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SETTLEMENT AT PLYMOUTH.

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their friends on board the ship, which forthwith came to the shore, at the point fixed upon. On the 30th of December, after landing and viewing the place again, they concluded to settle upon the mainland on the high ground, amid the cornfields.

CHAPTER XXIV.

Settlement of Plymouth.-Two men get lost in the Woods, and are greatly frightened by the Wolves.

1. THE next day after the Puritans landed, they began to cut timber for building, and in a few days to commence the erection of cottages, or, as we should say, log-houses. They continued at this work, whenever the weather would admit, till about the first of March, by which time they had formed quite a village.

2. The colony consisted of nineteen families. Each family, for the sake of expedition, had built its own cottage; but they all united in the erection of a storehouse, twenty feet square, for general use and convenience. They called the place Plymouth, after the town of the same name they had left behind them in their native country.

3. The first Sabbath after they landed was observed with unusual solemnity. Some kept it on board the Mayflower, and others in their new houses-which being made, as has already been said, of logs, very soon afforded them a partial shelter.

4. On the 12th of January, 1621, three weeks after the arrival, two persons, named Goodman and Brown, walked into the woods to collect something for stopping the crevices between the logs of their houses. They lost their way, and were obliged to remain in the forest, although it snowed furiously and was very cold.

5. But this was not all. About midnight they heard a strange howling in the woods around them. At first it appeared to be a good way off, but it gradually came nearer. They imagined it to proceed from lions, and were excessively frightened.

6. In their alarm they sought a tree which they could ascend in a moment, should the danger become imminent. They then continued to walk round it, but were ready to leap upon it. It would have been a cold lodging-place in the middle of winter, and in a severe snow

CHAP. XXIV.--1. What did the Puritans do after landing? 2. How many families did the colony consist of? What did they erect? Why did they call the place Plymouth? 8. What of the first Sabbath after their landing? 4-7. What happened to Goodman and Brown?

storm; and though it might have saved them from the wolves which caused their fright, they would probably have frozen to death.

7. Fortunately, however, they did not perish, though the morning found them faint with hunger and cold, and Goodman's feet were so frozen that his friends were obliged to cut off his shoes. Their being compelled to walk round the tree all night, tedious and distressing as it had been to them, doubtless saved their lives.

CHAPTER XXV.

Severe Sufferings of the Plymouth Colonists.

1. THE winter of 1620-21, as we have already seen, was severe, even

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2. But the colonists did not all live to see the return of spring and summer. Their sufferings had been so great, especially after their arrival on the coast, that, as one historian testifies, about half of them were wasting away with consumptions and lung fevers. Beside this, their labor in erecting their cottages was very great.

3. Of the one hundred and one persons who landed, by the first of April all but forty-six were dead, including among them Mr. Carver, the governor, his wife, and a son. Such was the debility of the living that they had hardly been able to bury the dead. Nor had the healthy

CHAP. XXV.-1. What of the winter? March? 2, 3. What of deaths and sufferings?

SUFFERINGS OF THE PLYMOUTH COLONISTS. 63

been able, at all times, to take care of the sick; for at one period there were only seven persons who called themselves well, in the whole colony.

4. Happy for them was it, that spring came on thus early and favorably, and with it returning health and vigor to the surviving. It is worthy of remark, that of those who withstood the sorrows and dangers of this terrible winter, the far greater part lived to an extreme old age.

5. But new distresses were in reserve for them. The provisions they had brought out from England, together with what they could raise and procure afterward, were but just sufficient to sustain them through the next winter, and until a second crop of corn could be obtained. Yet, in November, 1621, a ship, with thirty-five emigrants, arrived, wholly out of provisions, and dependent on the colonists.

6. This reduced them to half allowance for six months, and a part of the time to still greater extremities; for it is said that for two months they went without bread. "I have seen men stagger," says Wins'low, who was one of their number, "by reason of faintness for want of food." Sometimes they depended on fish; at others they bought provisions, at enormous prices, of ships that came upon the coast.

7. Nor did their sufferings very soon terminate. As late as 1623, their provisions were at times so nearly exhausted that they knew not at night what they should eat the next morning. It is said that in one instance they had only a pint of corn in the whole settlement, which, on being divided, gave them but five kernels each. It appears, indeed, that for months together they had no corn or grain at all.

8. Milk, as yet, they had not, for neat cattle were not introduced among them till the fourth year of their settlement. When any of their old friends from England arrived to join them, a lobster or a piece of fish, with a cup of water, was often the best meal which the richest of them could furnish.

9. Yet, during all these trials, from hunger, fatigue, sickness, loss of friends, and many other sources, their confidence in God never once forsook them. Their sufferings even bound them together as by a closer tie, and while they loved one another better than before, their affectionate devotion and confidence in God seemed to increase in the saine proportion.

4. Spring? 5, 6. What did they suffer during the year? 7. What of the want of corr. and bread? 8. What of milk? What did they set before their friends? 9. How did the What effect did these produce?

pilgrims bear their trials?

CHAPTER XXVI.

Arrival of the Indian Samoset.-Treaty with the Massachusetts and other Indian Tribes.

1. IN March, 1621, just before Governor Carver's death, an Indian

and

GOVERNOR CARVER AND MASSASOIT MAKING A TREATY.

chief, by the name of Sam'-o-set, arrived at the village. He had seen some of the English fishermen at Penobscot, and learned a little broken English, and his first words to those he met with on entering the town were, "Welcome, Englishmen!" This dis

pelled their fears,

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gave them courage to enter into conversation with him.

2. Samoset was naked, except a leathern belt about his waist, with a wide fringe. He was tall, straight, and strong; his hair long behind and short before, and he had no beard. He had with him a bow and arrows the usual weapons of war used by his countrymen.

3. The settlers received him kindly, entertained him as well as they were able, and lodged him for the night. In the morning they gave him a horseman's coat, a knife, a bracelet, and a ring. Upon this he departed, promising to make them another visit in a few days. He was a kind of under-sachem or chief of the great tribe of the Wampa-no'-ags.

4. He came to them again, in a few days, according to his promise, and brought five more Indians with him. They sang and danced before the settlers in the most familiar and friendly way, and parted in an amicable manner.

5. Shortly afterward other Indians came to the village, and said

CHAP. XXVI.-1. What of Samoset? 2. His dress? 3. How was he received? What was his rank? 4. What of more Indians?

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A TREATY IS MADE WITH THE INDIANS. that Mas-sa-soit' the great chief of all the tribes in the south-eastern part of Massachusetts, was near by. He soon made his appearance on the top of a hill, with sixty of his men. The Englishmen were at first afraid of such a body of savages; for their whole number, men, women, and children, did not exceed fifty.

6. Mr. Winslow was sent out to make a treaty with them. He carried Mas-sa-soit two knives, and a copper chain with a jewel in it; and to his brother, Qua-da-pi-na, he gave a knife, a jewel for his ear, 30me biscuit and butter, and a pot of "strong water," or ardent spirits Mr. Winslow satisfied the two chiefs, and invited them to the village. 7. They accepted the invitation, and, with twenty of their men, came to the town to see Governor Carver. To convince the villagers that they were friendly, they left their bows and arrows behind them on the hill. Mr. Winslow, on the other hand, to assure the Indians that their companions should not be hurt by the guns, that is, the "thunder and lightning" of the villagers, staid with the party on the hill.

8. A great deal of parade was made by the governor in receiving them. His soldiers met them at the foot of the hill, and, with drums and trumpets sounding, conducted them to his house, where, after Governor Carver and Massasoit had kissed each other's hands, they sat down on a green rug which was spread for them.

9. The Indians, like all ignorant or savage people, were greatly delighted with these attentions. Food was set before them, and " strong water" was given to the king; of which, it is said, he drank so freely that it made him "sweat all the while." A treaty was made, which was kept faithfully for fifty years.

10. It was this same Massasoit who taught the English to cultivate maize, or Indian corn, the first of which was planted in the May following—that is, in 1621. Through his influence, moreover, nine smaller chiefs, who had before been suspicious of the English-partly, no doubt, because they had stolen their countrymen-subscribed, as Massasoit had done, a treaty of peace.

11. The English had an opportunity, soon after this, of returning the favors of Massasoit and Samoset. The Nar-ra-gan'-sets, a powerful tribe of Rhode Island Indians, made war upon Massasoit. After there had been a good deal of hard fighting, the English interfered in behalf of Massasoit, and the Narragansets were glad to make peace.

12. It was not long after this time that the first duel was fought in

5. Massasoit? 6. Mr. Winslow? 7. What took place when the Indians came to the village? 8. What did Governor Carver do? 9. How were the Indians pleased? What of the treaty? 10. What more of Massasoit? 11. The Narragansets?

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