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6. In December, 1851, Louis Kos'-suth, the ex-governor of Hungary, arrived in New York, by way of England. His efforts in behalf of the liberty and independence of his native country had excited general admiration, and he was everywhere received with enthusiasm by the people. He made numerous addresses to the assembled multitudes, his remarkable eloquence being listened to with delight.

7. Kossuth visited Washington, and was publicly received by Congress. As his avowed object was to promote the cause of Hungarian liberation from the tyranny of Austria, Chevalier Hulsemann,* the ambassador of the latter country, protested against this reception, and as his protest was not heeded, he left his post for a time, the duties of his office being confided to Mr. Belmont, of New York.


FILLMORE'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-Death of Henry Clay-Of Daniel Webster.-Difficulty as to the Northern Fisheries with Great Britain.-The Tripartite Treaty.-Everett's Reply.

1. On the 29th of June, 1852, Henry Clay, then a member of the Senate, died at Washington, being seventy-five years of age. He had been long in the public service, and had filled various high offices. For thirty years he had taken a prominent part in the affairs of our national government, and few measures of importance had been adopted by Congress upon which he did not exercise a commanding influence.

2. Tall in his person, slender in form, and of light complexion; possessing a fine voice, a countenance of great animation, and a personal action of remarkable ease and power of expression-he was one of the most effective debaters the country has ever produced. He

6. What of Kossuth? 7 What of the Austrian ambassador?

CHAP. CCXIII.-1. What of Henry Clay? 2. Personal appearance and character of Mr. Clay?

* In February, 1848, Louis Philippe, king of the French, was driven from his throne by a revolution, which resulted in the establishment of a republic, in France. A sympathetic spirit of revolt against the despotisms of Europe, spread rapidly on all sides. Many of the kings and princes were forced to fly, or to grant liberal charters to their subjects. The Hungarians, who had long been subject to the emperor of Austria, made a gallant effort to throw off the yoke, and would doubtless have succeeded, had not Russia sent large armies to the aid of the Austrians, by means of which the Hungarians were finally defeated. In this struggle Kossuth took a leading part When the last of the Hungarian army capitulated, and all hope was gone, he fled into the adjacent territory of Turkey. He was kept as a prisoner for some time in that country, but was liberated in 1851, and came to America as above related.

was also ardent, dauntless, and full of hope, and, we may add, full of high ambition. He was twice a candidate for the presidency, and twice defeated. Nevertheless, his death was mourned by an immense number of personal and attached friends, and indeed by a large portion of the people of the United States.

3. A few months later, that is, on the 24th of October, Daniel Webster departed this life, at his residence in Marshfield, Massachusetts He was a native of New Hampshire, and was seventy years of age. In person and mind, he presented a striking contrast to the great Kentucky orator. He was of a large, stout frame, and swarthy com plexion; his movements were slow and ponderous. In his appear ance, indeed, there was something singularly grand and imposing.

4. His intellect was of similar largeness and power. In argument, he was almost invincible. The depth of his reasoning and the force of his logic, made him the acknowledged master of debate in the Senate of the United States. His language was simple but chaste, and the speeches and documents he has left behind are not only among the finest models of composition, but they are a rich legacy of truth, knowledge, wisdom, and patriotism, to his countrymen.

5. In the summer of 1852, the public mind was disturbed by difficulties with Great Britain as to the fisheries along the Atlantic coast of her American colonies. It was alleged that our fishermen habitually violated the treaty of 1818, which stipulated that they should not cast their nets or lines, in the British bays, nearer than three miles from the shores. An armed naval force was sent by the British government .to enforce these views, and our government, deeming them to be inadmissible, dispatched two war-steamers to the same stations. The dispute was very threatening for a time, but in October, 1853, concessions on both sides, being made, the difficulty was happily adjusted.

6. In consequence of the expeditions of Lopez against Cuba, and the evident disposition on the part of many persons in the United States to obtain possession of that island, the idea became common in Europe that our government might actually seek to realize this object, and, by possessing Cuba, obtain command of the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico. As a means of preventing such an event, France and England sought to engage the United States in a mutual obligation called the "Tripartite Treaty," which should bind us, as well as the other parties, to resist and discountenance all attempts to disturb Spain in the possession of Cuba.

3. What of Daniel Webster? How did he compare with Mr. Clay? What of his appearance? 4 What of his intellectual character? 5. What of difficulties with Great Britain as to the fisheries? 6. What of the Tripartite treaty?



7. On the 1st of December, 1852, Edward Everett, who had succeeded Mr. Webster as secretary of state, by direction of the president, answered this proposition in a very able dispatch, in which he declared that the position of Cuba rendered that island one of peculiar interest to this country; and that, while we should not violate any of the laws of neutrality, we should act in respect to it without dictation from European powers. He also added, significantly, that we should not see Cuba pass from the hands of Spain to any transatlantic govern ment with indifference.

8. Mr. Everett also took occasion, in this dispatch, to vindicate our country from the constant charges heaped upon us in Europe, of an aggressive spirit, in the acquisition of territory. He appealed to history against such accusations, and showed, with impressive eloquence, the great work that had been done, for the civilized world, by the American nation, in having, within two centuries, converted three millions of square miles of wilderness, into a habitation fit for thirty millions of people!

7. What of Mr Everett's reply? 8. How did Mr. Everett vindicate our country i


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PIERCE'S ADMINISTRATION, FROM MARCH 4TH, 1853, TO MARCH 4TH, 1857.-His Inauguration.-The Mesilla Valley Dispute.-Captain Ringgold's Exploring Expedition.-Surveys for a Pacific Railroad.-The Arrest of Martin Koszta by the Austrians.-The Japan Expedition.-The Nebraska-Kansas Act, and Repeal of the Missouri Compromise.-The Seizure of the Black Warrior.-The Ostend Conference.-Mr. Soulé stopped at Calais by the French Authorities. - The Crystal Palace Exhibition.

1. In the election of 1852, Franklin Pierce, of New Hampshire, the Democratic candidate, was elected president, over General Winfield

CHAP. CCXIV.-1. Who was elected president to succeed Mr. Fillmore? When was President Pierce inaugurated? Who was the Whig candidate opposed to President Pierce? What of William R. King?



Scott, the Whig candidate. The inauguration took place March 4th, 1853. William R. King, of Alabama, was chosen as vice-president, but his health failed, and he died at his residence in Alabama, April 18th, 1853.

2. Soon after Pierce's accession, a dispute arose with Mexico as to the boundary between New Mexico and the Mexican province of Chihuahua [che-wa'-wa], the fertile valley of Me-sil'-la lying between them being claimed by both parties. Santa Anna, who was now pres ident of the Mexican Republic, took armed possession of the territory in dispute, and the disagreement threatened to end in national hostili ties. The difficulty, however, was settled by negotiation, and the Mesilla valley became the possession of the United States.

3. In 1853, a second Exploring Expedition sailed from New York, under command of Captain Ringgold, consisting of four armed vessels and a supply ship; its objects being to examine that portion of the North Pacific likely soon to become the track of our commerce between California and China and Japan, as well as the whaling grounds in the regions of Behr'-ing Strait and the Sea of O-kotsk'. The expedition returned after an absence of about three years, having accomplished the objects for which it was sent out.

4. As a general impression began to prevail that a railroad from the valley of the Mississippi to our Pacific territories was a matter demanding the attention of the general government, four expeditions were dispatched under the authority of Congress, in the summer of 1853, for the purpose of surveying the several routes suitable for such a work. These surveys have been accomplished with great ability and success, and afford a vast amount of valuable knowledge in respect to the unsettled region between our Western states and the Pacific region.

5. In July, 1853, an event occurred in the harbor of Smyrna, in the Mediterranean, which served to insure respect to our navy, among foreign nations. Martin Kosz'-ta, a Hungarian, who had taken preliminary steps to be naturalized in the United States, being in Smyrna on business, was seized as a rebel and refugee by order of the Austrian consul-general, and taken on board an Austrian ship. Captain Ingraham, lying in port, with the United States sloop-of-war St. Louis, being appealed to, demanded the release of Koszta as an American citizen.

6. On the refusal of the Austrian authorities to comply with his re quest, Captain Ingraham cleared his vessel for action, and threatened to fire upon the brig, if the prisoner was not speedily released. "Thus

2. Where is the Mesilla Valley? What dispute arose as to this valley? How was the dispute settled? 8. What of a second exploring expedition? 4. What of surveys for a Pacific railroad? 5. What of Martin Koszta?

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