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CHAPTER XXXII.

History of Maryland.-Lord Baltimore's Visit to America.-Leonard Calvert's Arrival.-Settlement of Maryland.-Clayborne's Rebellion.

1. THE settlement of Maryland had its origin in the exertions of Sir

LORD BALTIMORE.

George Calvert, a Catholic, afterward called Lord Baltimore. He had been a secretary of state under King James I., and was made a lord on account of his services to the crown-one of which services, it is said, consisted in bringing about a marriage between the kg's son and a Spanish princess.

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2. Lord Baltimore visited America in 1629, and having explored a tract of country lying on the Chesapeake Bay, belonging to what was then called South Virginia, he returned to England to procure a patent of it from the king. Before the patent was made out, he died, and it vas given to his son Ce'-cil.

3. The province was named Maryland, by King Charles I., in the patent, in honor of his queen, Henrietta Maria, daughter of the king of France. A part of the province appears to have been included in the grant made some time afterward to William Penn, and to have given rise to much contention between the successors of Penn and Baltimore.

4. In March, 1634, Leon'-ard Calvert, the brother of Ce'-cil, with two hundred emigrants, most of them Roman Catholic gentlemen, with their servants, arrived at the mouth of the Potomac River, and leaving

CHAP. XXXII.-1. What of Lord Baltimore? 2. What of his visit to America? His death? 8. Name of Maryland? What occasioned much contention? 4. What took place in 1684?

HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

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the vessel, ascended in a pinnace as far as Piscataway, an Indian village, nearly opposite Mount Vernon.

5. The sachem of Piscataway gave Calvert full liberty to settle there if he chose; but, not deeming it on the whole safe, he began a settlement lower down, on a branch of the Potomac, at the Indian town of Yo-a-co-mo'-co. The settlement was called St. Mary's.

6. To gain the good-will of the Indians, Calvert made them presents of clothes, axes, hoes, and knives. Their friendship was easily secured; and their women, in return for the kindnesses of the English, taught them how to make corn-bread. This, perhaps, was the first knowledge which the settlers had of "hoe-cake," or "johnny-cake."

7. The colony of Maryland met with few of the troubles which had been experienced by its sister colonies. The settlers arrived in time to cultivate the soil for that year, and the seasons for several of the succeeding years were all favorable. They had the Virginians, moreover, for near neighbors, who furnished them with cattle and many other necessaries, and also protected them from the Indians. In addition to all this, they enjoyed good health.

8. In February, 1635, in less than one year from the date of the settlement, the freemen of the colony assembled to make the necessary laws. The charter which had been granted them was exceedingly liberal. They were allowed the full power of legislation, without the reserved privilege, on the part of the crown, to revoke or alter their acts. The government underwent some changes in 1639; and, in 1650, they had an upper and lower house in the legislature, like their neighbors.

9. Ten or twelve years of peace having passed away, a rebellion broke out in Maryland, headed by one Clai'-borne. Having formed a little colony.before the arrival of Calvert, he refused to submit to his authority. Convicted, at length, of murder and other crimes, he fled from the province, but returned with a large mob, and broke up the government. Order, however, was in a little time restored, and things again went on prosperously.

10. When every other country in the world had persecuting laws, the Catholics of Maryland raised the standard of civil and religious liberty, where their co-religionists, who were oppressed in England and Ireland, were sure to find a peaceful asylum, and where religious freedom obtained a home at the humble village which bore the name of St. Mary's.

5. What of the sachem of Piscataway? What of the settlements? 6. What of Calvert and the Indians? Hoe-cake? 7. In what respects did the Maryland settlers have an advantage over the other colonists? 8. What of the government of the colony? 9. What of Claiborne? 10. What of persecuting laws?

CHAPTER XXXIII.

Various Settlements in Connecticut.-Opposition of the Dutch.-A Singular Journey across the Wilderness.

1 We now come to the settlement of Connecticut. As early as 1631

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ly rich; in addition to which, he offered them a yearly supply of corn, and eighty beaver-skins. He was treated with kindness, but no steps were immediately taken to form a settlement.

2. Some time afterward, Governor Winslow, of Plymouth, made a tour to the valley of the Connecticut, and came back so well pleased with the country, that preparations were soon made for establishing a trading-house there. But the Dutch of Manhattan, having heard of the plan, immediately proceeded to erect a fort in that quarter. This was in 1633.

3. The movements of the Dutch, however, did not intimidate the Plymouth people. Having got ready the frame of a house, they sailed for the Connecticut River. When they came opposite the Dutch fort -the spot where Hartford now stands-the Dutch forbade their proceeding any further, on penalty of being fired upon. They did not regard this, but proceeded up the river.

CHAP. XXXIII.-1. What of an Indian sachem in 1681? 2. Governor Winslow? The Dutch? 3. What of the Datch and Plymouth people?

SETTLEMENT OF CONNECTICUT.

79

4. They landed on the west side of the stream, where Farmington River enters it, and laid the foundation of Windsor. The Dutch, with a band of seventy men, attempted to drive them away in 1634, but did not succeed. Thus was a colony planted in Connecticut.

5. Wethersfield and Hartford were settled in 1635, by a company of emigrants from Newton and Watertown, near Boston. It consisted of men, women, and children, to the number of sixty, with their cattle and horses. They left home on the 25th of October, and were a fortnight on the road, wading through rivers and swamps, and traversing hills and mountains.

6. But they had begun the journey too late in the season. The winter came upon them in their new residence before they were prepared for it, and the snow fell very deep. They had sent their goods and provisions by water, but the vessel did not arrive, and was supposed to be cast away. Thus a famine was at once produced among them.

7. In this dreadful condition, they became quite discouraged, and some of them desperate. Fourteen of the number set out to return to Boston by the way they came. One was drowned in crossing the river, and the rest would have perished on the road, had they not been relieved by the Indians. A great many emigrants returned by water.

8. It is difficult to say who suffered most, those who went away or those who remained. The latter received a little of the promised aid from the Indians, but their fare was at times scanty-consisting chiefly of acorns and grain. A part of their cattle subsisted by browsing on what they could find in the woods and meadows.

9. The Plymouth Company in England had, in 1631, given to Lords Say and Seal, and Lord Brook, a patent of the lands lying about the mouth of the Connecticut River. In 1635, a son of Governor Winthrop, of Massachusetts, with twenty men, built a fort there, which he called Saybrook, and became the governor of it. The Dutch tried to drive him away, but without effect.

10. In June, 1636, one hundred emigrants from Dorchester and Watertown, accompanied by two ministers of the gospel, Mr. Hooker and Mr. Stone, crossed the mountains, swamps, and rivers, to Connecticut. They journeyed on foot, and drove a hundred and sixty head of cattle; subsisting during the journey chiefly on milk. They were a fortnight on the road. They settled at Hartford, which they called Newtown.

4. Where did the emigrants land? What did the Dutch of Hartford attempt to do? 5. What of the settlement of Wethersfield and Hartford? 6. What evils beset the settlers? 7. What of the return of some of them? 8. Situation of those that remained? . What had taken place in 1631? What of a son of Governor Winthrop? 10. What happened in 1686?

11. As they passed along, the woods resounded with their songs and hymns and prayers, and with the lowing of their kine. They had no guide but a compass, and Him who guarded the host of Israel in their travels from Egypt to Canaan. They had no pillows but heaps of stones. None saw them but here and there a group of wandering savages, and the Eye which sees and observes all secrets.

CHAPTER XXXIV.

Roger Williams.-He is banished from Massachusetts, and settles in Rhode Island.-The Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

1. IN February, 1631, a Puritan minister arrived in New England,

ROGER WILLIAMS BANISHED.

by the name of Roger Williams. He was as yet scarcely thirty years of age. He was a man of some enlightened views, but his temper was not properly disciplined. He was however, an ardent friend of religious liberty, and a foe to every form of legal intolerance.

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2. He was, at first, pastor of a church in Salem. Here, having advanced the opinion that a commonwealth is bound to protect all 'enominations of Christians, rather more boldly than was acceptable to the Massachusetts government, and having also announced some strange opinions with an overbearing spirit, he was tried for heresy and was sentenced to leave the province.

11. Describe the progress of the emigrants through the woods.

CHAP, XXXIV.-1. What of Roger Williams? 2. Of what church was he at first pastor? What opinions did he advance? What was the consequence of this conduct"

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