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THE TROUGH IN WHICII THE ORE IS WASHED IN MINES IS CALLED ABACUS, MAJOR.

THE KING OF FRANCE HAD FORMERLY THE RIGHT OF APPOINTING ABBOTS OVER TWO HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FIVE MONASTERIES.

ABA] The Scientific and Literary Treasury; [ABB were also other inventions similarly deno. their branches turned towards the enemy, minated; viz. ABACUS PYTHAGORICUS, a so as to form a defence for troops stationed multiplication table, invented by Pytha- behind them. goras; and ABACUS LOGISTICUS, a rectan- ABA'TOR, in law, one who enters into a gled triangle, whose sides, forming the house or lands, void by the death of the right angle, contain all the numbers from last possessor, before the true heir. 1 to 60, and its area the products of each AB'ATURES, a term, with huntsmen, to two of the opposite numbers. This is also denote the sprigs or grass thrown down by called a canon of sexagesimals.

the stag in passing by. In justice to

the present advanced ABB, or ABB-WOOL, a term used by state of science, and the same time, as a clothiers for the warp. sincere though feeble tribute to the genius AB'BE, a French word, literally meaning of one of the most scientific men of the an abbot, but the character generally spoage, we are bound to notice in this place ken of under the name of abbé has long a most extraordinary automatic invention ceased to be of any official nature. Before by Mr. Babbage, (infinitely exceeding the the Revolution, the term abbé designated a powers of the abacus of ancient arithme- very numerous body of persons, who had ticians,) the object of which is to compute little or no connexion with the church, exand print the most difficult astronomical cept the apparent one which they derived or navigation tables, &c., such as could not from this title, but who followed a course otherwise be effected without immense in- of theological study, in hopes that the king tellectual and manual labour. We hear would confer on them a real abbey, that that the machine is not yet quite completed, is, a part of the revenues of a monastery. but the inventor asserts, and his assertions They were engaged in every kind of literary are verified by Sir David Brewster and other occupation, and exerted an important influeminent men, that not only can the highest ence on the character of the country; nor operations of arithmetic be performed by was there scarcely a family of distinction this stupendous engine, but it is capable of in France wherein an abbé was not found correcting its own errors, and, when cor- in the capacity of a familiar friend and spirected, it can print off the results, inde- ritual adviser. pendent of human aid! By this it appears AB'BESS, the superior of a nunnery, or that the machine consists of two parts, a other religious community of women. She calculating, and a printing part, both of has the same authority as an abbot, but canwhich are absolutely necessary to its entire not exercise any of the spiritual functions. perfection. In explaining his mode of ac- AB'BEY, a religious house governed by complishing such great objects, the inven- a superior, under the title of an abbot or tor observes, “that nearly all tables of abbess. Abbeys differ in nothing from numbers which follow any law, however priories, except that the latter are governed complicated, may be formed, to a greater by priors, instead of abbots. The abbeys or less extent, solely by the proper ar- of England, at their dissolution under rangement of the successive addition and Henry VIII., became lay-sees; when no subtraction of numbers befitting each less than 190 were dissolved, the yearly re. table;" and he then proceeds to shew, by venue of which has been estimated at a series of tables and explanations, the 2,853,000l. ; an almost incredible sum, con. theory of his art, as well as the mechanical sidering the value of money in those days. execution required for its performance. At present, an abbey is, in general, the caThe limits of our work, however, are in- thedral or episcopal church of the see or adequate to give a fair illustration of so diocese in which it stands. skilful a contrivance, but it may be suffi- AB’BOT, was originally the name of cient to lead the enquiring mind to far every aged monk; but, since the 8th ceninvestigation. [We may here remark, en tury, it denotes the head of a monastery. passant, that it is to this end that a book In most countries they held a rank next to of reference, so extensive in its aim as the that of bishop, and had votes in the ecclepresent, must of necessity be constantly siastical councils. At present they are directed. Wherever, by reason of its bre-chiefly distinguished into regular and comvity, or the magnitude of the subject on mendatory; the former being real monks which it treats, it cannot enter into the ne- or religious, and the latter only seculars or cessary details, it may still excite a laudable lay-men. These last, notwithstanding that curiosity for more elaborate information, the term commendam seems to signify the and thereby lead to its acquirement.] contrary, have the perpetual enjoyment of

ABA'TEMENT, in law, signifies the re- the fruits of their abbeys. Anciently the jecting a suit, on account of some fault ceremony of creating an abbot consisted in either in the matter or proceeding clothing him with the habit called caculla, ABATEMENT, in heraldry, something added or cowl: putting the pastoral staff into his 10 a coat of arms, in order to lessen its hand, and the shoes called pedales, on his true dignity, and point out some imperfec. feet; but at present, it is only a simple be. tion or stain in the character of the person nediction. It was because certain abwho bears it. In commerce, ABATE- bots and priors in England, in right of MENT means a discount in the price of their monasteries, held lands of the crown, commodities for money advanced by the for which they owed military service, that buyer, or some other cause.

they obtained the title of LORDS, and were AB'ATIS, trees cut down and laid with summoned, as barons, to parliament; and

SOME PROTESTANT CLERGYMEN, IN GERMANY, STILL BEAR THE TITLE OF ABBOT, WITH THE RIGHT OF SITTING IN THE DIET OF THE STATES.

2

THE IDLE INMATES OF A MONASTERY ARE DESIGNATED ABBEY-LUBBERS.

BY THE JEWISU LAW, ABDUCTION IS CONSIDERED A CAPITAL OFFENCE.

ABE]

A New Dictionary of the Belles Lettres.

(A BO

THE ABDUCTOR OCULI IS ONE OF THE MUSCLES ARISING FROM THE ORBIT OF THE EYE, AND IS SOMETIMES CALLED THE SCORNFUL MUSCLE.

from this custom the bishops, in modern adopted the children of others, and brought times, have the same honour.

them up in their own principles. ABBREVIATION, a contracted man. ABELMOS'CHUS, the seed of an Egypner of writing words so as to retain only tian plant, which resembles musk in its the initial letters. Such abbreviations were perfume, and is used by the Arabians in in common use with the Romans, as they their coffee. are with us, to save time and space. (For ABERRATION, in astronomy, an ap. a complete list of those most necessary to parent motion of the fixed stars, occasioned be known at present, we refer to The by the progressive motion of light.Treasury of Knowledge.] –ABBREVIA- ABERBATION, in optics, the deviation of TION, a mathematical term, given to the the rays of light, when reflected by a lens process by which a fraction is reduced to or speculum, whereby they are prevented lower terms.- -ABBREVIATION, (in mu. from meeting in the same point. Aberrasic.). One dash, through the stem of a tions are of two kinds, one arising from minim or crotchet, or under a semibreve, the tigure of the reflecting body, the other converts it into as many quavers as it is from the unequal refrangibility of the rays equal to in time: two dashes into semiqua. themselves. vers; three into demisemiquavers; and so ABEY'ANCE, in law, the expectancy of on. When minims are connected together an estate or possession: thus, if lands be like quavers, semiquavers, &c., they are to leased from one person for life, with rever. be repeated as many times as if they were sion to another for years, the latter estate really sach notes. An oblique dash through is in abeyance till the death of the lessee. the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th lines after an arpeg- It is a fixed principle of law, that the feegio, signifies that it is to be repeated; for simple of all lands is in somebody, or else quavers, a single dash being used; for se- in abeyance. miquavers, a double one; and so on.

ABJURATION, a forswearing, or reABBREVIATORS, officers who assist nouncing by oath : in the old law it signithe vice-chancellor in drawing up the fied a sworn banishment, or an oath taken Pope's briefs, and reducing petitions into to forsake the realm for ever. In its moproper form, to be converted into bulls. dern, and now more usual signification, it

ABDICATION, properly speaking, is a extends to persons, and doctrines, as well voluntary resignation of a dignity, particu- as places. larly a regal one; and if he in whose favour ABLACTATION, a sort of ingrafting the abdication was made, dies, or declines trees, by leaving the graft on its proper the offered dignity, the right of the abdi- stock, until it be fully incorporated with cated prince is reverted. Involuntary re- the new stock. Also, the weaning a child signations are, however, also termed abdi- from the breast. cations, as in the case of Napoleon's abdi- ABLEC'TI, in ancient Rome, a chosen cation at Fontainbleau.

band of foreign troops, selected from the ABDITA'RIUM, or ABDITOʻRUM, in extraordinarii sociorum. archæology, a secret place for hiding or ABLEGʻMINA, in Roman antiquity, preserving valuables.

choice parts of the entrails of victims, ABDOʻMEN, that part of the body usu- called also proficie, porricie, prosecta, and ally called the belly. It contains the vis-prosegmina. The ablegmina were sprinkled cera more or less immediately connected with flour, and burnt on the altar; the with digestion, and the kidneys which se- priests pouring some wine on them. crete the urine. By anatomists, the abdo- ABʻLUENTS, diluting medicines, or men is divided into three anterior regions, such as dissolve and carry off impurifies viz. the epigastric, or upper one; the um- from any part of the body. bilical, or middle one; and the hypogastric, ABLUTION, a religious ceremony of or lower one: there is also one posterior washing the body, still used by the Turks region, called regio lumbaris.

and Mahomedans. It originated in the ABDOMINALES, a numerous order of obvious necessity of practising cleanliness, & fishes, which have the ventral fins placed for the prevention of diseases in hot coun

behind the pectoral, in the abdomen; as tries; for which purpose it was made a re. salmon, trout, herrings, carp, sprats, &c. ligious rite; and by an easy transition of It includes the greatest number of the idea, the purity of the body was made to fresh-water species.

typify the purity of the soul: an idea the ABDUCTION, the crime of unlawfully more rational, as it is perhaps physically taking away, either by force or fraud and certain that outward wretchedness debases persuasion, the person of another, whether the inward mind. -ABLUTION, among of child, wife, ward, heiress, or woman ge; physicians, is used either for washing the nerally. The word abduction is also used external parts of the body by baths; or in surgery, to express a peculiar fracture deterging the bowels by thin diluting of the bones.

fluids. ABDUCTOR, in anatomy, a name given ABOL'LA, a kind of military garment to several muscles on account of their ser- worn by the Greek and Roman soldiers. ving to open or draw backwards the parts ABOMA'SUS, the paunch, or fourth into which they are inserted.

stomach ruminating animals which ABEʻLIANS, or A'BELITES, a Chris. the process of digestion is completed. Rutian sect which sprang from the Gnostics. minating animals, or such as chew the They abstained from matrimony, but cud, have four stomachs; the first, is called

FORMERLY, PELONS TAKING REFUGE IN A CHURCH MIGHT ESCAPE PUNISHMENT, BY CONFESSING THEIR GUILT AND ABJURING THE REALM.

3

THE ROMISE CHURCII RETAINS ABLUTION BEFORE MASS, AND SOMETIMES AFTER.

THE TROUGII IN WHICII THE ORE IS WASHED IN MINES IS CALLED ABACUS MAJOR.

THE KING OF FRANCE HAD FORMERLY THE RIGHT OF APPOINTING ABBOTS OVER TWO HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FIVE MONASTERIES.

ABA] The Scientific and Literary Treasury;

[ABB were also other inventions similarly deno. their branches turned towards the enemy, minated; viz. ABACUS PYTHAGORICUS, a so as to form a defence for troops stationed multiplication table, invented by Pytha- behind them. goras; and ABACUS LOGISTICUS, a rectan- ABA'TOR, in law, one who enters into a gled triangle, whose sides, forming the house or lands, void by the death of the right angle, contain all the numbers from last possessor, before the true heir. 1 to 60, and its area the products of each AB'ATURES, a term, with huntsmen, to two of the opposite numbers. This is also denote the sprigs or grass thrown down by called a canon of sexagesimals.

the stag in passing by. In justice to the present advanced ABB, or ABB-WOOL, a term used by state of science, and at the same time, as a clothiers for the warp. sincere though feeble tribute to the genius AB'BE, a French word, literally meaning of one of the most scientific men of the an abbot, but the character generally spoage, we are bound to notice in this place ken of under the name of abbé has long a most extraordinary automatic invention ceased to be of any official nature. Before by Mr. Babhage, (infinitely exceeding the the Revolution, the term abbé designated a powers of the abacus of ancient arithme. very numerous body of persons, who had ticians,) the object of which is to compute little or no connexion with the church, exand print the most difficult astronomical cept the apparent one which they derived or navigation tables, &c., sucb as could not from this title, but who followed a course otherwise be effected without immense in- of theological study, in hopes that the king tellectual and manual labour. We hear would confer on them a real abbey, that that the machine is not yet quite completed, is, a part of the revenues of a monastery. but the inventor asserts, and his assertions They were engaged in every kind of literary are verified by Sir David Brewster and other occupation, and exerted an important influeminent men, that not only can the highest ence on the character of the country; nor operations of arithmetic be performed by was there scarcely a family of distinction this stupendous engine, but it is capable of in France wherein an abbé was not found correcting its own errors, and, when cor- in the capacity of a familiar friend and spirected, it can print off the results, inde- ritual adviser. pendent of human aid! By this it appears AB'BESS, the superior of a nunnery, or that the machine consists of two parts, a other religious community of women. She calculating, and a printing part, both of has the same authority as an abbot, but canwhich are absolutely necessary to its entire not exercise any of the spiritual functions. perfection. In explaining his mode of ac- AB'BEY, a religious house governed by complishing such great objects, the inven- a superior, under the title of an abbot or tor observes, “that nearly all tables of abbess. Abbeys differ in nothing from numbers which follow any law, however priories, except that the latter are governed complicated, may be formed, to a greater by priors, instead of abbots. The abbeyg or less extent, solely by the proper ar- of England, at their dissolution under rangement of the successive addition and Henry VIII., became lay-sees; when no subtraction of numbers befitting each less than 190 were dissolved, the yearly retable;” and he then proceeds to shew, by venue of which has been estimated at a series of tables and explanations, the 2,853,0001.; an almost incredible sum, con. theory of his art, as well as the mechanical sidering the value of money in those days. execution required for its performance. At present, an abbey is, in general, the caThe limits of our work, however, are in- thedral or episcopal church of the see or adequate to give a fair illustration of so diocese in which it stands. skilful a contrivance, but it may be suffi- AB'BOT, was originally the name of cient to lead the enquiring mind to farther every aged monk; but, since the 8th ceninvestigation. (We may here remark, en tury, it denotes the head of a monastery. passant, that it is to this end that a book In most countries they held a rank next to of reference, so extensive in its aim as the that of bishop, and had votes in the ecclepresent, must of necessity be constantly siastical councils. At present they are directed. Wherever, by reason of its bre- chiefly distinguished into regular and comvity, or the magnitude of the subject on mendatory; the former being real monks which it treats, it cannot enter into the ne- or religious, and the latter only seculars or cessary details, it may still excite a laudable lay-men. These last, notwithstanding that curiosity for more elaborate information, the term commendam seems to signify the and thereby lead to its acquirement.] contrary, have the perpetual enjoyment of

ABA'TEMENT, in law, signities the re- the fruits of their abbeys. Anciently the jecting a suit, on account of some fault ceremony of creating an abbot consisted in either in the matter or proceeding: - clothing him with the habit called caculla, ABATEMENT, in heraldry, something added or cowl: putting the pastoral staff into his to a coat of arms, in order to lessen its hand, and the shoes called pedales, on his true dignity, and point out some imperfec. feet; but at present, it is only a simple be. tion or stain in the character of the person nediction. It was because certain abwho bears it. In commerce, ABATE- bots and priors in England, in right of MENT means a discount in the price of their monasteries, held lands of the crown, commodities for money advanced by the for which they owed military service, that buyer, or some other cause.

they obtained the title of Londs, and were AB'ATIS, trees cut down and laid with summoned, as barons, to parliament; and

BOME PROTESTANT CLERGYMEN, IN GERMANY, STILL BEAR THE TITLE OF ABBOT, WITH THE RIGHT OF SITTING IN THE DIET OF THE STATES.

2

THE IDLE INMATES OF A MONASTERY ARE DESIGNATED ABBEY-LUBBERS.

BY THE JEWISH LAW, ABDUCTION IS CONSIDERED A CAPITAL OFFENCE.

THE ABDUCTOR OCULI IS ONE OF THE MUSCLES ARISING FROM THE ORBIT OF THE EYE, AND IS SOMETIMES CALLED THE SCORNFUL MUSCLE.

ABE] A New Dictionary of the Belles Lettres. [ABO from this custom the bishops, in modern adopted the children of others, and brought times, have the same honour.

them up in their own principles. ABBREVIATION, a contracted man- ABELMOSCHUS, the seed of an Egyp. ner of writing words so as to retain only tian plant, which resembles musk in its the initial letters. Such abbreviations were perfume, and is used by the Arabians in in common use with the Romans, as they their coffee. are with us, to save time and space. [For ABERRA'TION, in astronomy, an apa complete list of those most necessary to parent motion of the fixed stars, occasioned be known at present, we refer to The by the progressive motion of light.-Treasury of Knowledge.]ABBREVIA | ABERRATION, in optics, the deviation of TION, a mathematical term, given to the the rays of light, when reflected by a lens process by which a fraction is reduced to or speculum, whereby they are prevented Iower terms.- -ABBREVIATION, (in mu- from meeting in the same point. Aberrasic.). One dash, through the stem of a tions are of two kinds, one arising from minim or crotchet, or under a semibreve, the tigure of the reflecting body, the other converts it into as many quavers as it is from the unequal refrangibility of the rays equal to in time: two dashes into semiqua- themselves. vers; three into demisemiquavers; and so ABEY'ANCE, in law, the expectancy of on. When minims are connected together an estate or possession: thus, if lands be like quavers, semiquavers, &c., they are to leased from one person for life, with rever. be repeated as many times as if they were sion to another for years, the latter estate really such notes. An oblique dash through is in abeyance till the death of the lessee. the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th lines after an arpeg- It is a fixed principle of law, that the feegio, signifies that it is to be repeated ; for simple of all lands is in somebody, or else quavers, a single dash being used; for se- in abeyance. miquavers, a double one; and so on. ABJURA'TION, a forswearing, or re

ABBRE'VIATORS, officers who assistnouncing by oath: in the old law it signi. the vice-chancellor in drawing up the fied a sworn banishment, or an oath taken Pope's briefs, and reducing, petitions into to forsake the realm for ever. In its moproper form, to be converted into bulls. dern, and now more usual signification, it

ABDICA’TION, properly speaking, is a extends to persons, and doctrines, as well voluntary resignation of a dignity, particu- as places. larly a regal one; and if he in whose favour ABLACTATION, a sort of ingrafting the abdication was made, dies, or declines trees, by leaving the graft on its proper the offered dignity, the right of the abdi- stock, until it be fully incorporated with cated prince is reverted. Involuntary re- the new stock. Also, the weaning a child signations are, however, also termed abdi- from the breast. cations, as in the case of Napoleon's abdi- ABLEC'TI, in ancient Rome, a chosen cation at Fontainbleau.

band of foreign troops, selected from the ABDITA’RIUM, or ABDITOʻRUM, in extraordinarii sociorum. archæology, a secret place for hiding or ABLEGʻMINA, in Roman antiquity, preserving valuables.

choice parts of the entrails of victims, ABDO'MEN, that part of the body usu- called also proficiæ, porriciæ, prosecta, and ally called the belly." It contains the vis- prosegmina. The ablegmina were sprinkled cera more or less immediately connected with flour, and burnt on the aliar; the with digestion, and the kidneys which se- priests pouring some wine on them. crete the urine. By anatomists, the abdo- AB'LUENTS, diluting medicines, or men is divided into three anterior regions, such as dissolve and carry off impurifies viz. the epigastric, or upper one; the um- from any part of the body. bilical, or middle one; and the hypogastric, ABLU”TION, a religious ceremony of or lower one: there is also one posterior washing the body, still used by the Turks region, called regio lumbaris.

and Mahomedans. It originated in the ABDOMINALES, a numerous order of obvious necessity of practising cleanliness, fishes, which have the ventral fins placed for the prevention of diseases in hot counbehind the pectoral, in the abdomen; as tries; for which purpose it was made a resalmon, trout, herrings, carp, sprats, &c. ligious rite; and by an easy transition of It includes the greatest number of the idea, the purity of the body was made to fresh-water species.

typify the purity of the soul: an idea the ABDUCTION, the crime of unlawfully more rational, as it is perhaps physically taking away, either by force or fraud and certain that outward wretchedness debases persuasion, the person of another, whether the inward mind. -ABLUTION, among of child, wife, ward, heiress, or woman ge- physicians, is used either for washing the nerally, The word abduction is also used external parts of the body by baths; or in surgery, to express a peculiar fracture deterging the bowels by thin diluting of the bones.

fluids. ABDUCTOR, in anatomy, a name given ABOL'LA, a kind of military garment to several muscles on account of their ser- worn by the Greek and Roman soldiers. ving to open or draw backwards the parts ABOMA'SUS, the paunch, or fourth into which they are inserted.

stomach of ruminating animals, in which ABEʻLIANS, or A'BELITES, a Chris. the process of digestion is completed. Rutian sect which sprang from the Gnostics. minating animals, or such as chew the They abstained from matrimony, but cud, have four stomachs; the first, is called

FORMERLY, FELONS TAKING REFUGE IN A CHURCH MIGHT ESCAPE PUNISHMENT, BY CONFESSING THEIR GUILT AND ABJURING THE REALM.

3

THE ROMISH CHURCII RETAINS ABLUTION BEFORE MASS, AND SOMETIMES AFTER.

THE MOST ABSORBENT SOILS ARE COMPOSED OF ALUMINOUS EARTHS.

PERSONS WHO DERIVED THEIR INCOMES FROM IRELAND, AND DID NOT RESIDE THERE SIX MONTHS, WERE FORMERLY TAXED TWENTY PER CENT,

ABR] The Scientific and Literary Treasury; [ABS venter; the second, reticulum; the third, mand in an action of dower, if any land is omasus; and the fourth, abomasus. It is put therein, which is not in the tenure of in the abomasus of calves and lambs that the defendant; for on a plea of non-tenure, the runnet is found, used for curdling milk. in abatement of the writ, the plaintiff may

ABORI"GENES, a name given to the leave out those lands, and pray that the original or first inhabitants of any country; tenant may answer to the remainder. but more particularly used for the ancient ABRO'TANUM, in botany, a species of inhabitants of Latium, when Æneas with plant arranged under the genus Artemisia; his Trojans came into Italy.

called also Southernwood. ABORTION, in a figurative sense, any AB'SCESS, an inflammatory tumour production does not come to maturity, containing purulent matter. or any design or project which fails before ABSCISSA, the part of any diameter or it is properly matured. - In medicine, it axis of a curve line, cut off by a perpenmeans a miscarriage, or the fætus brought dicular line, called the ordinate. forth before it is perfectly formed.

ABSCISSION, in rhetoric, a figure of ABOUT, the situation of a ship imme. speech, whereby the speaker stops short in diately after she has tacked. --ABOUT the middle of his discourse, and leaves his SHIP, an order to the crew to prepare for hearers to draw their own inferences from tacking.

the facts he has stated. In astronomy, AB'RACADAB'RA, a term of incanta. the term abscission denotes the cutting off tion, formerly used as a spell or charm, the light of the first of three planets when and worn about the neck as an amulet the third comes in conjunction with the against several diseases. In order to give middle one. it the more virtue, it was to be written as ABSENTEE', a word of modern times, many times as the word contains letters, applied to land-owners and capitalists, who omitting always the last letter of the for- expend their incomes in another country. mer, and so forming a triangle. But ABSOLU'TION, a religious ceremony of charms and incantations have had their the church of Rome, by which the priests day; and abracadabra, if used at all, now assume the power to forgive sins. In the serves as a word of jest, like hocus pocus, ancient Christian church, absolution was and other unmeaning gibberish.

a judicial act, by which the priest, in the ABRA'SION, in medicine, the corroding name of the community, invoking the faor wearing of the intestines, by sharp and vour of God, announced to the penitent acrimonious humours, or medicines.

his remission from ecclesiastical punishABRAX'AS, or ABRASAX', in church-his- ment, and readmission into the bosom of tory, amystical term expressing the supreme the church. The fathers of the Protestant God, under whom the Basilidians supposed church maintain, that God alone can for365 dependent deities. It was the principle give and deliver from sin; that a judicial of the Gnostic hierarchy.ABRAXAS, or power over the souls of Christians is conABRASAX STONES, are very numerous, and ferred neither on priests nor teachers. represent the human body, with the head AB'SOLUTISM, in matters of theology, of a cock, and the feet of a reptile. The doctrine charged on the Calvinists; name of Abrasax stone is, in modern times, whereby God is supposed to act from mere applied to a variety of gems that exhibit pleasure, in regard to the salvation of manenigmatical compositions, but have not the kind. Absolutism is the grand obstacle to true characteristics of the Basilidians. an union between the Lutherans and Cal

AB'RAUM, a kind of red clay used by vinists. cabinet-makers to deepen the colour of ABSORP'TION, the process in animated new mahogany.

nature, by which the digested aliments or ABREAST, side by side, or opposite 0; substances that support the body are cara sea term, applied to two or more ships ried into the blood.” In chemistry, absorpranged together.-ABREAST of a place, tion means the conversion of a gaseous means directly opposite to it.

fluid into a liquid or solid, on being united ABREUVOIR', a French word for a with some other solid. watering-place, or any place dug for ré- ABSORB'ENTS, calcarious earths, or taining water, as in camps. In architec- other medicines which soak up the redundture, the interstices between two stones to ant humours of the body. be filled up with mortar or cement are ABSORB'ENT VESSELS, are those called abreuvoirs.

which absorb the digested aliment, and ABRIDGʻMENT, the bringing the con- carry the new matter, called chyle, into the tents of a book within a short compass. system. They are either lacteal, or lymThe perfection of an abridgment consists phatic. The chyle being white like milk, in taking only what is material and sub- gives the name lacteal or milky to the vesstantial, and rejecting all superfluities, sels through which it is conveyed. The whether of sentiment or style: in which substance contained in the lymphatic veslight, abridgments must be allowed to be sels is the old and worn-out particles of eminently serviceable to all whose occu. the system, and such others as may have pations prevent them from devoting much been received in it from the surfaces of the time to literary pursuits.-ABRIDGMENT, body: it is perfectly transparent, on which in law, the shortening a count, or declara account it is called lymph, giving the name tion: thus, in assize, a man is said to lymphatic to its vessels. The term ADabridge his plaint, and a woman her de- SORBENT VESSELS is also used by some

THE TAX ON IRISH ABSENTEES WAS LAID ON AT THE BEGINNING, AND TAKEN OFF ABOUT THE MIDDLE OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

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4

THE ABSORBENT POWER OF WATER IS A TEST OF THE GOODNESS OF SOIL.

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