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on his informing me that I was a prisoner of
TREATY OF PEACE. war; but I scarce said it, when the cap
His Britannic Majesty and the United tain came forward and ordered me to be taken States of America, desirous of terminating the below. I communicated the above also to the purser of the ship, in the ward-room.--. the two countries, and of restoring, upon prin
war which has so unhappily subsisted between What time had you been on board before the
ciples of perfect reciprocity, peace, friendship, commencement of the said action ? A. Rather and good understanding between them, have, more than a quarter of an hour.-P. Has any for that purpose, appointed their respective reply been made by any of the officers of the plenipotentiaries, that is to say: his Britannic American sloop of war on your communication ? Majesty, on his part, has appointed the right A. Yes.-Q. By whom? 1. The purser. honorable James, Lord Gambier, late admiral of -Q. What was the reply? A. I do not the white, now admiral of the red squadron of know how we can avoid a little brush;—and the his Majesty's fleet, Henry Goulbourn, Esq., purser ordered me to go out of the way into the member of the Imperial parliament, and under side-cabin."
secretary of state, and William Adams, Esq. From Captain Warrington to the American Sec- doctor of civil laws :--and the president of the
United States, by and with the advice and conretary of the Navy.
sent of the senate thereof, has appointed John U. S. ship Peacock, Nov. 11, 1815. Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry Clay, “ As it is probable you will hereafter see or Jonathan Russell, and Albert Gallatin, citizens hear some other account of a rencontre which of the United States, who, after a reciprocal took place between the Peacock and the East communication of their respective full powers, India company's brig Nautilus, on the 30th have agreed upon the following articles : of June last, in the straits of Sunda, I take the
Art. 1.-There shall be a firm and universal liberty of making known to you the particulars. peace between his Britannic Majesty and the
In the afternoon of that day, when a-breast United States, and between their respective of Anjier, as we closed with this brig, which countries, territories, cities, towns, and people, appeared evidently a vessel of war, and com- of every degree, without exception of places or pletely prepared for action, her commander persons. All hostilities, both by sea and land, hailed, and asked, if I knew there was a peace. shall cease as soon as this treaty has been I replied in the negative, directing him, at the ratified by both parties, as hereinafter mensame time, to haul his colours down, if it were the tioned. All territories, places, and possessions case, in token of it; adding that, if he did not, I whatsoever, taken from either party by the should fire into her. This being refused one of other, during the war, or which may be taken the forward guns were fired at her, which was after the signing of this treaty, excepting only immediately returned by a broadside from the the islands hereinafter mentioned, shall be rebrig; our broadside was then discharged, and stored without delay, and without causing any his colours were struck, after having six lascars destruction, or carrying away any of the killed, and seven or eight wounded. As we had artillery or other public property originally not the most distant idea of peace, and this captured in the said forts or places, and which vessel was but a short distance from the fort of shall remain therein, upon the exchange of the Anjier, I considered his assertion, coupled with ratifications of the treaty, or any slaves, or his arrangement for action, a finesse on his other private property, and all archives, repart, to amuse us, till he could place himselfcords, deeds, and papers, either of a public under the protection of the fort. A few minutes nature, or belonging to private persons, which, before coming in contact with the brig, two in the course of the war, may have fallen into boats, containing the master-attendant at An- the hands of the officers of either party, shall jier, and an officer of the army, came on board, be, as far as may be practicable, forthwith and as we were in momentary expectation of restored and delivered to the proper authorities firing, they were, with their men, passed below. and persons to whom they respectively belong. I concluded that they had been misled by the Such of the islands in the bay of PassamaBritish colours, under which we had passed up quoddy as are claimed by both parties, shall the straits. No question, in consequence, were remain in the possession of the party in whose put to them; and they, very improperly, occupation they may be at the time of the exomitted mentioning that peace existed. The change of the ratifications of this treaty, until next day, after receiving such intelligence as the decision respecting the title to the said they had to communicate on the subject, (part islands shall have been made in conformity of which was official,) I gave up the vessel, first with the fourth article of this treaty. No disstopping her shot-holes, and putting the rig. position made by this treaty, as to such possesging in order.
sions of the islands and territories claimed by I am aware that I may be to blame for both parties, shall, in any manner whatever, be ccasing hostilities without more authentic evi-constructed to affect the right of either. dence that peace had been concluded ; but, I Art. II.-Immediately after the ratification trust, when our distance from home, with the of this treaty by both parties, as hereinafter little chance we had of receiving such evidence, mentioned orders shall be sent to the armies, are taken into consideration, I shall not be squadrons, oificers, subjects, and citizens of the thought to have decided prematurely. two powers to cease from all hostilities; and to
prevent all causes of complaint which might amine and decide upon the said claims, accordarise on account of the prizes which may be ing to such evidence as shall be laid before taken at sea after the ratifications of this treaty, them, on the part of his Britannic Majesty and it is reciprocally agreed, that all vessels and of the United States respectively. The said effects which may be taken after the space of commissioners shall meet at St. Andrews, in the twelve days from the said ratifications, upon all province of New Brunswick, and shall have parts of the coast of North America, from the power to adjourn to such other place or places latitude of twenty-three degrees north, to the as they shall think fit. The said commissioners latitude of fifty degrees north, as far eastward shall, by a declaration or report under their in the Atlantic Ocean as the thirty-sixth degree hands and seals, decide to which of the two conof west longitude from the meridian of Green- tracting parties the several islands aforesaid do wich, shall be restored on each side : that the respectively belong, in conformity with the true time shall be thirty days in all other parts of intent of the said treaty of peace of one thouthe Atlantic ocean, north of the equinoxial line sand seven hundred and eighty-three. And if or equator, and the same time for the British the said commissioners shall agree in their deciand Irish channels, for the gulf of Mexico, and sion, both parties shall consider such decision all parts of the West Indies : forty days for the as final and conclusive. It is further agreed, North Seas, for the Baltic, and for all parts of that in the event of two commissioners differing the Mediterranean. Sixty days for the Atlantic upon all or any of the matters so referred to ocean south of the equator as far as the lati- them, or in the event of both or either of the tude of the Cape of Good Hope: ninety days said commissioners refusing or declining, or for every part of the world south of the equa- wilfully omitting, to act as such, they shall tor: and one hundred and twenty days for all make, jointly or separately, a report or reports other parts of the world, without exception. as well to the government of his Britannic
Art. III. - All prisoners of war taken on Majesty, as to that of the United States, stating either side, as well by land as sea, shall be in detail the points of which they differ, and the restored as soon as practicable after the ratifi- grounds upon which their respective opinions cation of this treaty, as hereinafter mentioned, have been formed, or the grounds upon which on their paying the debts which they may have they, or either of them, have so refused, decontracted during their captivity. The two clined, or omitted to act. And his Britannic contructing parties respectively engage to dis- Majesty, and the government of the United charge, in specie, the advances which may have States, hereby agree to refer the report or rebeen made by the other, for the sustenance and ports of the said commissioners, to some friendly maintenance of such prisoners.
sovereign or state, to be then named for that Art. IV.-Whereas it was stipulated by the purpose, and who shall be requested to decide second article in the treaty of peace of one on the differences which may be stated in the thousand seven hundred and eighty three, be said report or reports, or upon the report of one tween his Britannic Majesty and the United commissioner, together with the grounds upon States of America, that the boundary of the which the other commissioner shall have reUnited States should comprehend all islands fused, declined, or omitted to act, as the case within twenty leagues of any part of the shores may be. And if the commissioner so refusing, of the United States, and lying between lines declining, or omitting to act, shall also wilfully to be drawn due east from the points where the omit to state the grounds upon which he has so aforesaid boundries between Nova-Scotia, on done, in such manner that the said statement the one part, and East Florida on the other, may be referred to such friendly sovereign or shall respectively touch the bay of Fundy, and state, together with the report of such other the Atlantic ocean, excepting such islands as commissioner, then such sovereign or state now are, or heretofore have been within the shall decide exparte upon the said report alone. limits of Nova Scotia : and whereas the several And his Britannic Majesty and the government islands in the bay of Passamaquoddy, which is of the United States engage to consider the depart of the bay of Fundy, and the island of cision of some friendly sovereign or state to be Grand Menan, in the said bay of Fundy, are final and conclusive, on all the matters so reclaimed by the United States as being compre- ferred. hended within their aforesaid boundaries, which Art. V.
Whereas neither that point of the said islands are claimed as belonging to his high lands lying due north from the source of the Britannic majesty, as having been at the time river St. Croix, and designated in the former of, and previous to, the aforesaid treaty of one treaty of peace between the two powers as the thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, north-west angle of Nova Scotia, nor the northwithin the limits of the province of Nova Scotia : westernmost head of Connecticut river, has yet in order, therefore, finally to decide upon these been ascertained ; and whereas that part of the claims, it is agreed that they shall be referred boundary line between the dominion of the two to two commissioners, to be appointed in the powers which extends from the source of the following manner; viz. One commissioner river St. Croix directly north to the above shall be appointed by his Britannic majesty, mentioned north-west angle of Nova Scotia, and one by the President of the United States, thence along the said high lands which divide by and with the advice and consent of the those rivers that empty themselves into the senate thereof, and the said two commissioners river St. Lawrence from those which fall into 80 appointed shall be sworn impartially to ex-the Atlantic ocean, to the north-westernmost
head of Connecticut river, thence down along this present article. The said commissioners the middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree shall meet, in the first instance at Albany, in the of north latitude: thence by a line due west state of New York, and shall have power to adon said latitude until it strikes the river journ to such other place or places as they Iroquois or Cataraguy, has not yet been sur- shall think fit. The said commissioners shall, veyed: it is agreed, that for these several pur- by a report or declaration, under their hands and poses, two commissioners shall be appointed, seals, designate the boundary through the said sworn, and authorized, to act exactly in the man- rivers, lakes, or water communicatious, and dener directed with respect to those mentioned in cide to which of the two contracting parties the next preceding article, unless otherwise speci- the several islands lying within the said river, fied in the present article. The saidcommissioners lakes, and water communications, do respecshall moet at St. Andrews, in the province of tively belong, in conformity with the true inNew Brunswick, and shall bave power to ad- tent of the said treaty of one thousand seren journ to such other place or places as they shall hundred and eighty-three. And both parties think fit. The said commissioners shall have agree to consider such designation and decision power to ascertain and determine the points as final and conclusive. And in the event of above mentioned, in conformity with the provi- the said two commissioners 'differing, or both, sions of the said treaty of peace of one thou- or either of them, refusing, declining, or wilsand seven hundred and eighty-three, and shall fully omitting to act, such reports, declarations, cause the boundary aforesaid, from the source or statements, shall be made by them, or either of the river St. Croix, to the river Iroquois or of them; and such reference to a friendly Cataraguy, to be surveyed and marked accord- sovereign or state shall be made in all respects ing to the said provisions. The said commis- as in the latter part of the fourth article is sioners shall make a map of the said boundary, contained, and in as full a manner as if the and annex it to a declaration under their hands same was herein repeated. and seals, certifying it to be the true map of Art. VII—It is further agreed that the said the said boundary, and particularizing the lat- two last mentioned commissioners, after they itude and longitude of the north-west angle of shall have executed the duties assigned to them Nova Scotia, of the north-westernmost head of in the preceding article, shall be, and they are Connecticut river, and of such other points of hereby authorized, upon their oaths, impartithe said boundary as they may deem proper. ally to fix and determine, according to the true And both parties agree to consider such map intent of the said treaty of peace of one thouand declaration as finally and conclusively fixing sand seven hundred and eighty-three, that part the said boundary. And in the event of the of the boundary between the dominions of the said two commissioners differing or both, or two powers, which extends from the water comeither of them, refusing or declining, or wil-munication between lake Huron and lake Supefully omitting to act, such reports, declarations, rior, to the most north-western point of the lake or statements, shall be made by them, or either of the Woods, to decide to which of the two of them, and such reference to a friendly parties the several islands lying in the lakes, sovereign or state, shall be made, in all respects water communications and rivers, forming the as in the latter part of the fourth article is con- said boundary, do respectively belong, in contained, and in as full a manner as if the same formity with the true intent of the said treaty was herein repeated.
of peace of one thousand seven hundred and Art, VI.-- Whereas by the former treaty of eighty-three; and to cause such parts of the peace, that portion of the boundary of the said boundary, as require it, to be surveyed and United States from the point where the forty- marked. The said commissioners shall, by a fifth degree of north latitude strikes the river report or declaration under their hands and Iroquois or Cataraguy to the lake Superior, seals, designate the boundary line aforesaid, was declared to be “along the middle of said state their decisions on the points thus referred river into lake Ontario, through the middle of to them, and particularize the latitude and said lake until it strikes the communication by longitude of the most north-western point of wator between that lake and lake Erie, thence the lake of the Woods, and of such other parts along the middle of said communication into of the said boundary, as they may deem proper. lake Erie, through the middle of said lake until And both parties agree to consider such desigit arrives at the water communication into the nation and decision as final and conclusive. lake Huron, thence through the middle of said And, in the event of the said two commissioners lake to the water communication between that differing, or both, either of them, refusing, delake and lake Superior,” And whereas doubts clining, or wilfully omitting to act, such rehave arisen what was the middle of said river, ports, declarations, or statement shall be made lakes, and water communications, and whether by them, or either of them, and such reference certain islands lying in the same were within to a friendly sovereign or state, shall be made the dominions of his Britannio Majesty or of the in all respects, as in the latter part of the United States: in order, therefore, tinally to fourth article is contained, and in as foll a decide these doubts, they shall be referred to two manner as if the same was herein repeated. commissioners, to be appointed, sworn, and au Art. VIII.—The several boards of two comthorized to act exactly in the manner directed missioners mentioned in the four preceding with respect to thoso mentioned in the next articles, shall respectively have power to appreceding article, unless otherwise specified in /point a secretary, and to employ such surveyors
or other persons as they shall judge necessary. ratification of the present treaty being notified Duplicates of all their respective reports, de- to such tribos or nations, and shall so desist clarations, statements, and decisions, and of accordingly. their accounts, and of the journal of their pre Art. X.- Whereas the traffic in slaves is irreceedings, shall be delivered by them to the concilable with the principle of humanity and agents of his Britannic Majesty, and to the justice, and whereas both his Britaunic Majesty agents of the United States, who may be re- and the United States are desirous of continua spectively appointed and authorized to manage in their efforts to promote its entire abolition, it the business on behalf of their respective is hereby agreed that both the contracting governments. The said commissioners shall parties shall use their best endeavours to accombe respectively paid in such manner as shall be plish so desirable an object. agreed between the two contracting parties, Art. XI.-This treaty, when the same shall such agreement being to be settled at the time have been ratified on both sides, without alterof the exchange of the ratifications of this ation by either of the contracting parties and the treaty; and all other expenses attending said ratifications mutually exchanged, shall be bindccmmissioners shall be defrayed equally by the ing on both parties and the ratifications shall parties. And, in case of death, sickness, resig-be exchanged at Washington, in the space of nation, or necessary absence, the place of every four months from this day, or sooner, if practisuch commissioner respectively shall be sup- cable. plied in the same manner as such commissioner In faith whereof, we the respective plenipowas first appointed, and the new commissioner tentiaries, have signed this treaty, and have shall take the same oath or affirmation, and do thereunto affixed our seals. the same duties. It is further agreed between
Done, in triplicate, at Ghent, the twentythe two contracting parties, that in case any of fourth day of December, one thousand eight the islands mentioned in any of the preceding hundred and fourteen. articles, which were in the possession of one of the parties prior to the commencement of the
HENRY GOULBOURN, present war between the countries, should, by
WILLIAM ADAMS, the decision of any of the boards of commissioners aforesaid, or of the sovereign or state
JOIN QUINCY ADAMS,
J. A. BAYARD. so referred to, as in the four next preceding articles contained, fall within the dominions of
H. CLAY, the other party, all grants of lands made pre
JONATHAN RUSSELL, vious to the commencement of the war, by the
ALBERT GALLITIN. party having had such possession, shall be as Now, therefore to the end of the said treaty of valid as if such island or islands had, by such peacean:lamity may be observed with good faith, decision or decisions, been adjudged to be on the part of the Unitei States, I, James Madison, within the dominions of the party having such President as aforesaid, have cau-eri the premises possession.
to be made public: and I do hereby enjoin all Art. IX.— The United States of America en- persons bearing office, civil or military, within gage to put an end, immediately after the the United States, and all others, citizen or iuratification of the present treaty, to hostilities habitant: thereof, or being within the same, with all the tribes or nations of Indians, witlı faithfully to observe and fulfil the said treaty, whom they may be at war at the time of such and every clause and article thereof, ratification ; and forthwith to restore to such In testimony whereof I have caused the seal tribes or nations, respectively, all the posses- of the United States to be asfixed to tiresa presions, rights, and privileges, which they may sents, and signed the same with my hand., have enjoyed or been entitled to in one thou Done at the City of Washington, this eighsand eight bundred and cleven, previous to such teenth day of February, in the year of our hostilities: Provided always, that such tribes or Lordone thousand eight hundred anfitteen, nations shall agree to desist from all hostilities and of the sovereignty and independence of
againt the United States of America, their citi the United States the thirty-ninin, - zens and subjects, upon the ratification of the
JAMES MADISON. present treaty being notified to such tribes or By the president, nations, and shall so desist accordingly. And
JAMES MONROE. his Britannic Majesty engages, on his part, to put an end immediately after the ratification of Total Brilish and American Cruisers captured the present treaty, to hostilities with all the or destroyed, excluding those re-captured, during tribes or nations of Indians with whom he may the War:be at war at the time of such ratification, and forth with to restore to such tribes or nations
Tons. respectively, all the possessions, rights, and privileges, which they may have enjoyed, or been entitled to, in one thousand cight hundred and eleven, previous to such hostilities : Pro- British .... 30 030 2751 10273 vided always, that such tribes or nations shall agree to desist from all hostilities against his American.
14848 Britannic Majesty, and bis subjects, upon the