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The spot where Queenston now stands, was then covered with trees.

A A-Road to the Falls.

B B-Road to St. David's and St. Catharine's.

C C-To Suspension Bridge.

D D-Road by which the reinforcements from Fort George gained the Heights in the afternoon.

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Non-arrival of reinforcements from Europe, and

Christie, that Sir George Prevost was not, therefore, in a position which would warrant his weakening the force under his immediate command, and it will be further seen that the activity of the enemy at various points, kept him fully employed, and, indeed, compelled him to embody another battalion of militia, called the fifth battalion, afterwards "Canadian chasseurs." A corps of voyageurs was

movements in Lower Province. General Brock's reception at Queenston.-Nature of the country along the Niagara frontier.-British force along the Niagara frontier at the time of General Brock's return from Detroit.-The force of the American army.-General Van Ranselaer's plans. Despatches of General Brock.-Battle of Queenston Heights.-Des- also raised by the North-West Company, patches from the two commanding officers compared.-Personal appearance of General Brock.-Public opinion of General Brock's

character and value.

Non-arrival of retn

which was disbanded in the spring, while the merchants and tradesmen of Montreal organized themselves into four companies of volunteers, for garrison duty and field service, in case SIR George Prevost, in his despatch to Gen of emergency. According to Christie, our Brock about the middle troops, both regular and militia, seem, at this forcements from Eu of September, advised, it crisis, to have had their time fully occupied, rope, and movements in Lower Province. may be remembered, that for we find that a party of Americans, one officer of the impossibility of sending him any hundred and fifty strong, under Captain Forreinforcements, until there should be a "con- syth, crossed over from Gravelly Point to Ganasiderable increase to the regular force in the noque, eighteen miles below Kingston, from Province," as the presence of a large body of whence they dislodged a party of fifty militia, American regulars on the Lower Canadian and took possession of a quantity of arms and frontier required every soldier who was in the ammunition, which they carried away, after country. A short extract from Christie will burning the store and a small quantity of show how Sir George was situated, and how provisions. Mr. Christie adds-"Their confar any expectations of his being strength-duct is represented to have been disgraceful ened were realized. "The slender rein- towards the defenceless inhabitants." We forcements that arrived were barely sufficient to relieve the citizens of Quebec for a short time from garrison duty. They consisted but of the 103rd regiment from England, with a few recruits from other regiments, and a bat-burg, opposite Prescott, Col. Lethbridge, comtalion of the 1st (or Royal Scots) from the manding at the latter place, formed the design West Indies; and the three battalions of Que- of dislodging the enemy, and possessing himbec militia resumed garrison duty in the be- self of Ogdensburg. With a view of effecting ginning of October, which they continued this purpose, he assembled a force of some throughout the winter, each taking in turn its hundred and fifty men, regular and militia, week." It is obvious, from this statement of and having collected a sufficient number of

see also, from the same writer, that, "from the frequent interruptions of the convoys from Montreal, or rather Lachine, to Kingston, in Upper Canada, by the Americans at Ogdens

It may, perhaps, enable the reader to Nature of the country comprehend the difficulalong the Niagara frontier. ties which attended any movement in force, and to perceive also the causes which left the troops, on both sides, in such apparent ignorance of each other's tactics, if we take a bird's-eye view of the general face and character of the country. Its appearance at the present day is thus described in "Canada; Past, Present, and Future," before, however, quoting the passage, we will

batteaux, he pushed off on the forenoon of the 3rd October, under cover of a cannonnade from Prescott, with twenty-five batteaux es corted by two gun-boats. They advanced without opposition, until mid channel, when the enemy opened a tremendous discharge of artillery, which checked their progress. Confusion immediately ensued, and they were compelled to make a precipitate retreat, with the loss of three men killed and four wounded. The Americans were commanded by Brigadier General Brown, and behaved with much cool-suppose the reader to be on the crest of the ness and intrepidity." It may be as well to state that this enterprise, undertaken without the sanction of the commander of the forces, was censured by him; and that public opinion condemned it also as rash. With this brief glance at the state of affairs in the Lower Province, we return to General Brock and the Niagara frontier.

Gen. Brock's reception at Queenston.

eminence immediately above Fonthill, just twelve miles west of Chippewa. A glance at the accompanying map will assist this.

on one side, the waters of Lake Erie, and, on the other, those of Ontario. We know of no other spot from whence so extensive a view can be obtained. An observatory has been erected on the brow of the hill, and a telescope is kept for the accommodation of visitors."

According to Mr. Smith, "The tourist after travelling for some miles along a road, where his view of the country on either side of him has seldom extended beyond two or three miles, on reaching this elevation, finds As soon as it was ascertained that the a most magnificent panorama, as it were by General had reached magic, displayed to his astonished vision. An Chippewa, it was sug- immense plain, extending for many miles, lies gested by Col. Holcroft, that a deputation of before and below him, studded with towns, the principal residents in the district should villages, groves and winding streams; before wait on him, to congratulate his Excellency him lies the Welland Canal, crowded with veson the complete success which had attended sels moving either way; beyond it, the perhis arms at Detroit. This deputation was ac-petually dashing, roaring cataract of Niagara, cordingly organized, and the procession met their General at Queenston, as he was proceeding in an open carriage to Fort George. We have been assured by an eye-witness of the meeting, that General Brock was inexpressibly gratified at his enthusiastic reception, and the deep devotion testified by each We will now observe, that the hill here member of the cortège to the cause, for which spoken of, is one of very inconsiderable elevathey were then in arms. So re-assured, in- tion, consequently, the flatness of the surdeed, was he, as to be enabled, with rounding district presenting such an extendpolicy, to give but a cool reception to a party ed view, may be easily imagined. When, of Indians who had been playing fast and therefore, the country was covered with dense loose, and whose adherence to the British had forests, and it was impossible to gain, by obbeen only secured by the intelligence, just re-servation, any insight into the marchings and ceived, of the successes at Detroit. It must countermarchings of either force, the difficulty have strengthened and cheered the General's heart to witness the enthusiasm with which, on that occasion, so many of Canada's best and bravest sons appeared to renew their pledge, that they were ready and willing to sacrifice their lives to prevent an invader's footstep polluting the soil of their native or adopted country. The procession, forming on both sides of the carriage, escorted General mph to Niagara.

of obtaining correct information may be easily understood, especially when we call to mind, that the various excellent roads which everywhere now open up the country, at that time existed only in the prophetic imaginings of some far seeker into the future destinies of this great Province.

We have said enough on the subject to assign at least one probable cause for the apparently contradictory orders, which, as our nar

rative will shew, were issued, and the conse men, of whom nearly two thirds were regular quent indecision which seemed to characterize troops." many of the movements during the campaign of 1812 and '13.

British force along the
Niagara frontier at the

return from Detroit.

Here was a force of regulars amounting to four thousand men, opposed to one of six hundred; yet it will be shewn that various attempts have been made by American wri ters, to assign the inferiority of numbers, as the reason why the attack on Queenston so signally miscarried.

Van Ranse

laer's plans.

The whole British force along a frontier of nearly thirty-six miles in extent, did not, at the time of General Brock's date of General Brock's return from Detroit, amount to more than twelve hundred men, at As it was quite out of the question for Genleast half of which were militia. These troops General eral Brock, in the preswere disposed of in the following manner :-ence of so superior a At Chippewa, a small detachment of the 41st, force, to adopt any other than precautionary under Capt. Bullock, and the flank companies and defensive measures, we will lay before of the 2d Lincoln militia, under Capts. R. Hamilton and Rows;-at Queenston, Capts. Dennis and Williams, with the flank companies of the 49th, with a small body of militia, were stationed; nearly all the remainder of the force was at Fort George, under General Sheaffe, with the exception of a few militia scattered here and there along the line. It will thus be seen how inadequately so extended a frontier was defended, and how the few troops scattered along the line were exposed to be cut off in detail by an energetic or enterprising enemy.

force of.

The American army, commanded by Major The American Army- General Van Ranselaer consisted, according to their own official returns,* of five thousand two hundred and six men. This amount includes all the reinforcements which had ar

rived at the date of the battle of Queenston,

but is exclusive of three hundred field and

light artillery, with eight hundred of the 6th, 13th, and 23d regiments at Fort Niagara. This gives a total of over six thousand three hundred men. James disposes of this force as follows:-"Of this powerful force, sixteen hundred and fifty regulars, under the command of Brigadier General Smith, were at Black Rock,t-three hundred and eighty-six militia, at the latter place and Buffalo,-uine hundred regulars and twenty-two hundred and seventy militia at Lewiston, distant from

the reader a sketch of what were really General Van Ranselaer's views. This we are enabled to do by means of a pamphlet publish. ed by Col. S. Van Ranselaer, his nephew and aide-de-camp.

The instructions from General Dearborn, on which General Van Ranselaer had to base his plan of operations, were as follows:

"At all events, we must calculate on poss. essing Upper Canada before winter sets in.

General Harrison will, I am assured, enter Canada by Detroit, with not less than from six to seven thousand men, exclusive of the troops necessary for guarding the frontier against Indian depredations.

"The force at Sackett's Harbour and that

vicinity, is over two thousand, including an old company of regular artillery, and a large company of old riflemen.

in operation in the navy department on Lake "I have great confidence in the exertions now Ontario. In fact, we have nothing to fear, and much to hope as to the ultimate success of measures now in operation with a view to Upper Canada; but much may immediately depend on what may happen at your post."

Such was the confident tone of General Dearborn's instructions, and that General Van

Ranselear felt confidence also, may be assumed from the admission made by his nephew, Col. S. Van Ranselear. "He did not wish to be drawn from the object he had in view, by

Black Rock, about twenty eight miles,-at a controversy with General Smyth, particu Fort Niagara, were eleven hundred more, giv-larly so, as he knew that the forces which by ing a force of six thousand three hundred this time had collected in his own immediate vicinity were amply sufficient for the purpose.

Wilkinson's Memoris, Vol. 1, page 558.
Wilkinson's Memoirs, Vol. 1, page 553.

Vide Wilkinson.

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