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ton and the vicinity, not an instance of riot occurred, nor was a solitary individual sent to the watch-house during the ensuing night!

4. We may at least hope and believe that, in spite of the various convulsions which have occurred for the last few years, the standard of morals, in our country, is higher than at any former period of our history. 5. On the 10th of January, 1845, an important treaty with China, negotiated by Caleb Cushing, of Massachusetts, with the Governor. General, Tsiyeng, on behalf of the Emperor Taou Kwang, was ratified by the Senate. By this treaty, the relations of our country with China were placed on a more favorable footing than ever before.

6. During this year, 1845, bills for the admission of two new states into the Union, Iowa and Florida, were passed by Congress. The first was rejected by the people of that territory; the latter was accepted, and Florida, as already stated, became one of the United States. Iowa* was admitted the next year.

7. On the 1st of March, 1845, the president signed the bill for the annexation of Texast to the Union. This measure had been some time in contemplation, and in 1844 had been attempted by a treaty on the part of President Tyler. Now the subject was presented in a different form and consummated by Congress. Texas was soon after admitted as a state.

4. What may we hope? 5. What of the new treaty with China? 6. What of Iowa? Florida? 7. The annexation of Texas?

* Iowa derives its name from the Indians; it was included in the Louisiana purchase, and was first settled at Dubuque by the French in 1686. It formed part of the Missouri territory from 1804 to 1821, when it was included in the Michigan Territory, and subsequently in the Wisconsin Territory.

+ The vast territory of Texas was explored by Ponce de Leon and La Salle. It was claimed both by Spain and France, but fell under the dominion of the latter. It however continued to be almost without population, except roving bands of Indians. After Mexico became independent, a grant which had been made to Moses Austin, a native of Connecticut, comprising a large tract in this province, was confirmed by the new govern. ment. This being transferred by Moses Austin, at his death, to his son Stephen, was afterward extended by a further grant. Emigration from the United States was encouraged, and in 1830 nearly ten thousand Americans had settled in this territory.

The prosperity of these inhabitants excited the jealousy of Mexico, and under the gov. ernment of Santa Anna, an unjust and oppressive policy was adopted. Remonstrance being found to be useless, the people of Texas declared their independence. In 1835, the revolution commenced by a battle at Gonzales, in which five hundred Texans obtained a victory over one thousand Mexicans. Other engagements took place, the result of which was the dispersion of the Mexican army.

Santa Anna now made a vigorous effort, and appearing in March with a force of eight thousand men, several bloody engagements followed. On the 21st of April, having a forc of fifteen hundred soldiers, he was met by General Samuel Houston, on the banks of the San Jacinto, with eight hundred Texans, and totally defeated. Santa Anna himself was captured the next day in the woods, and acknowledged the independence of Texas, though the Mexican Congress refused to ratify this act. Active hostilities were now abandoned by Mexico, and the independence of Texas was acknowledged by the United States. France, Great Britain, and other European countries. It was in this state of things that Texas was annexed to the United States.

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POLK'S ADMINISTRATION, FROM MARCH 4TH, 1845, TO MARCE 4TH, 1849.-Death of General Jackson.- His Character.

1. THE presidential election of the autumn of 1844 was keenly con tested, and resulted in the choice of James K. Polk, of Tennessee, the democratic candidate for president, against Henry Clay, the whig candidate. George M. Dallas, of Pennsylvania, was elected vice-president. Mr. Po'k and Mr. Dallas were duly inaugurated March 4th, 1845.

2. On the 8th of June of this year General Jackson breathed his last, at his residence in Tennessee, called the Hermitage. He was a man of great energy of character, and during his presidency was the idol of his party. As he had warm friends, so he had bitter enemies, a fact which is easily comprehended when we consider the general re sult of his administration.

CHAP CCV.-1. What of the election of the autumn of 1844? Who were chosen prest. dent and vice-president? Who was the whig candidate for president? When were Polk and Dallas inaugurated? 2 When did General Jackson die? Wrat of his charac ter? What of his friends and enemies?



3. He was the chief instrument in overturning the great measures established by preceding administrations, and advocated by the Whig party. These embraced a United States Bank as the fiscal agent of the government; encouragement of Internal Improvements, such as public roads, railroads, etc., of general utility or necessity, by the general government; encouragement of our manufactures by a Protective Tariff* on foreign imports, etc. In place of these, the measures advocated by the democracy, such as the Sub-Treasury,† a repudiation of internal improvements, except those of a commercial and universal nature; a tariff, favoring the doctrines of Free Trade,‡ etc.. became parts of the policy of the government.

4. Such vast changes, effecting a sudden and complete revolution in financial affairs, public as well as private, naturally excited intense feeling. General Jackson was, however, warmly sustained by the great majority of his party, and these, for the time, constituted the majority of the people of the United States.

5. In deciding upon the acts as well as the character of a public man, who is vehemently praised by his friends, and as strongly condemned by his enemies, during his lifetime, we are bound to exercise great care and soberness of judgment. Without pretending to decide upon General Jackson's administration-for the time has hardly come for this-we may, however, express the general conviction that he was honest and patriotic in his intentions.

8. What measures was Jackson chiefly instrumental in overthrowing? What measures were substituted? 4. Why did such vast changes excite intense feeling? By whom was General Jackson sustained in his measures and policy? 5. When should we exercise great care and soberness of judgment? What general conviction may we express as to General Jackson's feelings and intentions?

* The policy of the Whig party was denominated the American System, and was es sentially protective in its character.

+ The sub-treasury was not suggested till Mr. Van Buren's time, nor was it established till Polk's administration; but General Jackson laid the foundation for it in his success. ful opposition to the United States Bank.

Free trade is that system which favors a free commercial intercourse between na tions; that is, without duties on imports; and is opposed to that system which has been ollowed for centuries by nearly all nations, in taxing the products of foreign countries, so as to give encouragement to the labor and industry of the home country. The Whigs advocated the imposing of duties on the manufactures of Europe, so high as in some degree to exclude them, thus protecting the labor and products of our own mechanics and artisans: the Democrats advocated the reduction of these duties to the lowest scale, thus, as far as possible, leaving every body to buy where they could buy cheapest. Inasmuch as the main revenue of our government is derived from taxes on imports, the Democrats contended that these, which averaged twenty per cent., were sufficient protection. The views of parties were at length so far modified that incidental protection was deemed adequate by both; the Whigs, however, contended that taxes should be specific, and be adjusted with direct reference to the encouragement of American manufactures The Democrats, generally held opposite views.


POLK'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-The Mexican War. -General Taylor's Movements.-Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.

1. We now approach the Mexican war. Texas, as we have seen. had been annexed to the United States, though it was well known that Mexico, regarding it as a revolted province, earnestly remonstrated against the measure. Indeed, among the prominent reasons urged in opposition to annexation was the attitude of Mexico, and the certainty that it would draw us into a war with that republic.*

2. On the 4th of July, 1846 the legislature of Texas, by accepting the joint resolution of Congress .naking provision for this event, became a member of the Federal Union, as we have before stated. President Polk, aware of the state of feeling in Mexico, ordered General Zach'-a-ry Taylor, in command of the troops in the south-west, to proceed to Texas, and post himself as near to the Mexican border as he deemed prudent. At the same time an American squadron was dispatched to the vicinity, in the Gulf of Mexico.

3. In November, General Taylor had taken his position at Cor'-pus Chris'-ti, a Texan settlement on a bay of the same name, with about four thousand men. On the 13th of January, 1846, the president ordered him to advance with his forces to the Ri'-o Gran'-de; accordingly he proceeded, and in March stationed himself on the north bank of that river, within cannon-shot of the Mexican town of Mat-a-mo'-ras. Here he hastily erected a fortress, called Fort Brown.

4. The territory lying between the river Nue'-ces and the Rio Grande, about one hundred and twenty miles in width,† was claimed both by Texas and Mexico; according to the latter, therefore, General Taylor had actually invaded her territory, and had thus committed an open

CHAP. CCVI.--1. How did Mexico consider Texas? How did she regard its annexation to the United States? 2. What of Texas on the 4th of July, 1845? What had President Polk ordered General Taylor to do? Where was a squadron ordered to go? 3. What had General Taylor done in November? Where was Corpus Christi? What was Taylor ordered to do on the 13th of January, 1846? What fort did Taylor erect? 4. What of the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande? What of General Ampudia? What of a party of American dragoons?

* At this time, Mexico was a republic, its government resembling that of the United States; General Herrera had been president, but his known desire for peace with the United States, rendered him unpopular, and General Paredes was elected in his stead He was president of Mexico at the commencement of the war we are now describing, but was soon after succeeded by Santa Anna.

+ This now forms a part of the state of Tas




act of war. On the 26th of April, the Mexican general, Am-pu'-di-a, gave notice to this effect to General Taylor, and on the same day a party of American dragoons, sixty-three in number, being on the north side of the Rio Grande, were attacked, and, after the loss of sixteen men killed and wounded, were forced to surrender. Their commander Captain Thornton, only escaped.

5. The Mexican forces had now crossed the river above Matamoras, and were supposed to meditate an attack on Point Is'-a-bel,* where Taylor had established a depôt of supplies for his army. On the 1st of May, this officer left a small number of troops at Fort Brown, and marched with his chief forces, twenty-three hundred men, to the defence of Point Isabel. Having garrisoned this place, he set out or his return.

6. On the 8th of May, about noon, he met the Mexican army, six thousand strong, drawn up in battle array, on the prairie near Pa'-lo Al'-to. The Americans at once advanced to the attack, and, after an action of five hours, in which their artillery was very effective, drove the enemy before them, and encamped upon the field. The Mexican loss was about one hundred killed; that of the Americans, four killed and forty wounded. Major Ringgold, of the artillery, an officer of great merit, was mortally wounded.

7. The next day, as the Americans advanced, they again met the enemy in a strong position near Re-sa'-ca de la Pal'-ma, three miles from Fort Brown. An action commenced, and was fiercely contested, the artillery on both sides being served with great vigor. At last the Mexicans gave way, and fled in confusion, General de la Ve-'ga having fallen into the hands of the Americans. They also abandoned their guns and a large quantity of ammunition to the victors.

8. The remaining Mexican soldiers speedily crossed the Rio Grande, and the next day the Americans took up their position at Fort Brown This little fort, in the absence of General Taylor, had gallantly sus tained an almost uninterrupted attack of several days from the Mexicar batteries of Matamoras.

5. What of Point Isabel? What of a Mexican force marching against Point Isabel · What did General Taylor do? 6. What of the battle of Palo Alto? 7. Describe the battle of Resaca de la Palma. 8. What of the Mexicans after the battle of Resaca de la Palma? What of Fort Brown?

Point Isabel is situated on the Gulf of Mexico, twenty-one miles north-east of Matamoras, the latter being situated on the south bank of the Rio Grande, about twenty miles from the Gulf by the windings of the river.

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