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Ywen was ordered to come to its relief; but, on his pire submitted peaceably to the usurper, except Prince Chi
Tartars to his assistance; and Tsong-te their king
himself used to plirase it, “ in sending for lions to After this disaster, Li marched into the provinces drive away dogs." In 1674, be formed a very strong of Shen-si and Honan; where he put to death all the alliance against them, and had probably prevailed if his mandarins, exacted great sums from the oficers in allies had been faithful; but they treacherously desertplace, and showed no favour to any buî the populace, ed him one after another : wlich so affected him, that whom he freed from all taxes : by this means he drew he died soon after. In 1681 Hong-wha, son to U-sanso many to his interest, that he thought himself strong ghey, who continued his efforts against the Tartars, enough to assume the title of emperor. He next ad- was reduced to such straits that he put an end to his vanced towards the capital, which, though well gar
own life. risoned, was divided into factions. Li had taken care During this time, some resistance had been made to to introduce beforehand a number of his men in dis- the Tartars in many of the provinces. Two princes of
guise : and by these the gates were opened to him the Chinese extraction bad at different times been proUnhappy third day after his arrival. He entered the city in claimed emperors ; but both of them were overcome fate of the triumph at the head of 300,000 men, whilst the en- and put to death. In 1682, the whole 15 provinces Empi emperor peror kept himself shut up in his palace, busied only were so effectually subdued, that the emperor Kang-hi, tally and his fa- with his superstitions. It was not long, however, bemily.
successor to Shun-chi, determined to visit bis native ced. fore he found bimself betrayed; and, under the great- dominions of Tartary. He was accompanied by an est consternation, made an effort to escape out of the army of 70,000 men, and continued for some months palace, attended by about 600 of his guards. He was taking the diversion of hunting. For several years he still more surprised to see himself treacherously aban- repeated his visits annually; and in his journeys took doned by them, and deprived of all hopes of escaping Father Verbiest along with him ; by which means we the insults of his subjects. Upon this, preferring death have a better description of these countries than could to the disgrace of falling alive into their hands, he im- bave been otherwise obtained. This prince was a great Chri mediately retired with his empress, whom he tenderly encourager of learning and of the Christian religion ; ty fin loved, and the princess her daughter, into a private and in favour of the latter he published a decree, dated cour part of the garden. His grief was so great that he was
But in 1716, he revived some obsolete laws and not able to utter a word ; but she soon understood his against the Christians ; nor could the Jesuits with all perse meaning, and, after a few silent embraces, hanged ber- their art preserve the footing they had got in China. self on a tree in a silken string. Her busband staid The causes of this alteration in bis resolution are, by only to write these words on the border of his vest : the missionaries, said to have been the slanders of the “ I have been basely deserted by my subjects ; do mandarins ; but, from the known character of the Jewhat you will with me, but spare ny people.” He suits, it will be readily believed, that there was somethen cut off the young princess's head with one stroke thing more at bottom. This emperor died in 1922, and of his scymitar, and banged himself on another tree, was succeeded by his son Yon-ching; who not only in the 17th year of his reign, and 36th of his age. gave no encouragement to the missionaries, but perseHis prime minister, queens, and eunuchs, followed his cuted all Christians of whatever denomination, not exexample ; and thus ended the Chinese monarchy, to cepting even those of that imperial race. At the begive place to that of the Tartars, which bath continued ginning of bis reign he banished all the Jesuits into the ever since.
city of Canton, and in 1732 they were banished from It was some time before the body of the unfortu. thence into Ma-kau, a little island inhabited by the nate monarch was found. At last it was brought be. Portuguese, but subject to China. He died in 1736: fore the rebel Li, and by him used with the utmost but though the Jesuits entertained great hopes from bis indignity; after which he caused two of Whay-tsong's successor, we have not heard that they have yet met sons, and all his ministers, to be beheaded ; but his with any success. eldest son happily escaped by flight. The whole em- Thus we have given an account of the most memo.
China. rable transactions recorded in the Chinese history. We of rain. It rises in the mountains which border the Clina.
now proceed to describe the present state of the em- province of Te-tchuen on the west, and after a course
pire and its inhabitants, according to the best and latest of near 600 leagues, discharges itself into the eastern 53 accounts.
sea, not far from the mouth of the Kiang. It is very Climate, The climate as well as the soil of this extensive em- broad and rapid, but so shallow that it is scarcely navisoil, and
pire is very different in different parts ; severe cold gable. It is very liable to inundations, often overflowproduce.
being often felt in the northern provinces, while the in- ing its banks, and destroying whole villages. For this
not entirely answer the purpose. The people of Ho-
ral miles in circumference, and its nose extends some two inclined planes, which unite as an acute angle at 54 leagues.
upper extremity, and extend on each side to the Lakes and China has several large lakes; the principal one is surface of the water. If the bark is in the lower ca. rivers.
that named Poyang-hou, in the province of Kiang-si. nal, they push it up the plane of the first glacis by
56 at Nanking, which is near 100 miles from its mouth. The following remarkable phenomenon in a Chinese RemarkThe navigation is dangerous, so that great numbers river is related by Father le Couteux, a French mis- able river of vessels are lost on it. It runs with a rapid cur- sionary. sionary. “ Some leagues above the village Che-pai, which part
sinks rent, forming several islands in its course, which are (says he), the river becomes considerably smaller, al- der grounds again carried off, and new ones formed in different though none of its waters flow into any other channel ; places, when the river is swelled by the torrents from and eight or nine leagues below, it resumes its former the mountains. These islands, while they remain, breadth, without receiving any additional supply, ex. are very useful ; producing great quantities of reedscepting what it gets from a few small rivulets, which ten or twelve feet high, which are used in all the are almost dry during the greater part of the year. neighbouring countries for fuel. The Hoang-ho, or
The Hoang-ho, or Opposite to Che-pai it is so much diminished, that, Yellow-river, has its name from the yellow colour gi- excepting one channel, which is not very broad, I have ven it by the clay and sand washed down in the time passed and repassed it several times by the help of a com.
China--mon pole. I was always surprised to find this river so tween the harvests the people sow several kinds of China,
narrow and shallow in that place: but I never thought pulse and small grain. The plains of the northern of inquiring into the cause of it, until the loss of a bark provinces yield wheat; those of the southern, rice, belonging to a Christian family afforded me an op- because the country is low and covered with water, portunity. In that place where the river diminishes Notwithstanding all this fertility, however, the inha. almost of a sudden, it flows with great impetuosity ; bitants are much more frequently afflicted with famine and where it resumes its former breadth it is equally than those of the European nations, though the counrapid. At the sixth moon, when the water was bigh tries of Europe produce much less than China. For and the wind strong, the bark I have mentioned ar. this two causes are assigned. 1. The destruction of riving above Che-pai, was driven on a sand-bank; for the rising crops by drought, hail, inundations, lo. between these two places the river is full of moveable custs, &c. in which case China cannot like the Eusands, which are continually shifting their situation. ropean countries be supplied by importation. This is The master of the boat dropped bis anchor until the evident by considering how it is situated with regard wind should abate, and permit him to continue his to other nations. On the north are the Mogul Tarvoyage ; but a violent vortex of moveable sand, which tars, a lazy and indolent race, who subsist principally was cast up from the bottom of the river, laid the on the flesh of their flocks; sowing only a little mil. bark on its side ; a second vortex succeeded ; then a let for their own use. The province of Leatong, third ; and afterwards a fourth, which shattered the which lies to the north-east, is indeed extremely ferbark to pieces. When I arrived at the place where this tile, but too far distant from the capital and centre bark bad been lost, the weather was mild and serene; I of the empire to supply it with provisions ; and beperceived eddies in the current everywhere around, sides, all carriage is impracticable but in the winter, which absorbed, and carried to the bottom of the ri. when great quantities of game and tish, preserved in ver, whatever floated on the surface; and I observed, ice, are sent thither. No corn is brought from Corea at the same time, that the sand was thrown violently to China ; and though the Japan islands are only up with a vortical motion. Above these eddies the three or four days sailing from the Chinese provinces water was rapid, but without any fall; and in the of Kiang-nan and Che-kyang, yet no attempt was place below, where the river resumes its usual course, ever made to obtain provisions from thence ; whether no eddies are to be seen, but the sand is thrown up in it be that the Japanese have nothing to spare, or on the same violent manner; and in some places there account of the insults offered by those islanders to are water-falls and a kind of small islands scattered foreign merchants. Formosa lies opposite to the proat some distance from one anotber. These islands vince of Fo-kien ; but so far is that island from being which appear above the surface of the water, are not able to supply any thing, that in a time of scareity it solid earth, but consist of branches of trees, roots, and requires a supply from China itself. The province of herbs collected together. I was told that these boughs Canton is also bounded by the sea, and has nothing rose up from the water, and that no one knew the on the south but islands and remote countries.
One place from whence they came. I was informed that
year, when rice was exceedingly scarce there, the emthese masses, which were 40 or 50 feet in extent on peror sent for F. Parranin, a Jesuit missionary, and that side on which we passed, were immoveable and asked him if the city of Macao could not furnish fixed in the bottom of the river ; that it was dangerous Canton with rice until the supply be bad ordered to approach them, because the water formed whirl- from other provinces should arrive : but was informed pools everywhere around them; that, however, when
that Macao had neither rice, corn, fruit, herbs, nor the river was very low, the fishermen sometimes ven- flocks, and that it generally got from China what tured to collect the bushes that floated on its sur- was necessary for its subsistence. The only method, face, and which they used for fuel. I am of opinion, therefore, the Chinese can take to guard against fathat, at the place of the river which is above Che-pai, mines arising from these causes, is to erect granaries the water falls into deep pits, from whence it forces and public magazines in every province and most of up the sand with that vortical motion ; and that it the principal cities of the empire. This bas at all Bows under-ground to the other place, eight or nine times been a principal object of care to the public leagues below, where it carries with it all the boughs, ministers ; but though this mode of relief still takes weeds, and roots, which it washes down in ils course, place in theory, so many ceremonies are to be gone and thus forms those islands which appear above its through before any supply can be drawn from those surface. We know there are some rivers that lose public repositories, that it seldom arrives seasonably at themselves entirely, or in part, in the bowels of the the places where it is wanted : and thus numbers earth, and which afterwards arise in some other place; of unbappy wretches perish for want. 2. Another but I believe there never was one koown to lose part 'cause of the scarcity of grain in this empire, is the
of its water below its own channel, and again to re- prodigious consumption of it in the composition of wines, 57 cover it at the distance of some leagues.”
and a spirituous liquor called rack. But though goWhy China
It has already been said, that China is, in general, vernment is well apprised that this is one of the priois subject a fertile country; and indeed all travellers agree in this cipal sources of famine throughout the empire, it neto famines, not with
respect, and make encomiums on the extent and beauty ver employed means sufficient to prevent it. Proclastanding its of its plains. So careful are the husbandmen of this mations indeed bave frequently been issued, prohibitfertility. empire to lose none of their ground, that neither in- ing the distillation of rack ; and the appointed offi
closure, hedge, nor ditch, nay, scarce a single tree, cers will visit the still-houses and destroy the furnaces. are ever to be met with. In several places the land if nothing is given them; but on slipping some money yields two crops a-year; and even in the interval bem into their hands, they shut their eyes, and go somea
China. where else to receive another bribe. When the man- the capacity of secretary to the British plenipotentiary, China..
darin himself goes about, however, these distillers do as appears from the following estimate of the popula.
Population are likewise obliged to change their habitations and
of the dif. conceal themselves for a short time, after which they
vinces, generally resume their operations. It is impossible,
38,000,000 however, that any method of this kind can prove ef
Kiang-nan, two provinces, 32,000,000 fectual in suppressing these manufactories, while the
19,000,000 liquors themselves are allowed to be sold publicly; and
21,000,000 against this there is no law throughout the empire.
15,000,000 Our author, however, justly observes, that in case of a
$ 14,000,000 probibition of this kind, the grandees would be obli
13,000,000 ged to deny themselves the use of these luxuries, wbich
25,000,000 would be too great a sacrifice for the good of the em
24,000,000 58 pire.
27,000,000 Immense The population of China, is so great, in compari
18,000,000 population, son with that of the European countries, that the ac
12,000,000 counts of it bave generally been treated as fabulous by
27,000,000 the western nations. From an accurate investigation
21,000,000 of some Chinese records concerning the number of
10,000,000 persons liable to taxation throughout the empire, M.
8,000,000 Grosier concluded that it cannot be less than 200
or the enheriting of daughters, 7. The retirement of wives, unlimited in his authority than any other potentate on which renders them more complaisant to their hus. earth; no sentence of death, pronounced by any of peror. bands, saves them from a number of accidents when the tribunals, can be executed without bis consent, big with child, and constrains them to employ them- and every verdict in civil affairs is subject to be revised selves in the care of their children. 8. The mar
by him ; nor can any determination be of force until riage of soldiers. 9. The fixed state of taxes; which it has been confirmed by the emperor: and, on the being always laid upon lands, never fall but indirectly contrary, whatever sentence he passes is executed withon the trader and mechanic. 10. The small number out delay; his edicts are respected throughout the emof sailors and travellers. 11. To these may be added pire as if they came from a divinity; he alone has the
number of people who reside in China only disposal of all offices, nor is there any such thing as by intervals; the profound peace which the empire the purchase of places in China ; merit, real or supenjoys; the frugal and laborious manner in which the posed, raises to an office, and rank is attached to it on-. great live; the little attention that is paid to the vain ly. Even the succession to the throne is not altogeand ridiculous prejudice of marrying below one's rank} ther bereditary. The emperor of China bas a power the ancient policy of giving distinction to men and not of choosing his own successor, without consulting any to families, by attaching nobility only to employ of his nobility; and can select one not only from ments and talents, without suffering it to become be- among his own children, but even from the body of reditary. And, 12. lastly, A decency of public man- his people ; and there have been several instances of ners, and a total ignorance of scandalous intrigues and bis making use of this right: and he has even a power gallantry.
of altering the succession after it bas once been fixed, Extravagant, however, and almost incredible as this in case the person pitched upon does not behave toaccount of the population of China may appear to some, wards him with proper respect. The emperor can also we have very respectable authority for believing that prevent the princes of the blood from exercising the it is much below the truth. Whether the causes of title, with which, according to the constitution of the this phenomenon, as above enumerated by M. Grosier, empire, they are invested. They may, indeed, notbe the only ones assignable, it is certain tbat the popu- withstanding this, possess their bereditary dignity; in
lation of this country was estimated at 333,000,000 wlich case they are allowed a revenue proportioned * In 1793. at the time when Sir George Staunton* visited it in to their high birth, as well as a palace, officers, and
China. a court; but they have neither influence nor power, The accomplishments necessary for a mandarin of arms
and their authority is lower than that of the meanest are, strength of body, with agility and readiness in per-
forming the various military exercises, and compreMandarins The mandarins are of two classes, viz. those of let- hending the orders requisite for the profession of arms ; of different ters, and the inferior sort styled mandarins of arms. an examination on these subjects must be undergone classes.
The latter by no means enjoy the same consideration before the candidate can attain the wished-for dig.
any measure, their resolution must still be submitThere are eight orders of these mandarins in China. ted to the revisal of a bigher court wamed ping-pou, 1. The calao, from whom are chosen the ministers of which is entirely of a civil nature. The chief of these state, the presidents of the supreme courts, and all the mandarins is a general of course, whose powers are superior officers among the militia. The chief of this equivalent to those of our commanders in chief; and order presides also in the emperor's council, and en- below him are other mandarins who act as subordinate joys a great share of his confidence. 2. The te-hiose, oflicer3. or man of acknowledged ability, is a title bestowed These two classes of mandarins compose what is callupon every mandarin of the second rank; and from ed the nobility of China : but as we have already hintthese are selected the viceroys and presidents of the ed, their office is not hereditary; the emperor alone supreme council in the different provinces. 3. The continues or confers it. They have the privilege of retchong-tchueo, or school of mandarins, act as secretaries monstrating to the emperor, either as individuals or in to the emperor. 4. Y-tchuen-tao. These keep in re- a body, upon any part of his conduct which appears pair the harbours, royal lodging houses, and barks contrary to the interest of the empire. These remonwhich belong to the emperor, unless particularly en
strances are seldom ill received, though the sovereign gaged in some other office by his order. 5. The ting- complies with them only when he himself thinks proper. pi-tao have the inspection of the troops. 6. The tun- The number of literary mandarins in China is computtien-hao have the care of the bighways. 7. The ho- ed at upwards of 14,000; and those of arms at 18,000 ; tao superintend the rivers. 8. The hai-tao inspect the the former, however, are considered as the principal sea-coasts.
body in the empire ; and this preference is thought to Thus the whole administration of the Chinese empire damp the military ardour of the nation in general, is intrusted to the mandarins of letters; and the bo- and to be one cause of that weakness in war for which mage paid by the common people to every mandarin in the Chinese are remarkable. office almost equals that paid to the emperor himself.
The armies of this empire are proportioned to its Militar This indeed flows from the nature of their government. vast extent and population ; being computed in time force. In China it is a received opinion that the emperor is of peace at more than 700,000. Their pay amounts the father of the whole empire ; that the governor of a to about two-pence halfpenny and a measure of rice province is the father of that province'; and that the per day, though some of them have double pay, and mandarin who is governor of a city is also the father of the pay of a horseman is double that of a foot soldier ; that city. This idea is productive of the highest re- the emperor furnishes a horse, and the horseman respect and submission, which is not at all lessened by ceives two measures of small beans for his daily subtheir great number; for though the mandarins of letters sistence; the arrears of the army being punctually paid amount to more than 14,000, the same respect is paid up every three months. to every one of them.
The arms of a horseman are, a helmet, cuirass, lance, The mandarins of arms are never indulged with any and sabre; those of a foot soldier are a pike and sabre; share in the government of the state ; however, to at. some have fusees, and others bows and arrows. All
tain the dignity, it is also necessary to pass through these are carefully inspected at every review, and if the degrees of bachelor, licentiate, and doctor of arms. any of them are found in the least rusted, or otherwise