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LAFAYETTE IN THE UNITED STATES. 373

prosperous voyage, was soon once more in his native country. While here, Congress gave him two hundred thousand dollars and a township of land, as a partial compensation for his services during the Revolutionary struggle.

7. Nothing could have been more gratifying to the people of the United States than this visit of the illustrious stranger,* whom, next to Washington, they delighted to honor.

7. How did the people of the United States esteem La Fayette?

*The name of this great and good man was Marie Jean Paul Roch Yves Gilbert Mottier, Marquis de la Fayette. He was born at Auvergne in 1757, and belonged to the court of Louis XVI. At the age of twenty, having just been married to a young and beautiful lady, he left his country and all the pleasures of a brilliant career, to engage in our national struggle for independence. That having been achieved, he returned to France. In the revolution which began with the destruction of the Bastille in 1789, he played a distinguished part, being at one time commander of the National Guard, and possessing such power as almost to make him arbiter of the fate of France. He afterward became an object of distrust, and, endeavoring to escape, was taken and imprisoned at Olmutz by the Austrians, for several years, being released in 1797. He took a leading part in placing Louis Philippe on the throne in 1830, and died in 1834.

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JOHN QUINCY ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION, FROM MARCH 4TH, 1825, TO MARCH 4TH, 1829.-Difficulties with Georgia. -Speculations and Bankruptcies of 1825.

1. IN 1821, Mr. Monroe as president, and D. D. Tompkins as vicepresident, had been re-elected, almost without opposition, and had duly entered upon their second term of office. This having expired, they were succeeded, in 1825, by John Q. Adams, of Massachusetts, as President, and John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, as Vice-President.

2. The latter was elected by the people, but, in respect to Mr. Adams, there was no choice; the election therefore devolved upon the House of Representatives, as in the first election of Jefferson. During a state of great excitement, the choice of Mr. Adams was declared February 9th, 1825.

3. About the time Mr. Adams's administration began, a controversy

CHAP. CXC.-1. What of Monroe and Tompkins as to a second term of office? Who succeeded them? 2. What of the election of Adams and Calhoun ?

DEATH OF ADAMS AND JEFFERSON.

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arose between Georgia and the national government, which continued for some time. It had relation to certain lands, within the state of Georgia, held by the Creek Indians, which Georgia claimed as belonging to herself.

4. This controversy grew out of an agreement between the general government and Georgia, in 1802. In 1825, the Creeks became ex cited and a war seemed inevitable.

5. After a long negotiation at Washington, and much effort on the part of the president and both houses of Congress, the matter was finally settled without a resort to arms, but not to the entire satisfaction of Georgia. This state long retained unpleasant feelings against the president and his friends, though he seems rather entitled to praise for his conduct during the whole affair.

6. This year, 1825, was remarkable for a spirit of speculation, which prevailed in England and this country, especially in regard to cotton. The price of this article rose from twelve to thirty-two cents in the course of a few weeks. Many kinds of West India goods also advanced with similar rapidity.

7. The prices soon receded, and extensive bankruptcies were the immediate consequence. The fictitious wealth, which the high prices of goods had created, suddenly disappeared, and involved thousands and tens of thousands in distress, and not a few in utter pecuniary ruin.

CHAPTER CXCI.

J. Q. ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-Death of Adams and Jefferson, etc.

1. THE most remarkable events of the year 1826 were the death of the two ex-presidents, Adams and Jefferson, on the 4th of July, and within a very few hours of each other. They had long been ill; but it was hardly to be expected that they would both terminate their existence on this particular day.

2. Jefferson, like Washington, Madison, Monroe, and even Harrison, was a native of Virginia. He was born in the year 1743; and, of course, was eighty-three years old when he died. He was bred a

3, 4. What controversy arose with Georgia? When did the Creeks become excited? 5. How was the difficulty finally adjusted? 6. For what was the year 1825 remarkable? What articles rose in value? 7. What was the consequence of these speculations?

CHAP. CXCI.-1. When did Adams and Jefferson die? 2. Where was the latter born? At what age did he die? What can you say of him?

lawyer, and his life was one of great activity, though he was much less a warrior, or a civilian, than a statesman.

3. When the time came for preparing a Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was chairman of the committee of five appointed for this purpose. He drew the instrument with his own hand; nor was it very materially altered by Congress.

4. Beside being a member of Congress for many years, he was also abroad as minister to France and Great Britain for a considerable period. After the close of his second term as president, he retired tc his estate, called Monticello, in Virginia, where he spent the remainder of his days, chiefly employed in writing and in study.

5. Adams was a native of Quincy, near Boston, but was eight years older than Jefferson. He, too, was bred a lawyer, but, like Jefferson, did not long practise his profession. The war of the Revolution soon called him into such scenes of bustling activity as gave him little time for legal practice.

6. He was early a member of the colonial congresses, and among the first to resist the high-handed measures of Great Britain. He nominated Washington as the commander-in-chief of the American army. He was second on the committee, already alluded to, appointed to draft a Declaration of Independence; and, like Jefferson, was one of the first to sign it.

7. In regard to his character, the best eulogium has been given by Jefferson. He always said that "the great pillar of support to the Declaration of Independence, and its ablest advocate and champion on the floor of the house, was John Adams;" and no man knew him better than Jefferson.

8. Though feeble from great age at the arrival of the fiftieth anniversary of Independence, he had expressed, like Jefferson, a strong desire to live to see that day, though he hardly expected it. But he knew enough, on the fourth, to know it had arrived; and said, "It is a great and glorious day." His last words were, "Jefferson survives." 9. Madison and Monroe lived several years longer. Monroe died in New York, July 4th, 1831, aged seventy-three; thus making the third president who had died on the anniversary of our independence. Madison died June 28th, 1836, aged eighty-six years.

3. What great paper did he draw up? 4. To what countries was Jefferson minister How did he pass his time after he retired from the presidency? 5. To what professio was Adams bred? To what scenes was he called from the bar? 6. How was he early distinguished? 7. Give his character by Jefferson. 8 Describe the last day of his life 9. What of Madison and Monroe?

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JACKSON'S ADMINISTRATION, FROM MARCH 4TH, 1829, TO MARCH 4TH, 1837.-His Election.- Van Buren Vice President.-Death of John Jay.-Nullification in South Carolina.-Clay's Compromise Act.

1. FEW events worthy of note occurred in the year 1827. During the session of Congress which commenced December 4th of that year, a bill was passed for the revision of the tariff of the United States; but it did not give universal satisfaction. Some thought it encouraged domestic manufactures, etc., too much; others, too little.

2. The year 1828 was distinguished for party strife in the election of a president. The two opposing candidates were Adams, the in cumbent, and General Jackson. The result of the contest was the election of General Jackson by a large majority-one hundred and

CHAP. CXCII.-1. What bill passed in Congress in the year 1827? 2 candidates for the presidency in the year 1828? Who was elected? majority of votes for Jackson? How did Jackson's administration begin?

Who were the

What was the

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