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the war with the Pequods. About this time Rev. Mr. Davenport,


and two merchants of London, by the name of Eaton and Hopkins, and a company of emigrants, came over to America; a few of whom went to

Quinnipiack, built a hut, and remained there during the winter preceding the settlement. 2. In the spring of 1638, Mr. Davenport and his


whole company went there to reside permanently. At two different purchases, they bought of the Indians nearly the whole of what now constitutes the county of New Haven. For the first and smallest portion, they gave a dozen, each, of coats, hoes, hatchets, spoons, and porringers, two dozen knives, and four cases of French knives and scissors; and, for the largest, thirteen coats only.

3. Some may think that the Indians were defrauded by these purchases; or, at least, that they would be likely to think themselves so afterward. But such persons forget that these articles were worth more then than they now are; and, beside that, the land was really worth nothing to the Indians, nor, in its wild state, was it of much value to any one. Besides, the Indians retained the right to hunt on the land, and, if they pleased, to plant a certain portion.

4. On the first Sabbath which the colonists observed at New Haven, April 28, Mr. Davenport preached to the people under a large spreading oak. He was an excellent man, and, with his coadjutors, gave a character to New Haven that has never been wholly lost. The laying of the city into squares, and the beautiful green, or common, are memorials of their efforts.

5. The three towns, Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield, early in the year 1639, formed themselves into a distinct government, and

CHAP. XXXVII.-1 What was the Indian name of the country where New Haven now stands? When did the people of Connecticut become acquainted with it? What of Mr. Davenport and others? 2. What was done in 1638? 3. How does it appear that the Indians were not cheated by the whites? 4. What of Mr. Davenport?



adopted a constitution, and John Haynes was elected their first governor. Their constitution has been much admired. It lasted, with little alteration, till 1818, or about one hundred and eighty years; and was in substance as follows:

6. The General Court, or legislative assembly, was to be held twice a year, viz., in spring and autumn; but the officers of the government -the governor, deputy governor, and five or six assistants-with the representatives from the several towns, were to be elected on the first Monday of April annually. The settlement at Saybrook soon became united with that at Hartford.

7. Until the year 1665, New Haven was a colony by itself, separate from Hartford, under the name of the Colony of New Haven. A constitution was formed and adopted by the colony essentially like that of Connecticut, in the autumn of the same year, 1639; and Theophilus Eaton was chosen the first governor, and re-elected every year till his death, which happened about twenty years afterward.

8. The first inhabitants of New Haven, almost without exception, were men of character and piety. They paid great attention both to education and religion. At first they held their lands in common, as at Jamestown and Plymouth. Not a few of their first governors, moreover, as well as several other officers, refused to receive any salary or special compensation for their public services.

9. The Dutch, who still claimed the country, seemed inclined, from time to time, to molest the Connecticut colony, but no serious conflict ever took place between them. Their greatest trouble was with the Indians. With this exception, and a continual series of disasters at sea, their first years were quite prosperous.

10. The first great earthquake in New England, after its settlement, took place in June, 1638. The earth shook with such violence that in some places people could not stand without difficulty, and the furniture in the houses was thrown down. Similar shocks were felt in 1663, 1727, 1761, and 1783.

5. What of three towns? Who was the first governor of the Connecticut colony? What of the constitution adopted there? 6. What were the general provisions of this constitution? 7. What of the New Haven colony? 8. First settlers of New Haven? What of property? The governors? 2. The Dutch? 10. Earthquakes?


Union of the New England Colonies.

1. THE conduct of the New England settlers did not fail to keep up

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of all this, however, good and loyal subjects of the king were continually emigrating thither.

2. What could be done? In the first place, ships freighted with passengers and bound for New England were forbidden to sail. In the next place, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and others, obtained power to legislate for the colonies; to revoke their charters if it should be thought necessary; to regulate and govern their church, and to inflict punishment for refractory conduct.

3. Such power, lodged in the hands of an Episcopal bishop three thousand miles distant, greatly alarmed the colonies. In January, 1635, the ministers assembled at Boston, to consult with the civil officers, and see what should be done. They were unanimous in the opinion that they ought not to submit to a general governor from abroad, should one be appointed, which they had great reason to expect.

4. Nor was this all. Poor as the colonies were, they raised six hundred pounds sterling among them, and applied it immediately to the erection of fortifications. But this only so much the more offended

CHAP. XXXVIII.-1. Conduct of the Puritans in New England? Consequences of this? 2. What was done in England? 3. What was done at Boston in 1635? 4. Wha steps did the colonies take?

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their enemies in England, and increased their disposition to restrain their liberties.

5. Whole squadrons, ready to sail for America with passengers, were stopped. It is even said that Crom'-well and Hamp'-den, who afterward became so conspicuous in the measures which led to the death of the king, Charles I., were on board of one of the vessels, and would

QUESTIONS ON THE MAP.-Direction of the following places from Boston: Cape Cod? New Haven? Augusta? Montpelier? Hartford? Long Island? New York? ProvIdence? Quebec? In what direction do the following rivers run: the Connecticut? the Kennebec? the Penobscot? the Hudson? etc.

have sailed for America had not the king himself prevented it. Little did he know what he was doing.

6. It was impossible, however, to check the tide of emigration, except for a short time. Persecution for religious opinions had awakened a spirit of emigration in Europe which had not been known before. One hundred and ninety-eight ships had already crossed the Atlantic to New England, carrying with them twenty thousand passengers; and the plantations there had cost nearly a million of dollars.

7. It was just at this period of the colonial history, when they were in danger not only from foes at home but from enemies of their liberty abroad, that a union of the colonies, for mutual preservation and defence, began to be discussed. Nor did their victory over the Pequods, nor the temporary suspension of Dutch hostilities, lull them into security. The measure was not only talked of, but at last executed.

8. The articles of confederation were signed May 29, 1643. The union which was formed took the name of "The United Colonies of New England." It embraced Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut and New Haven, and should have included Rhode Island and Providence plantations. This colony petitioned for admittance, but was refused, because it would not be merged in the colony of Plymouth.

9. This union continued forty years or more, and was of great service while it lasted. If it did not prevent that foreign interference which was threatened, it defended the colonies at least from the Indians and Dutch, and other enemies at home, both by leading them to feel more strongly the ties of sympathy and brotherhood, and by enabling them to make treaties on a more certain and permanent basis.

5. What of Cromwell and Hampden? 6 Emigration? Persecution? How many ships and passengers had come to America? How much had the plantations cost? 7. What of a union of the colonies? 8. What of the articles of confederation? Why was Rhode Island excluded? 9. What of this union?

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