is the largest town in the state, except Pensacola, which is about one-third larger. St. Augustine, founded by the Spaniards in 1565, is the oldest town in the United States.

6. Slight changes were made during the session of Congress for 1822-3, with regard to the representation of the several states in the House of Representatives. At first only one representative had been sent for every thirty thousand inhabitants; the fractions, in each state, going for nothing. The constitution had not, indeed, limited the rep resentation to this number, but had only said that no more than one representative should be sent for each thirty thousand people.

7. After the first census, it was fixed at one representative to every thirty-three thousand. The same apportionment continued under the second census, but at the third it was made one in thirty-five thousand. In 1822-3, it was fixed, for the next ten years, at forty thousand. The proportion, after the census of 1830, was one in forty-seven thousand seven hundred. The proportion from 1840 was one for seventy thou sand six hundred and eighty. From 1852 it was fixed at one for ninety-three thousand three hundred and forty; and from 1860 at one for one hundred and twenty thousand, the whole number of representatives for the United States being two hundred and forty-one, besides the delegates from the territories.

CHAPTER CLXXXIX.

MONROE'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-La Fayette in the United States.

1. THE celebrated general, La Fayette, who had lived in France since the American Revolution, having received an invitation from Congress, to visit this country, arrived at New York, August 13th, 1824, and proceeded to the residence of Vice-president Tompkins, on Staten Island. He was soon after escorted to New York by a splendid array of steamboats, decorated by the flags of almost every nation in the world, and bearing thousands of citizens.

2. After remaining a few days in New York, he went to Boston where he met with the same cordial and joyful reception. He scon after returned to New York, and visited Albany and the other towns

5. What was the population of Florida in 1840? What of Tallahassee? Pensacola? St Augustine? 6. What of the constitution as to representatives? 7. How was the representation arranged after the first census? After the second census? In 1822-3? After the census of 1840? After the census of 1850? After the census of 1860?

CHAP. CLXXXIX.-1. What of General Lafayette? His reception in New York? 2. What places did he visit?

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on the Hudson, after which he proceeded to Virginia, but returned to Washington during the sitting of the next Congress.

3. The next spring, after having passed through the Southern and Western states, he again went to Boston. There, on the 17th of June two days after he arrived, he attended the fiftieth anniversary of the battle of Bunker Hill; at which time, beside many demonstrations of public joy, the corner-stone of a monument was laid. This was not finished, however, till 1842.

4. The excursions of La Fayette in this country occupied, in all, about a year. In this time, he visited every one of the twenty-four states. He was everywhere received as a father to the country, and his presence every where hailed with unmingled joy. The 7th of September was the day fixed for his departure; and the frigate Brandywine was appointed to convey him to his native country.

5. The parting scene was one of the most affecting which was ever witnessed in this country. He was to sail from Washington. All business was suspended there on that day, and all the officers of government, from the president downward, assembled to bid him farewell. He was attended to the vessel by the whole population of Washington. 6. In passing Mount Vernon, he landed to pay a farewell visit to the tomb of Washington, but immediately re-embarked, and, after a

3. What took piace at Boston on the 17th June, 1824? 4. What time did La Fayette's excursions occupy? How was he received? 5. Describe the parting scene as he left for France. 6. What tribute did he pay to the memory of Washington? What did Congress present him with?

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