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in Napoleon's time, and the conviction that we have reached a position of status is no less deadening.

Difficult as it is, therefore, it is nevertheless vitally important that the channels of advancement be kept open and that every incentive and opportunity be given a man for bettering his position. As possibly the most effective avenue through which this is accomplished in scientific management is functional foremanship. The requisites of the customary "line" foreman are so numerous and of such a nature as to preclude from that position all but the rather exceptionally gifted workman. Functional foremanship, by dividing among several foremen the duties ordinarily expected of the one, introduces greater opportunity for the man of limited or specialized talent and at the same time does not lessen the demand for those of greater or more balanced capabilities.

For the most part, since this topic is so closely allied to the preceding one where the provision for definitely teaching and guiding the employees was discussed, little additional emphasis is needed here. Before passing on, however, a prevalent fallacy in regard to the limitations placed on personality in these plants should be noted. The idea is frequently expressed that in working under highly standardized conditions and with detailed instruction and supervision from above in regard to methods, there can be little chance for the exercise for one's individuality.

I believe it has been conclusively demonstrated in practice that scientific management is decidedly a dynamic movement, governed not by inflexible methods and case-hardened mechanisms, but solely by principles. There have certainly been new developments from time to time sufficient to prove that there is a ready acceptance and adoption of better ways immediately they are

proved. But, and here is the point, they must be proved; for it is no less a waste to be constantly upsetting carefully worked out methods upon the insistence of those who, because they have not first mastered present ways, have little right to an opinion at all as to their relative efficiency, than it is to refuse to adopt new and better ways when they are found. We do not and it is right that we should not let a novice tamper with a new and delicate mechanism until he has proved that he has mastered it.

The complaint to this extent, therefore, is well founded. It is not individuality and initiative run wild, however, which is really constructive; it is intelligently applied individuality, and prerequisite to this is an understanding of things as they are and why they are so. Founded on laws based so far as possible on fact from whatever competent source obtained, and administered through a democratic form of organization which draws its various functionaries from the ranks of the workman, scientific management embodies "management sharing " on a basis and to a degree infrequently encountered in industry today.

G. Reduction of Labor Turnover

It is unnecessary to review either the extent or the evil effects of undue labor turnover. Much has been written on the subject, recent experience has made us familiar with its prevalence, and but brief discussion is necessary here.

Much of the restlessness in industry is curable. It is due to the existence of unsatisfactory conditions in just those features of management discussed in the preceding topics to low wages, to long hours, to poor working conditions, to lack of proper selection, fitting, and

training, and to a conviction on the part of the employee that for him his present job in his present place offers no future. Naturally, therefore, with the removal of the causes in any particular place the evil itself largely disappears. This has been the experience in numberless plants which have adopted advanced measures more or less completely, and the testimony to this effect is in nowise limited to the particular group of industries we are here considering. The simple fact that their adoption with the accompanying low labor turnover are characteristic of scientific management plants to a high degree, as is proved by their records, is what primarily concerns us at present. Altho the amount of turnover has increased probably without exception during the last three years, it has noticeably been kept within bounds, comparatively, in plants of this type. Upon the introduction of labor-saving devices and methods where increase in sales has been insufficient to enable the retention of the whole previous force, the policy has been adopted of securing an eventual net reduction in personnel, through filling the places of those who voluntarily leave, from the ranks of the resultant force trained, as before mentioned, to perform several different operations.

H. A Spirit of Coöperation and Confidence, and a
Feeling of Security

As a result of all of the positive products of advanced management enumerated above come the last and most important of them all. Indeed so important is the spirit of coöperation and confidence and the feeling of security on the part of the whole personnel that nothing should be allowed to undermine them; for without them, altho a certain efficiency may be obtained, true scientific management is impossible.

Coöperation may be obtained only by securing the confidence of those with whom we deal, and this confidence in turn results only when each man feels secure in the belief that he is in the best possible place for him and that he need have no fear for the future as long as he fully plays his own part.

Needless to say a feeling of security is not engendered by rate cutting, by low wages, by long hours and poor working conditions; it does not spring from paternalism nor from leaving in the hands of the foreman the most directly interested party - the arbitrary power of promotion, reprimand, demotion or discharge with the often resulting nepotism and favoritism, not to say despotism. A sense of security is not furthered through a feeling on the part of the operative that not only is his training, development and guidance neglected by the management, but that even tho he may try hard himself, there is yet little chance for him to secure just recognition. An overemphasis of the profit motive does not lead him to feel that he will not some day be forced to choose between the employer and his own selfrespect or his own best interests. Security does not accompany such conditions.

Confidence and an open mind is not established through haphazard methods of manufacture (for which the capable workman at heart has a profound if respectful disgust); low wages and high costs, which he knows are unnecessary, do not impel respect for the management, when he knows they are caused by the nonuse or the misuse of equipment, of labor and of materials which he sees about him and which he knows it is the management's responsibility to remedy. Industrial strife does not inspire in the workman confidence in a management which, as he knows, usually brings it on through shortsighted or selfish dealings. No great

respect for the ability for his leaders is awakened when he realizes that they know less about what constitutes a proper day's work and how to bring it to pass than he does when, in other words, the leader knows less in this respect than the led. Only when the management really assumes its full share of the work and the responsibility may his confidence be secured.

And only through making this security and this confidence an actual fact has scientific management been able to produce what it so highly prizes and what it has so remarkably obtained — true coöperation.

We may thus distinguish several marked characteristics and accomplishments of Scientific Management. The first is its stability - the fact that it has progressed through the stages of novelty and exploitation to that of permanence. The second is its marked contributions to purely economic factors such as increased production and decreased cost, improvement in quality, a more rapid capital turnover, and the stimulus to industry in general resulting from the sound foundation of knowledge on which it is based. The third is its equally striking but far more important contributions to the field of human industrial relations in the success with which it has maintained industrial peace, increased wages, improved working conditions, established proper employment and training facilities, stimulated and provided for a larger individual opportunity, reduced labor turnover and secured true coöperation between management and men.

Such are some of the notable constructive accomplishments of the science of management in the field of industry during the thirty years or less of its development.



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