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negligence in stating the terms of required no colouring, and which the 5th article of the treaty of he disdained to illuftrate, informs Illahabad ; and indeed it is not his employers by letter upon the impoflible that he had himself been occasion, ihat he leaves it to the originally its contriver, and found young rajah, and to all others means for its passing without ex- who were concerned in or wit. amination. The death of Bul- nesses of the tranfaction, to late want Sing, in the year 1770, af- what his conduct had been in this forded tiis opportunity; the letter business ; only observing, that he of the treaty was in full preserva- had taken the strictest care, not to tion, but its spirit could not then diminish our national hungur, disinso clearly appear. The presidency tereftedarfs, and juftice; which he of Bengal was therefore obliged to considers, as having a greater efinterfere with vigour and spirit in fe&t, in fecuring the vast pofferfupporting the interests of the fa- fions of the company, than even mily, by procuring the investiture the force of their arms, however of Cheit Sing, in the government formidable. - Sentiments, not more of his father, Bulwant's terri. valuable for the bumanity and hotories.

hour which they breathe, than The negociation upon this af- for the wildom of the policy which fair was committed to Colonel they convey. Harper, who acted in it with great This conclufive settlement of honour, and left no room for fu- the zemindary in the family of ture doubt or evasion. The young Bulwant Sing, was then deemed rajah, upon this occasion, was ob- of such confequence to the comliged to make a present of twenty pany's affairs, that the president lacks of rupees to the Nabub vie and council of Bengal congratuzier, and to increase the annual lated the court of dire&tors upon tribute, from twenty one and a it, as an event highly important half, to twenty-four lacks. In the to their interests, and of great treaty, for the instrument then

moment in its future conseperfected between Sujah Ul Dow- quences. jah and the Rajah Cheit Sing was It would seem now that nothing so denominated, the former bound farther remained to be done in this himself specifically, that nothing business; and that so far as commore than what was therein de- pacts and creaties can be binding, clared, thould ever be demanded the zemindary was secured to the of the latter; and he concluded, family and descendants of Bulwant in the Mahommedan stile, by a Sing. Yet whe: her it proceeded solemn appeal to God, the pro- from any subsequent infractions phet, and the Koran, as parties and of the agreement by the Nabob witnefles to the agreement, and, vizier, from apprehensions that between them, and their joint founded on the capriciousness and posterity, there should never be a faithlessness of his dilpolition, variation therein.

wbich it was thought could Colonel Harper in the con.

not be

too carefully guarded íciousnęls of an integrity which against, we find that this business



[4] 3


was again taken up, and a new strument was made eternally bind. settlement made in confirmation ing upon the parties, and upon of the former.

their mutual posterity. This took place in the year Upon the death of the Nabob 1773, when Mr. Hastings, then vizier in the year 1775, and the president of the council of Calcutta, accession of his son and successor thought it necessary to make a Afoff Ul Dowlah, new arrangeprogress to the court of the Nabob ments took place between the vizier, as well, perhaps, to ob- company and that prince, which tain some personal explanations affected the whole government of from him with respect to past and his dominions. Among these the current matters, as to form those sovereignty of Benares, and its de. new connections and arrangements, pendencies, was entirely given with respect to revenue, troops, over and transferred to the com. and the acquisition of territory, pany; the Rajah Cheit Sing then which were soon after displayed in standing exactly in the same degree their effects. Upon this occasion, of relation and vaffalage to that a new treaty or instrument, to the body, in which he had before stood same pur ort as the former, was with the Nabob of Oude. Nothing concluded and ratified, between could exceed the satisfaction which the Nabob vizier, and the Rajah this transfer of sovereignty, and Cheit Sing; but with this farther entire emancipation from a confirmation, and advantage to pricious tyranny, afforded to the the Rajah, that the president, by young Rajah and his family. They himself signing and becoming a were now placed in the hands of party to the present, thereby ren- their old friends, allies and pro. dering the company actual guaran- tectors, and the most flattering tees, at all future times, to the prospects of lafting quiet, security due performance of the conditions. and happiness were in view. Indeed the neceflity of fomething Thele hopes were confirmed, stronger than treaties to bind the if they could be supposed to re, faith, and to restrain the rapacity quire any confirmation by a letter of the Nabob vizier, became upon from Mr. Hastings, who had been that very occasion fully apparent; appointed to the new and high for notwithitanding the vast ad- office of governor general. This vantages, which at the expence letter teemed with sentiments of of his neighbours, as well as of his regard, honour and justice, and natural lord, the Mogul, were authorized the British resident then thrown into his hands, he at the court of Benares to assure was exceedingly diffatisfied with the Rajah that no farther tribute Mr. Hastings, for not perroitting than that already ftipulated, should him to extort ten lacks of rupees be exacted from him, and that from the young rajah, as well as to it should not under any future lirip him of two very strong forts, change of government be enlarg. which conttituted the best defences ed. A recommendation about of his country. Upon this occa- the same time, from the gohon, as on the former, the in. vernor general and council to


[7 the Rajah, that he should raise and The increasing exigencies and support a body of 2,000 horse, or expences of a war, which was rather, perhaps, that he should becoming general throughout Inincrease the cavalry already on his dia, were not likely to produce establishment to that number, 'as any remission of these demands, it was in no degree pressed as an when once the ice was broken, obligation, but seems to have and the precedent established. been merely proposed as a mea- They were annually repeated ; sure of common utility, and a while the unwillingness of comprovifion against any future and pliance, and the backwardness of unforeseen danger, could afford no payment, became every year more cause of apprehenfion, nor indicate appar nt, and afforded farther any changein the Rajah's condition. room for diffatisfaction. During

It is not denied, that the Rajah the many ages in which the Hinof Benares continued to adhere doo princes and landholders have to the engagements on his fide, been doomed to suffer the oppresby the punctual discharge of the fion and exorbitance of foreign ftipulated revenue, nor that his power, a ftri&t concealment of their condu& was in every respect high- wealth, and a confiant plea of ex. ly satisfactory, until new and un

treme poverty, have been the weak expected demands occafioned such means which they generally aalteration in it, as proved at length dopted to elude the extortion and the means of giving unibrage to rapacity of their rulers. The the

government of Calcutta. Rajah of Benares resorted to this Upon intelligence of the war with established practice ; and even fo France, it was determined by early as the payment of the second the governor general and councií, year's subsidy, although he was in the month of July 1778, that known or fupposed to be very the Rajah Cheit Sing ihould be rich, he affected to borrow money required to contribute ex- in small fums, and even to sell his traordinary fubfidy of five lacks plate and jewels, as demonstraof rupees, towards the expences tions of his inability; and was which this new exigency would still follow in his payments, impofe on their government dur- that it was found neceffary to ing the current year. It may be quicken him, by sending two supposed, that' the innovation battalions of repoys to be quarthus proposed, and the danger tered in his dominions, and of the precedent, affected the their pay to be charged to his Rajah much more than the amount account, until he had made good or value of the sum demanded. the whole. However that was, the governor

The hird year's fubfidy was general informs us in his narra- still worse paid, and the same retive, that after many excules, and medy, of fending troops to live protestations of inability, the Ka- upon him, was again adopted. jah at length contented, with a The Rajah then carried the plea of very ill grace, to the payment, inability and poverty so far, that and discharged it with a worfe. [A] 4



when about one lack of rupees rity, and to leffen his faith in the had with great difficulty been ob- Englih, fo likewise, that they did tained froin him, he wrote a letter not serve equally to weaken his himself to the govervor general, attachment, and to loosen his fidefoliciting forbearance with re- lity to the company. It was naspect to the remainder until the tural, that he should look for new following year, when he promised friends and connections; and that to pay it along with the ftipulated he thould endeavour to provide revenue.

some resource against the days of While a subsidy of about sixty trouble and danger. Nothing thousand pounds a year was ex- could be more favourable to the torted with lo much difficulty, it encouragement and confirmation was not well to be supposed, that of such a disposition, than the gea demand made upon the Rajsh to neral state of India. The dilaffurnith 2,000 cavalry for the ser- fection to the English was unfor. vice of the war, would have been tunately general throughout all attended with much effect; at that vast continent; they were in least, without its being enforced every settlement, and on every fide, by fome extraordinary degree of engaged in the moti dangerous exertion. By Mr. Hastings's state wars; and while the successes of of the transaction, which differs Hyder Ally seemed to render their considerably from that given by, very existence in the Carnatic the Rajah, he baffled the demand more than precarious, they no less by delay and evasion ; he said that diminished the reputation and the body of boríc which he bad dread of their arms. already on foot was fully employed The countries immediately borin, and absolutely neceffary to dering on, or surrounding the Rathe collection of his revenues, jah's territories, were in a state of without which he could not fulfil the most marked disaffe&tion to the his fiipulations with the company, company, and such of them as were and that he was utterly unequal under its government, scarcely to the expence of raising a new restrained their violence, until å corps. It is farther said, that the proper opportunity thould offer for deinand was lessened to a thousand; Thaking off its yoke. The comthat he at length promised to pany's administration of the affairs supply 250 ; but that neither man of Oude, in concert with his weak or horse was ever sent. It is to successor, ever fince the death of be observed, that the Rajah's horse Sujah U1 Dowlah, bad spread had done good and acknowledged desolation, tumult and disorder service in a former war. So dif- through those extensive dominions. ferent are the fruits procured by All these things, together with violence, from those which are the the general alliance and confedespon aneous produce of good-will racy which was known to be in and affection.

contemplation for chacing thein • It will scarcely be imagined, entirely out of India, served to that as these unexpe&ed demands render their affairs apparently defferved fucceflively to weaken the perate. Rajah's opinion of his own secu- In these circumíiances it is not


[9 much to be doubted, that some in all its parts went so far beyond of the charges Jaid against the the revenues of the ttare, that the Rajah Cheit Sing, might be well looking out for new fources of founded. That he perhaps en. supply was become a natter of tered into negociations with the great urgency. In such circum. native princes in the adjoining itances, the supposed wealth and countries, tur mutual support, and real weakness of the Rajah, pointed for a&ing on some plan of general him out as the immediate and concert, in the defence of their proper obje&t for fupplying the respective rights; and that he might public neceflities. have corresponded, with the dir. Such was the fruation of the contented Begams of Oude, or Rajah, and the tiate of affairs in caballed with the disaffected Ra. the country of Benares, before and jabs, in the neighbouring Englith about the time that the governor governments.

general set out on his progress The governor general states, from Calcutta, upon the 7th of that various accounts had been July 1781. He had, in that prorepeatedly transmitted to Calcutta, greis, other objects belides Beas well by the Englith residents nares in view.

Order was, if at Benares, as by several of the poflible, to be restored in the docompany's officers, from different minions of the Nabob vizier, and parts of that country, of the fre. money, at all events, to be there quent and itrong marks of dil. procured. A separate peace with affe&ion that were thewn by the Nadajee Scindia was then likeRajab himself; but wbicb were wile in agitation, through the in. displayed in a fill higher degree tervention of Colonel Muir; and by his officers, and by the people the governor general hoped that in general, These charges, in. his approach to the scene of nedeed, so far as they are thewn, gociation, might afford means for are laid in very loose and general bringing it the more speedily to a terms; without any specification conclusion. This was indeed an of fads, dates, names, or circum. object of the first importance. ftances. It is not less remarkable, With respect to Benares, the that they are not included in the governor general states in his nar. written complaints of his conduct, rative of these tranfa&ions, that the which the governor general fent disappointment of aid from the to the Rajah himself upon the Rajah, though in a season of such Spot.

extreme public distress and danger, But however just the charges of was ttill less a matter of confidercontumacy and disaffection laid ation with him, than that those against the Rajah might have been, repeated acts of contumacy and and however neceflary, perhaps, dilobedience of which he had in some degree their correction, been guilty, appeared evidences it is fully evident, that the enor. of a deliberate and systematic con. mous expences of the war had fo dud, aiming at the total subvėr• drained the treasury of Bengal, fion of the company's authority, and the meaps of ftill feeding it and the erecțion of his own inde.



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