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tho pendency on its ruins; a design, dominions of Oude, and all he says, which had been long and western side of India; that it was generally imputed to him.

He equally the passage and the resiTarther observes, that it was re- dence of their merchants and tradported he had inherited a vast ers; and that it was at all times mass of wealth from his father open to the free observation and Bulwant Sing, which he had se- inspection of their officers whether cured in the two strong fortreffes civil or military. of Luttee poor and Bidjeygur; Another . offence was indeed and that he made yearly additions charged on the Rajah, which perto it; that he kept up a large haps had its weight. That he had, military establishment, both of by his agents and emissaries at Calcavalry, of disciplined and irre- cutta, taken an active and decided gular infantry, and of artillery; part against the governor general, that besides the two already nam- in those contests which had for ed, he had many other fortresses, some years back prevailed between of strong construction and in good him and other members of the repair, constantly well stored and council. To that continued opgarrisoned ; that he maintained a position which he met with in correspondence with the Marrattas, Calcutta, to the disapprobation of and other powers, who either were his conduct industriously publish. or might eventually become ene- ed by the parties formed against mies to the company; and, that him in England, and to the con. he was collecting, or had pre- ftant expectation from thence en. pared, every provision for open tertained in India of his speedy revolt, waiting only for a proper degradation, the governor general feason to declare it, which was attributes all the misconduct, mis. supposed to depend, either on the deeds, and crimes of the Rajah of arrival of a French armament, or on a Maratta invasion.

In the progress of his narrative, It will appear not a little ex- the governor general by degrees traordinary, that several of these opens and avows the motives and matters, particularly whatever re- objects of bis expedition, with re. lates to the Rajah's military efta- spect to that prince. He says, blishment and preparations, the that he considered Cheit Sing as ftate of his garrisons, and the in- culpable, in a very high degree, ternal condition or appearance of towards the state, and his punith. things, thould be founded on no ment, (of which, he says, he had better authority than mere report, given him frequent warnings if when it is considered, that the he did not amend his conduct) as strong fortress of Chunar, in the an example which justice and pocentre of his dominions, and within licy required. That, he was re. an easy march of his capital, had solved to draw from his guilt the for many years been garrisoned by means of relief to the company's the English ; that his country was distretles, and to exact a penalty, the highway and thoroughfare to which he was convinced he was the company's troops, in their very well able to bear, from a frequent passage to and from the fund, which he was also convinc



ed, he had destined for purposes cated and agreed upon, that the of the most dangerous tendency to Rajah's offences requiring early pnthe company's dominion. In a nishment, his wealth being great, word, that he had determined to and the company's exigencies pretrmake him pay largely for bis par- ing, it was a measure of policy and doo, or to exact a severe venge- justice to exact from him a large ance for his past delinquency:- pecuniary mulet for their relief, the He seems, however, app-ehensive first having declared his resolution in several instances, that the trans- to extend the fine to the amount of a&ions of which he gives the detail, 40 or 50 lacks. would be subject to much discus- The governor general's profion, if not centure, at home; and gress up the Ganges lasted near in one, he seems to think it necel. lix weeks before his arrival at fary to appeal to his motives, at least Benares. Whether it proceeded in a certain degree, as a justifica- from a sense of patt, a conscioustion of his condu&.-He says, “ I ness of intended criminality, or a “ will suppose for a moment that I full knowledge of the dangers with “ have erred, -that I have acted which such progresses were ge- , “ with an unwarrantable rigournerally pregnant, and a conviction “ towards Cheit Sing, and even that there were now much aug“with injustice ; let my motivemented, under the peculiar pres“ be consulted : I left Calcutta sure of the times; from whatever “impreffed with a belief that ex- cause it proceeded, it appears evi. “ traordinary means were necef- dently that the Rajah was exceed“ fary, and those exerted with a ingly alarmed at this journey, and “ strong hand, to preserve the that his mind seemed already to “ company's interests from finking forebode fome part of the entuing “ under the accumulated weight calamities. Indeed, exclusive of “ which oppressed them. I faw all other causes of apprehenfion, “a political necessity for curbing the favourable reception and en" the overgrown power of a great tertainment which Outraun Sing, “member of their dominion, and a profligate relation of his, hau for for making it contribute to the some time received at Calcutta, “ relief of their pressing exigen- and the singular circumstance of his “ cies.- If I erred, my error was now attending the governor gene“prompted by an excess of zeal ral in his train, and coming under for their intereits operating with that protection, would in themtoo strong a bias upon my judg- selves have afforded no small room ment."

for alarm. It appears from a conference It appears from the Rajah's' mabetween the governor general and nifefto, and other teitimonies, Mr. Wheler, (which is stated in which do not seem to be any the narrative, they being, as we where contradicted, that this man, apprehend, the only members of who had once been dewan, or mithe council then in Bengal) on nifter, having lost his office through the eve of the expedition, that it the effects of misconduct, or court was then confidentially communis intrigue, and afterwards squan


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dered his substance in a course of armed men, were yet collected in a vice and profligacy, he was at body. Jength banished the country for The governor general informs his crines. That being in that us, that he received the Rajah state joined by several whose con- with civility, and without any dition, chara&ters, and desperate expresion of displeasure, at Buxfortunes corresponded with his That he received a second viown, they drew together a num- fil from him in his boat, upon ber of those rovers of all nations, their passage up the river, on the with whom India, more than any following morning; when a priother part of the world, abounds, vate conterence was requested and 1ó that he was at length enabled' granted. He does not at all to invade, and to excite some fort allume being correct in bis reof rebellion in the country of Be- colle&ion of the particulars which nares ; and became so formidable,' pafled in this private converiathat it was only by the aid of the tion; for considering it, he says, English, whose forces were called as accidental, and as making no in for the purpose, that, after part of the plan which he bad doing infinite mischief, he was concerted in his own mind for defeated and driven out. Such his conduct with the Rajalı, he did was the man, who now came in not think it of sufficient consethe suite of the governor general, quence to make any written mito revisit the city and country of nutes. Benares.

From his recollection, however, Upon the governor general's of the substance of this conrearrival at Buxar, on the borders rence, it appears that 'the Rajah of Benares, he was met by the exprefled much concern for his Rajah, who brought with him a displeasure, and contrition for great train of the principal people having himself given any occasion of his country: Mr. Hastings re- for it; declaring at the same anarks, with disapprobation, that time, and in the most humilihe had brought wiih him a great ating ternis, that the zemindary fleet of boats ; that he had af- and every thing he possessed were terwards been informed they were at his devotion; that he expressed crowded with chosen armed men, great fears about Oussaun Sing; to the amount of two thousand; and that, upon that occasion, and that this circumstance was a whether it proceeded from an matter of much observation and extraordinary agitation of mind, notice with some of the gentlenien or from a desire to impress a strong of his train. It is not improba- opinion of his fincerity, he acble that this matter was much companied his words with the misrepresented to him. It is now fingular action of laying his tur. evident that no design had been ban in Mr. Hastings's lap.-The formed against his person; nor governor general, in answer, disa can it be drawn of supposed from claimed the idea of his descending the subsequent circumstances, that to become a party in the Rajah's any such number of chosen, or of famıly disagreements; but avowed


his difpleasure to be equal to what- fettle with him. As this insult-
ever he had heard or might have ing and sufficiently alarming mer-
conje&ured of it; and concluded fage produced no manner of ef-
by declaring, that he had been al- fect on the Rajah's motions or con-
ready deceived by his oaths and duct, it may well be concluded
proteftations, and that he should not that he had formed no deligns
suffer his purpose to be changed, or against Mr. Hastings's person; that
bis duty to be over-ruled, by any he had made no armed prepa-
verbal concellions or declarations. rations; and that he was equally
He takes no notice of any demands indisposed to fight and to relist-
being made, or terms offered, upon ance.
this occasion.

On the following evening, Mr. Bat the Rajah states in his, ma- Markham, the resident at Benares, nisefto, that the demands made - was sent by the governor general upon him at this meeting, were with a paper drawn up by himin the highest degree exorbitant. - self, containing the several char. That after discourfing upon the ges which he laid agaivst the Rasubject of the tribute, and pro- jah, and demanding an immediate fessions from him of his attach- answer. These were founded on ment and fidelity to the company, the Rajah's repeated ,evasion and and of his willingness to comply breach of promise with respect to with their demands, the payment the payment of the subsidies, and of no less a sum than a crore of the loss sustained, in one particurupees (amounting to a hundred lar inttance, by Colonel Camac's lacks, or about 1,200,000 pounds corps, through that failare; on sterling), was the demand made his evasion and non-compliance upon him; and that to this was with respect to the body of caadded his surrender of the fortress valry which was demanded of of Bidjeygur, which he calls his him ; bis endeavours to excite dif“ family refidence, the deposit of orders in the Englith government, bis women and of his honour."- by the means of secret emiffaries; That to the first of these demands and, misgovernment in his own be pleaded inability; and with re territories, by his suffering the spea to the second, he alked public perpetration of robberies what he had done, that the com- and murders, in violation of the pany should dishonour him so as to tenure by which he held them.-take away the fort where his family But the great stress of the whole refided.

seemed to be refted upon that infiOn the day of their delity and disaffection to governAug. 14th, arrival at Benares, the ment, which appeared in the two 1781.

governor general sent first instances. a messenger to forbid the Ra.. The Rajah, in his answer, which jah's waiting upon bim in the was returned late at night by Mr. evening as he had intended; de- Markham, entered into a written firing, at the same time, that he justification of the several parts might defer his future vifits until of his conduct. He states, that be ihould obtain permission, as he the payment of the subsidies had had some matters previously to been much more regularly made


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pay it.

than was represented; that he had than the former; and that Mr. sent a letter to the governor ge- Markham and he repeatedly exneral, ftating his diftreffes, and preffed their mutual furprize, that requesting a little longer time for no order with respeo to the desone payment; but that receiving tination of the troops had been no answer, and finding the mat- communicated to either. ter prefled, he had used every He totally denied the charge exertion for its speedy discharge.-- of his having sent agents, emilHe gives a number of dates op. saries, or any of his people whatposed to sums, to fhew that the ever, to Calcutta, excepting the payments for the use of Camac's few whom he particularly names, troops, were, by him, made in and who were sent openly and due time; that the remittance of formally upon public business to it to the army was not left to him, the governor general himself. He and if it had, that no delay should represents these and other charges have happened; so that if the as falsehoods invented by his enemoney was not conveyed in time, mies, merely for the accomplishand any loss or detriment was ment of his ruin; and while he thereby sustained, it could not be complains of, and laments the imputed to him, but to those unhappy effects which they had agents to whom he was ordered to already produced, in that change

of the governor general's favour, With respect to the cavalry, he which he so sorely experienced, he ftates, that the governor general congratulated bimself upon his arhaving desired by letter to know rival in the country, as he would the number he could spare, he thereby have an opportunity upon had, in answer, transmitted to the spot of disproving all thole him an exact account of the whole charges. purnber in his service, which The last charge, being that laid amounted to 1200 in all; with an against his administration of jufaccount of their respective sta- tice, upon the ground of robbe. tions, which were difperled and ries and murders being publicly remote. That he never received committed with impunity in his any answer to this letter; but country, was, in all its parts, no that Mr. Markham having after- less denied. The Rajah, in that dewards given him an order for bav- grading stile, which neceflity, along ing a thousand horse in readiness, with peculiar habits and modes of he accordingly prepared 500 thinking and speaking, have eftacavalry, and 500 burkendosses, blished in the oriental world, con(which we suppose to be some cludes his letter by declaring himfort of militia or irregular troops) self the governor general's fave in for this purpose. That he wrote all cases whatever. an immediate account to the go- This submissive language provernor general of the state and duced an effe&t very different from readiness of these troops, expe&- what might have been expe&ed. ing a consequent order for their Through whatever medium it was disposal ; that no answer was re- seen by the governor general, this turned to this letter, any more justification or defence, extorted



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