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2. Not long after the appointment of Smith as president, Captain Newport came out from England with seventy more emigrants, two of whom were women. Of nearly 300 emigrants, who had now come over, these appear to have been the only women who had as yet ventured to join the colony.

3. From the complaints of Smith to the London Company, it ap pears that the character of this third set of emigrants was no better than that of the former. "I entreat you," says he, "rather send but thirty carpenters, husbandmen, gardeners, fishermen, blacksmiths, masons, and diggers-up of tree-roots, well provided, than a thousand of such as we have."

4. Smith was indefatigable in his endeavors to establish among the colonists habits of order and industry. His maxim was, "He who will not work should not eat." And he had some success. Several of the gentlemen" colonists became wood-cutters. They were required to labor six hours a day for the common good; the rest of the time they had to themselves.


5. At length, Jamestown began to have the appearance of a regular and comfortable abode. It is true that they had as yet scarcely fifty acres of soil under cultivation, and were obliged to get their food, in part, from the Indians and from England; yet they were now improving in their condition. They were also healthier, only seven having died during the year 1608..

6. Toward the close of this year a fleet of seven vessels arrived, with about 300 emigrants. Nine vessels had set out, but two of them had been wrecked in the West Indies. But Smith could hardly rejoice at the arrival of "rakes and libertines," and people who were packed off," as many of them were, "to escape worse destinies at home."

7. Something, however, must be done with them. One plan of his was to form new colonies. More than one hundred went up to the falls of the James River, and began a settlement; one hundred more settled upon the Nan'-se-mond. Both parties, however, offended the Indians, and were either destroyed or driven away.

8. A great misfortune now befel the colony of Jamestown. Captain Smith, being severely wounded by an accident, and almost worn out with his sufferings and the ingratitude of his employers, departed for England, leaving the government, for the time, to one Percy.

9. Captain Smith was, indeed, a most remarkable man, as the facts

2. What of Captain Newport? 3. What complaints did Smith make to the London Company? 4. What endeavors Smith make? 5. What of Jamestown? 6. What took place at the close of the year 1608? 7. What of new colonies? 8. What great misfortune befel the colony now?



we have stated abundantly prove. Few men are so well calculated to be pioneers in settling a wilderness as he was. Few could have seen more clearly in what the true interest of a rising colony consisted; and still fewer would have been equally energetic and disinterested.

10. Feelings-deep and painful-no doubt he had, for who has them not, in situations so trying as his? Yet the historian well remarks, "that he was the father of Virginia; the true leader who first planted the Saxon race within the borders of the United States." We shall have occasion to mention him again, in the history of New England. He died in London, in 1681, aged fifty-two years.


The Colony on the Verge of Ruin.-Preparations to abandon Jamestown.-Arrival of Lord Delaware.-His new and successful Government.

1. THE departure of Captain Smith for England was like the last


setting of the sun to the colony at Jamestown, at least for a time. No place ever went more rapidly on toward ruin. Order and industry disappeared, and the Indians not only became less friendly, but actually began to assume a hostile attitude, and to renew their ontrages.


2. Nor was this all. The indolence and bad conduct of the settlers brought on a famine in the colony. Their want of food became so

9, 10. What of Captain Smith's character? His death? What does the historian say of him?

CHAP. XVII-1. What effects had the departure of Captain Smith? 2. What of famine

distressing that they devoured the skins of horses, as well as the bodies of those persons who died or were slain, whether of their own party or that of the Indians. To add to the distress, thirty of the settlers escaped, and became pirates.

3. In the short period of six months after Captain Smith's departure, the number of the colonists was, in one way or another, reduced from five hundred t sixty. These, however, were so feeble and dis couraged that they were wholly unfit to defend themselves against the Indians; so that the colony was daily and hourly in actual danger of perishing.

4. In this dreadful condition, little short of despair, they resolved to return to England. But the decision was scarcely made when one of the vessels which had been shipwrecked in the West Indies six months before, and whose crew and passengers had wintered there, arrived i the river, and landed at Jamestown.

5. The wretched, despairing colonists were now urged to remain. They were, all together, about 200 in number. But no pleadings of Sir Thomas Gates, who was their presiding officer at the time, could prevail with them. Their plan was to sail for Newfoundland, and scatter themselves among the vessels engaged in fishing there, and thus find their way back to England.

6. They had four pinnaces remaining in the river, into which they entered, though almost without provisions, even for the voyage to Newfoundland. They had resolved-strange to say-on burning the town when they left it, and the energy of Gates, who, to the last moment, endeavored to persuade them to remain, was barely sufficient to prevent it.

7. They actually set sail on their voyage. But just as they reached the mouth of the river-such was the ordination of Providence-Lord Del'-a-ware, with provisions and more emigrants, arrived from England. This inspired them with a little courage; and, as there was a favorable wind, the whole company bore up the river, and slept that night at the fort in Jamestown.

8. Lord Delaware began his wise administration next morning, with religious exercises, after which he caused his commission to be read; ipon which a consultation was held, and a new government organized, 1 accordance with the wishes of the London Company and their commissioners.

3. What took place in the space of six months? 4. What did the colonists resolve to do? What of a vessel from the West Indies? 5. What of Sir Thomas Gates? 6. What of the four pinnaces? 7. What of Lord Delaware? 8, 9. What of Lord Delaware's administration?



9. Much is said by historians in praise of the wisdom, firmness, and piety of Lord Delaware. It is recorded that the first business of each day was to assemble early in the morning in their "little church, which was kept trimmed with the wild flowers of the country," and there to invoke the presence and blessing of God, after which they repaired o their daily labors.


Progress of the Colony at Jamestown.-Lord Delaware's Government.-Administration of Governor Dale.

1. EVERY thing now wore a better appearance. Famine no longer stared the colonists in the face; their health was improved considerably; and the Indians were less troublesome than they had been. Under the administration of Lord Delaware, the people began to enjoy not only safety, but comfort. Their wretched cabins were even exchanged for framed houses covered with boards.

2. Unfortunately for the colony, Lord Delaware's health failed, and he returned to England. He was succeeded, however, soon after his departure, by Sir Thomas Dale. This governor made an important change in the condition of the colony. Hitherto they had held their property and labored in common. Governor Dale assigned to each settler a lot of three acres to cultivate as his own. The quantity was afterward increased to fifty acres.

3. In September, 1611, six ships and 300 new emigrants arrived. There must have been also other arrivals during the year, for it is the concurrent testimony of historians that the population was at this time about 700. Among other things which came were 112 cows, 20 goats, 200 swine, and a large stock of provisions. It must be remembered that none of these domestic animals were natives of America; a fact which we have already stated.

4. A new colony was formed this year, further up the river, and enclosed with a palisade; it was named Hen-ri'-co, in honor of Henry, the eldest son of king James, then on the throne of England. Another settlement, five miles from Henrico, was called New Bermu'-da. There was peace now with the Indians, and this peace was

CHAP. XVIII.-1. What good consequences flowed from the administration of Lord Delaware? 2. What of Sir Thomas Dale? Division of property? 8. What occurred in September, 1611? What of domestic animals? New colonies? Peace? Rolfe and


prolonged by the marriage, in 1613, of Rolfe with Pocahontas-an event which has already been mentioned.

5. Tobacco, which, as we have stated, had been discovered by Columbus in his first voyage, and had now come into use, was first introduced into Virginia in the year 1614. In 1615, the fields, the gardens, and even the streets and squares of Jamestown were planted with it, and its culture was found highly profitable.

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6. It does not appear that more than two women came over till 1311, when twenty arrived. In 1620, when the number of the colonists was suddenly raised from six hundred to eighteen hundred and sixty, there was a reinforcement of ninety "respectable young women," according to the language of the historians. They were procured by the planters as wives, by paying from one hundred to one hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco each, to defray the expenses of their passage.

7. A number of unfortunate measures were adopted about this time. One was the sending over to the colony, as laborers, by order of king James, one hundred criminals; another, the introduction of the silk manufacture, for which the colony was not yet prepared. At this period twenty African slaves were purchased from the coinmander of a Dutch vessel-these being the first introduced into the English settlements.

8. There were frequent and numerous changes in the officers of the government, especially that of the chief magistrate, near this period, and some changes, also, in the mode of administration. Still the colony was more flourishing in 1620 than at any former period. Within three years fifty patents of land had been granted, and three thousand five hundred new emigrants received. There were now in the coinmonwealth eleven parishes and five ministers.

9. Such were the difficulties and dangers which beset the colony of Virginia, the earliest successful English settlement in North America. Such was the founding of the state of Virginia, now one of the most extensive and populous states of our federal Union.

5. Tobacco? 6. What of the arrival of women in 1620? 7. What mistakes were com mitted? 8. Changes in the government? Land patents? 9. What of the first colony the present day?

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