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ent day, seems almost incredible. What could nine men do in the way of chastising a whole tribe of Indians? Yet, Captain Standish and his men ventured boldly among them, slew the conspirators and several others who opposed them, and drove the rest into the swamps, where many, it is said, perished from disease.

4. A settlement was begun at Brain'-tree, in 1625, on a hill not far from the seat of the late President Adams, and was called, in honor of Mr. Wol'-las ton, the principal settler, Mount Wollaston. But the colonists consisted of fifty servants, and they did not thrive. The following year a part of them were taken to Virginia. A settlement was

begun, in 1624, at or near Gloucester, on Cape Ann.

5. The same individuals who settled Gloucester proceeded soon after to settle Salem, Charlestown, Dorchester, Watertown, Roxbury, and Boston. Among the number were several ministers of the gospel, and a Mr. John Endicott, afterward Governor Endicott.

6. Salem, called by the Indians Na-um-ke-ag, was begun in 1628, by Mr. Endicot and about one hundred emigrants. They were reinforced the next year by three or four hundred other emigrants, who brought with them one hundred and forty head of cattle, and a few horses, sheep, and goats. Two hundred of the Salem settlers proceeded, soon afterward, to Charlestown, and others to Dorchester and elsewhere.

7. These various settlements were incorporated, in 1629, under the name of "The Colony of Massachusetts Bay," and extended as far north as the present boundary of New Hampshire. A form of government was projected by their friends in England, and Mathew Cradock appointed governor; but he was succeeded, soon after, by John Endicott.

8. A circumstance took place in 1628, which deserves to be recorded and remembered. One Morton, a man greedy of gain, sold guns, powder, and shot to the Indians, and taught them how to use them. He was rebuked by Governor Endicott and others, but without effect. At last he was seized and sent to England, but not till he had done a work of mischief for which a long life could not atone.

4. What of a settlement at Braintree? 5. What other towns were now settled? 6. Salem? 7. What of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay? 8. What of one Morton?

CHAPTER ΧΧΧ.

Settlement of New Hampshire.-Other Events in this State. 1. THE first permanent settlement in New Hampshire was made in

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son alone, and then first received the name of New Hampshire.

2. The place where they established themselves was called Little Harbor. It has often been mistaken for Portsmouth; but this town was not settled till eight years afterward, and was two miles further up the river, at a place called Strawberry Bank. Some parts of the wall and chimney of Mason Hall remained standing about half a century ago.

3. Other places in New Hampshire were settled the same year, including Co-che'-co, afterward called Dover, and now noted for its extensive manufactures. But the progress of the colony was slow. It was not separated from Massachusetts till 1680, and as late as 1742 only contained six thousand persons liable to taxation. It suffered severely from the Indian wars.

4. The first legislative assembly was convened in New Hampshire, in 1680, and John Mason was the first governor. A constitution was

CHAP. XXX.-1. When and where was the first permanent settlement made in New Hampshire? What of the first house? What of John Mason? 2. Portsmouth? Remains of Mason Hall? 3. Other settlements in New Hampshire? Progress of the settlement? Separation from Massachusetts? Population in 1742? Indian wars? First legislation in New Hampshire? Constitution? Earthquake?

4.

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formed for the state in 1683, and went into operation the next year. This year is remarkable for an earthquake, which shook even the granite mountains of New Hampshire itself. It was felt as far south as Pennsylvania.

5. There was an insurrection here in 1786, excited and led on by the insurrection in Massachusetts of the same period. On the twentieth of September, a body of two hundred men surrounded the court-house at Exeter, in which the general assembly were sitting, and held them prisoners for several hours. Other acts of violence were also committed. There was, for a time, every appearance of a civil war. The insurrection was only quieted by calling out the militia.

6. New Hampshire has been in general a peaceable and quiet state; it is distinguished for its excellent pastures, towering hills, and fine cattle. The White Mountains lift their lofty peaks in this state, and they may be seen at sea at a vast distance. They are the highest mountains in New England.

CHAPTER XXXI.

Government of the Colonies.-Union of the Colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay.

1. THE agreement of the settlers at Plymouth, just before they landed,

THE LONDON BOARD OF OFFICERS.

has been mentioned, as well as the names of some of their early governors. For four years, the governor of the colony had no other counsel or assistance in his office than what was afforded by one individual. In 1624, the number of assistants was increased to five.

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5. Insurrection? 6. Characteristics of New Hampshire? The White Mountains? CHAP. XXXI.-1. What assistance or counsel had the governor of the Plymouth colony the first four years? How was the number increased in 1624?

2. The lands had at first belonged to the Plymouth Company, but, in 1627, the colony purchased them for eighteen hundred pounds, and received a patent for the same, with ample powers of government. Seven assistants, with the governor, constituted the government. This system was continued till 1639, when deputies, or representatives of the people, began for the first time to have a voice in the government.

3. The main object of the first settlers of the colony of Massachusetts Bay, like that of the colonists at Plymouth, was to escape persecution, to which they were exposed in England, and to enjoy the high privilegė of worshipping God according to the dictates of their own consciences. The settlers of both colonies were, for the most part, Puritans.

4. At first the affairs of government for the colony of Massachusetts Bay had been, to all intents and purposes, transacted by a board of officers in London. But in August, 1629, the Company very wisely concluded to transfer the government from London to Massachusetts; and for this purpose proceeded to the choice of a new board of officers.

5. In virtue of this arrangement, John Winthrop was chosen governor, and Thomas Dudley deputy governor. They came over in June, 1630, with a fleet of eleven ships, and more than eight hundred emigrants, at an expense of one hundred thousand dollars. Seven hundred more emigrants are said to have come over the same year.

6. Governor Winthrop and his associates brought with them a charter for the colony, which, among other things, empowered them to elect their own officers. They held their charter about sixty years, or till the union of the colonies of Massachusetts and Plymouth—an event which took place in the year 1691.

7. Under the charter which has just been mentioned, the legislature of the colony consisted of a governor, deputy governor, and eighteen assistants, to be elected annually by the freemen, and to constitute, as it were, an upper house or senate; and of the general body of the freemen themselves. They met four times a year, and oftener if found necessary.

8. The first legislative assembly, or General Court, as it was called, met at Boston, in October, 1630. Upward of one hundred persons were made freemen. At the General Court, in May, 1631, the number of freemen had increased to about one hundred and fifty.

2. What of the lands? The government of the colony from 1627? 3. Object of the settlers of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay? What were they, mostly? 4. What of the government of Massachusetts Bay before 1629? What change then took place? 5 What of John Winthrop? What of emigrants in 1630? 6. What of a charter? When were the colonies of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth united? 7. What was the government of Massachusetts Bay under the charter? 8. When and where did the first general court meet? Number of freemen in 1631 ?

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9. The population did not increase at this period so rapidly as it had done a short time before. Only three hundred and forty persons came over in the space of two years. Emigrants were probably deterred by sickness; for during the single winter of 1629 more than two hundred of the Massachusetts settlers died. Such was the terror inspired by sickness and other causes, that about one hundred returned to England.

10. Nor was this all. The dwellings, and perhaps the clothing, oí the settlers were insufficient for the climate. The winter of 1631 wa one of unusual severity, even for New England, and some were actually frozen to death. Famine followed on disease. Not a few were compelled to live on shell-fish, groundnuts, and acorns. The governor himself, at one time, had "his last corn in the oven."

11. A day of fasting and prayer for the colony was appointed for February 6, 1632; but on the 5th a ship arrived from England, well laden with provisions. The day of fasting was changed to a day of thanksgiving the first of the kind ever kept in the present territory of the United States.

12. It is worthy of notice, as showing the rigid character of the people of New England, that the custom of drinking healths at ordinary meals, which prevailed at this time in England, and had found its way to America, was early abolished in the colonies; Governor Winthrop setting the example of self-denial at his own table, and urging it among his people.

13. The first churches in Boston and Charlestown were founded in the summer of 1630, after a solemn fast. At the close of another fast, in August of the same year, a minister was installed. For two or three of the first years of the colony none but members of the church were allowed to vote in the General Court or Assembly.

9 What of the increase of the colony? Sickness in 1629? Return of settlers to Eng land? 10. What of the winter of 1681? 11. Fasting? Arrival of a ship? Th. rst Thanksgiving? 12 Drinking healths? 13. First churches? Who were the voters during ne first years of the settlement?

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