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بی ایا درس
HIST ANTIQ WALFARD 10-3-18 7111776-109
с н I China. HINA, a country of Asia, situated on the most buried alive, lest, from their memories, they should China.
easterly part of that continent. It is bounded commit to writing something of the true memoirs of
on the north by Tartary; from which it is divided, the empire. The inaccuracy of the Chinese annals is
and partly by bigh, craggy, and inaccessible mountains. fucius bimself; who also aflirms, that before bis time
of Tartary. China proper contains 15 provinces, exclu- the middle heaven, &c. According to some of their Division
sive of tbat of Lyau-tong, which is situated without the historians, he was the inventor of letters, and of the
great wall, though under the same dominion. Their cyclic characters by which they determine the place of
year, &c. Tiene-hoang was succeeded by Ti-boang
The reigns of these four emperors make up one of Chinese The origin of all nations is involved in obscurity what the Chinese called ki, “ ages,” or “ periods,” of pretensions and fable, but that of-the Chinese much more so than which there were nine before Fo-hi, whom their most to antiqui- any other. Every nation is inclined to assume too sensible people acknowledge as the founder of their
bigh an antiquity to itself; but the Chinese carry theirs empire.
their history is deservedly contemned by every rational age, the people dwelt in caves, or perched upon trees Why their person.
What contributes more to the uncertainty of as it were in nests. Of the third ki we hear nothing; history is the Chinese history is, that neither we, nor they them- and in the fourth, it seems matters had been still worse, so uncer. selves, have any thing but fragments of their ancient as we are told that men were then only tanght to retain. historical books ; for, about 213 years before Christ, tire into the hollows of rocks. Of the filth and sixtha
the reigning emperor Si-whang-ti caused all the books we have no accounts. These six periods, according to
taught to prepare clothes, &c. Tchine-fang, the first horse (an animal shaped like a horse, with the wings
they will have to be the same with Noah ''hey ima- and Fc
all nations, have never sought to conquer other counFabulous
These extravagant accounts are by some thought tries, but rather to improve and content themselves history ex. to contain obscure and imperfect bints concerning the with their own, their history for many ages
cosmogony and creation of the world, &c. Puon-kn, nothing remarkable. The whole of their emperors,
Emperors. Before Christ.
2207 preceding Noah. This may very possibly be the case ; 2. Shang, or Ing,
1766 for about 500 years before Christ, some Jews travelled 3. Chew,
35 into China, who might have made the Mosaic writings
248 known there.
206 What we have now related, contains the substance
After Christ. of that part of the Chinese history which is entirely 6. Hew-han,
220 fabulous. After the nine ki or “ages” already taken
465 notice of, the tenth commenced with Fo-bi; and the
220 history, though still very dark, obscure and fabulous,
479 begins to grow somewhat more consistent and intel- 10. Lyang,
502 7 ligible. Fo-hi was born in the province of Shensi. 11. Chin,
His mother walking upon the bank of a lake in that 12. Swi,
618 ihe sand there ; and, being surrounded with an iris or 14. Hew-lyang,
907 rainbow, became impregnated. The child was named 15. Hew-lang,
951 invented the eight qua, or symbols, consisting of three
960 lines each, which, differently combined, formed 64 cha- 20. Iwen,
1280 racters that were made use of to express every thing. 21. Ming,
1368 To give these the greater credit, he pretended that 22. Tsing,
This table is formed according to the accounts of of emperor; founded the 16th dynasty; and changed China.
before 300,000 pieces of silk.
treaty when least expected, and invaded the empire Incursions
The most interesting particulars of the Chinese bi- afresh. Tsi-vang, the emperor at that time, opposed of the Tar- story relate only to the incursions of the Tartars, who them with a formidable army; but through the treach. tars. at last conqnered the whole empire, and who still con- ery of his general Lyew-chi-ywen, the Tartars were tinue to hold the sovereignty ; though by transferring allowed to take him prisoner.
allowed to take him prisoner. On this, Tsi-vang was the seat of the empire to Peking, and adopting the glad to recover his liberty, by accepting of a small Chinese language, manners, &c. Tartary would seem principality ; while the traitor became emperor of all rather to have been conquered by China, than China China, and, changing his name to Kaut-su, founded by 'Tartary. These incursions are said to have begun the 17th dynasty. The Tartars, in the mean time, very early; even in the time of the emperor Shun, ravaged all the northern provinces without opposition, successor to Yau above mentioned, in whose reign the and then marched into the southern. But being here miraculous solstice happened. At this time, the Tar- stopped by some bodies of Chinese troops, the gene. tars were repulsed, and obliged to retire into their own ral thought proper to retire with his booty into Tarterritories. From time to time, however, they conti- tary. In 962, Kaut-su-dying, was succeeded by his nued to threaten the empire with invasions, and the son In-ti. The youth of this prince gave an opportunorthern provinces were often actually ravaged by the nity to the eunuchs to raise commotions ; especially Tartars in the neighbourhood. About the year before as the army was employed at a distance in repelling Christ 213, Shi-whang-ti
, having fully subdued all the the invasions of the Tartars. This army was princes, or kings as they were called, of the different manded by Ko-ghey, who defeated the enemy in seveprovinces, became emperor of China with unlimited ral battles, and thus restored peace to the northern power. He divided the whole empire into 36 pro provinces. In the mean time, In-ti was slain by his vinces; and finding the northern part of his domi- eunuchs, and the empress placed his brother on the nions much incommoded by the invasions of the neigh- throne : but Ko-ghey returning in triumph, was sabouring barbarians, be sent a formidable army against luted emperor by bis victorious army; and the em
them, wbich drove them far beyond the boundaries of press being unable to support the rights of her son, Great wall China. To prevent their return, lie built the famous was obliged to submit, while Ko-ghey, assuming the
wall already mentioned, which separates China from name of Tay-tsu, founded the 18th dynasty. Nine
Under this monarch the empire began to recover
What effect the great wall for some time had in itself; but the Kitan still continued their incursions. tars settle preventing the invasions of the Tartars, we are not The successors of Kau-tsu opposed them with various in China. told; but in the tenth century of the Christian era, success; but at last, in 978, the barbarians became so
those of Kitan or Lyau got a footing in China. The strong as to lay siege to a considerable city. Tay-
China. Jin-tsong, successor to Ching-tsong, revived the cou. Along that she had been divorced, they left hier behind. Chin:
rage of the Kitan; and, in 1035, war would have This proved the means of saving the empire ; for by
but without effect. Ili-tsong the Kin monarch, in the Kitan dri. From this time the Kitan remained in peaceable pos- mean time, endeavoured to gain the esteem of his van out by session of their Chinese dominions till the year 1117. Chinese subjects by paying a regard to their learning the eastern Tartars;
Whey-tsong, at that time emperor, being able nei- and learned men, and honouring the memory of Conther to bear their ravages, nor by himself to put a fucius. Some time after he advanced to Nanking, stop to them, resolved upon a remedy which at last from whence Kau-tsong bad retired, and took it: but, proved worse than the disease. This was to call in receiving advice that Yo-si, general of the Song, or the Nu-che, Nyu-che, or Eastern Tartars, to destroy southern Chinese, was advancing by long marches to the kingdom of the Kitan. From this he was dissua- the relief of that city, they set fire to the palace, and
17 ded by the king of Korea, and most of his own niini- retired northward.
Yo-si arrived time Progres sters; but, disregarding their salutary advice, be join- enough to fall upon their rear-guard, which suffered the Kin ed his forces to those of the No-che. The Kitan were very much ; and from this time the Kin never dared checked thien everywhere defeated; and at last reduced to to cross the river Kyang. In a few years afterwards such extremity, that those who remained were forced the Chinese emperor submitted to become tributary to
to leave their country, and fly to the mountains of the the Kin, and concluded a peace with them upon very 14 west.
dishonourable terms. This submission, however, was Thus the empire of the Kitan was totally destroyed, of little avail : for, in 1163, the Tartars broke the sume the
but nothing to the advantage of the Chinese ; for the peace, and, invading the southern province with a forname of Kin, and
Tartar general, elated with his conquest, gave the midable army, took the city of Yang-chew. The in vade name of Kin to his new dominion, assumed the title of king, having approached the river Kyang, near its China.
emperor, and began to think of aggrandizing him- mouth, where it is widest as well as most rapid, com-
tsong was weak enough to go in person to hold a se- whole army, he was seized with fear, and made pro13 cond conference; but, on bis arrival
, was immediate- posals of peace, which were rejected. In 1212, the They take ly seized by the Tartar. He was kept prisoner un- Mogul generals forced the great wall; or, according forced 1 the empe- der a strong guard during the remaining part of his to some writers, had one of the gates treacherously Jeng bi: cor prison- life ; and ended his days in 1126, in the desert of opened to them, to the north of Shansi ; and made in-kban.
Shamo, having nominated his eldest son Kin-tsong to cursions as far as Peking, the capital of the Kin ensucceed him.
pire. At the same time the province of Lyau-tong Kin-tsong began his reign with putting to death six was almost totally reduced by several Kitan lords who ministers of state, who had betrayed his father into bad joined Jenghiz-khan ; several strong places were the bands of the Kin Tartars. The barbarians in taken, and an army of 300,000 Kin defeated by the the meantime pursued their conquests without oppo. Moguls. In autumn they laid siege to the city of sition. They crossed the Whang-ho, or Yellow river, Tay-tong-fu ; where, although the governor Hujaku wliich a handful of troops might have prevented; and fled, yet Jenghiz-khan niet with considerable resist
marching directly towards the imperial city, took and Having lost a vast number of men, and being Imperial plundered it. Then seizing the emperor and his con- himself wounded by an arrow, be was obliged to raise city and sort, they carried them away captives: but many of the siege and retire into Tartary; after which the Kin another
the priucipal lords, and several of the ministers, prefer- retook several cities. The next year, liowever, Jenemperor
ring death to such an ignominious bondage, killed them- ghiz-kban re-entered China; retook the cities which taken. selves. The Kin. being informied by the empres3 ihe Kin bad reduced the year before ; and overthrew