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China, their armies in two bloody battles, in one of which make them repent of it, and was soon as good as his China.
the ground was strewed with dead bodies for upwards word. He decamped in August 1231 ; and baving
forced the passes, put to the sword the inhabitants of
Toley. Hujaku; and Sun, a prince of the blood, advanced in of Hang-chong-fu. Then having cut down rocks to his room.
After this the Moguls, attacking the em- fill up deep abysses, and made roads through places pire with four armies at once, laid waste the provinces almost inaccessible, he came and besieged the city of of Shansi, Honan, Pecheli, and Shan-tong. In 1214 Hang-chong-fu itself. The miserable inhabitants fled Jenghiz-khan sat down before Peking ; but instead of to the mountains on his approach, and more than assaulting the city, offered terms of peace, which were 100,oo of them perished. After this, Toley divided accepted, and the Moguls retired into Tartary. Af his forces, consisting of 30,000 borse, into two bodies. ter their departure, the emperor, leaving his son at One of these went westward to Mlyen-chew : from
Peking, removed his court to Pyen-lyang near Kay. thence, after opening the passages of the mountains,
the Song refused to pay the usual tribute to the Kin. or fortresses, they returned to the army. The second Southern In 1216, Jengliz-khan returned to pursue his con- detachment seized an important post in the mountains, Chinese de
quests in the west of Asia, where he staid seven years; called Toutong, six or seven leagues to the eastward
greatly assisted by the motions of Ning tsong emperor which being taken after a vigorous defence, he pre-
suing him, saying that the Mogul army did not exceed
30,000 men, and that they seened not to have eaten khan de
by his son Shew, who made peace with the king of any thing for two or three days. Ilapua, however,
Jenghiz-khan, marched into Honan, and besieged Kay- rivers Han and Whang-ho, so that they could not
ster of their heavy baggage ; which accident obliged and dies. Jenghiz-khan died, after having desired his sons to de- them to retire to Tang-chew. From thence they sent
mand a passage for their army through the dominions a messenger to acquaint the emperor that they had
gage. This good news filled the court with joy; and
tu This proposal the city. At that time the place was near 30 miles siebed. Toley communicated to his brotlier Oktay, who ap- .in circumference; but having only 40,000 soldiers to proved of it as being conformable to the dying advice defend it, as many more from the neighbouring cities,
of Jenghiz-khan. Herenpon Toley, having assembled and 20,000 peasants, were ordered into it; while the Moguls
all bis forces, sent a messenger to the Song generals to emperor published an affecting declaration, animating quarrel
demand a passage through their territories. This, how the people to defend it to the last extremity. Oktay, with the ever, they not only refused, but put the messenger to having heard with joy of Toley's entrance into lluSong. death; which so enraged 'Toley that he swore to nan, ordered him to send succours to Suputay. On
China. the other hand, the Kin generals advanced with empire of the Kin. Gan-yong, a young Mogul lord, Ch
150,000 men to relieve the city; but being obliged having assumed the government of some cities in
distance of the Moguls made bim think of living at Juning Bravery of Oktay, at last, notwithstanding his successes, resol. ease ; but wbile he flattered himself with these vain the te ved to return to Tartary; and offered the Kin empe. hopes, the enemy's army arrived before the city and sieged.
ror peace, provided he became tributary, and delic invested it. The garrison were terrified at their apvered up to him 27 families which he named. These proach; but were encouraged by the emperor, and his offers were very agreeable to the emperor; but Supu. brave general Hu-sye-hu, to hold out to the last. As tay, taking no notice of the treaty, pushed on the there was not in the city a sufficient number of men, siege of the capital with more vigour than ever. By the women, dressed in men's clothes, were employed the help of the Chinese slaves in bis army, the Mogul to carry wood, stones, and other necessary materials to general soon filled the ditch ; but all his efforts seem- the walls. All their efforts, however, were ineffeced only to inspire the besieged with new vigour. The tual. They were reduced to such extremities, that Moguis at that time made use of artillery, but were for three months they fed on human flesh; killing the unable to make the least impression upon the city walls. old and feeble, as well as many prisoners, for food. They raised walls round those they besieged, which This being known to the Moguls, they made a genethey fortified with ditches, towers, and battlements. ral assault in January 1234. The attack continued They proceeded also to sap the walls of the city; but from morning till night; but at last the assailants were were very much annoyed by the artillery of the besie- repulsed. In this action, however, the Kin lost all ged, especially by their bombs, which sinking into the their best officers ; upon which the emperor resigned galleries, and bursting under ground, made great ha- the crown to Cheng-lin a prince of the blood. Next vock among the miners. For 16 days and nights the morning, while the ceremony of investing the new emattacks continued without intermission ; during which peror was performing, the enemy mounted the south time an incredible number of men perished on both walls, which were defended only by 200 men; and
sides ; at length, Suputay, finding that he could not the south gate being at the same time abandoned, the Peace con- take the city, withdrew his troops, under pretence of whole army broke in. They were opposed, however, cluded;
conferences being on foot. Soon after the plague be. by Hu-sye-hu; who, with 1000 soldiers, continued to gan
in Kay-fong.fu; and raged with such violence, fight with amazing intrepidity. In the mean time Unhapr that, in 50 days, 900,000 biers were carried out, be- Shew-fo, seeing every thing irreparably lost, lodged fate of sides a vast multitude of the poorer sort, who could not the seal of the empire in a house ; and then causing emperor
sheaves of straw to be set round it, ordered it to be set and bro- In a short time two unlucky accidents occasioned on fire as soon as he was dead. After giving this orken. a renewal of the war; which now put an end to the der he banged himself, and bis commands were exe2
Here the Siege o
China cuted by his domestics. Hu-sye-lu, who still con- able to make any considerable progress; but his death, China.
tinued fighting with great bravery, no sooner heard in 1246, proved of the greatest detriment to the Chi34
of the tragical death of the emperor, than he drown- nese affairs : and soon after, the Tartars renewed the
Cheng-lin, was slain in a tumult; and thas an end still met with vigorous opposition in this quarter, be-
ed with good troops and generals. Though they were
. The empire of China was now to be shared between always beaten, being greatly inferior in number to the Song, or southern Chinese, and the Moguls. It their enemies, yet they generally retook the cities the bad been agreed upon, that the province of Honan Moguls had reduced, as the latter were commonly should be delivered up to the Song as soon as the war obliged to withdraw for want of provisions and fowas finished. But they, without waiting for the ex- rage. In 1259 they undertook the siege of Ho-chew, Siege of
. piration of the term, or giving Oktay notice of their a strong city to the west of Peking, defended by Vang-Ho-chew.
proceedings, introduced their troops into Kay-fong-fu, kyen, a very able officer, who commanded a numerous 35 War be.
Lo-yang, and other considerable cities. On this the garrison. The siege continued from the month of Fetween the Mogul general resolved to attack them; and repassing bruary till August; during which time the Moguls Song and the Whang-ho, eut in pieces part of the garrison of lost an immense number of men. On the roth of Au. the Mo.
Lo-yang, while they were out in search of provisions. gust they made a general assault in the night. They guls.
The garrison of Kay-fong-fu likewise abandoned that mounted the walls before the governor bad intelli-
raise the siege, and retired towards Shen-si.
Hang-chong-fu in the province of Shensi, which he raised a formidable army, marched to the relief of Vu-
from the passages they defended. The latter consisted sides very vain and vindictive in his temper; often
concluded, by which Kya-tse-tau engaged to pay an
nesc mini. high. At the same time a vigorous sally was made; the Moguls; and the 170 soldiers massacred by his and the Mogul army being thrown into the utmost order, gave occasion to a report that the enemy
had disorder, were obliged finally to abandon the siege, been defeated ; so that the Song court believed that and retire northwards.
they had been compelled to retreat by the superior In 1239, these barbarians were opposed by a gene- valour and wisdom of Kya-tse-tau. This proved the ral called Meng-kong, with great success; who, this ruin of the empire ; for, in 1 260, the Mogol emperor and the following year, gained great honour by his sent Hauking to the Chinese court to execute the treaexploits. While he lived, the Moguls were never ty according to the terms agreed on with Kya-tse-tau.
of a Chi.
China. The minister, dreading the arrival of this envoy, im- press was constrained to put herself, with her son, then Ch
prisoned him near Nanking; and took all possible care an infant, into the hands of Pe-yen, who immediately
The submission of the empress did not yet put an It was impossible such unparalleled conduct could end to the war. Many of the chief officers swore to Sail to produce a new war. Hupilay's courtiers in- do their utmost to rescue her from the hands of her cessantly pressed him to revenge himself on the Song enemies. In consequence of this resolution they disfor their treacherous behaviour; and he soon publish- tributed their money among the soldiers, and soon ed a manifesto against them, which was followed by got together an army of 40,000 men.
This army ata renewal of hostilities in 1268. The Mogul army tacked the city where the young emperor Kongamounted to 300,000 men ; but notwithstanding their tsong was lodged, but without success ; after which, numbers, little progress was made till the year 1271. and several other vain attempts, they raised one of Syan-yang and Fan-ching, cities in the province of his brothers to the throne, who then took upon him Se-chew, had been besieged for a long time ineffec- the name of Twon-tsong. He was but nine
of tually; but this year an Igur lord advised Hupilay to age when he was raised to the imperial dignity, and send for several of those engineers out of the west, who enjoyed it but a very short time. In 1277 he was in knew how to cast stones of 150 pounds weight out of great danger of perishing, by reason of the ship on their engines, which made holes of seven or eight feet board which he then was being cast away. The poor wide in the strongest walls. Two of these engineers prince fell into the water, and was taken up half dead were accordingly sent for ; and after giving a speci- with the fright. A great part of his troops perished men of their art before Hupilay, were sent to the ar- at that time, and he soon after made offers of submismy in 1 272. In the beginning of 1273 they planted sion to Hupilay. These, however, were not accepttheir engines against the city of Fan-ching, and pre- ed; for, in 1278, the unhappy Twon-tsong was oblisently made a breach in the walls, After a bloody ged to retire into a little desert island on the coast of
conflict the suburbs were taken; and soon after the Quang-tong, where he died in the nith year of his 40 Desperate
Moguls made themselves masters of the walls and gates age. conflict.
of the city. Nevertheless, a Chinese oflicer, with on- Notwithstanding the progress of the Moguls, vast Disse
ple are thought to bave perished on that day. Thus
he would not allow to hurt any body, soon gained the the people to his government, and even of endearing hearts of the Chinese so much, that several cities sur- bimself to them so much, that the reign of bis family rendered to bim on the first summons.
In the niean
is to this day stiled by the Chinese the wise govern. time tlie treacherous Kya-tse.tau, who was sent to op
ment. This be accomplished by keeping as close as pose Pe-yen, was not ashamed to propose peace on the possible to their ancient laws and customs, by his mild terms he bad formerly concluded with Hopilay ; bot and just government, and by his regard for their these being rejected, he was obliged at length to come
He was indeed ashamed of the igno. to an engagement. In this he was defeated, and le- rance and barbarity of his Mogol subjects, when comyen continued his conquests with great rapidity. Ha- pared with the Chinese. The whole knowledge of the
ving taken the city of Nanking, and some others, he former was summed up in their skill in managing their 41 marched towards Hang-chew-lu, the capital of the arms and horses, being perfectly destitute of every art Chinese
Song empire. Peace was now again proposerl, but or science, or even of the knowledge of letters. In (mpress submits. Bejected by the Mogul general; and at last the em- 1269, he had caused the Mogul characters to be con3
China trived. In 1280, he caused some mathematicians search joined in order to come to a general engagement, China.
for the source of the river Whang-ho, which at that Chu gained a second victory, and burnt 100 of the
contented himself with the title of king of U. In king of U.
and so that Chu found himself in a coudition to assume the the kingdoms of Tonquin and Cochin-china. Both title of emperor. This he chose to do at Nanking on Becomes these enterprises ended unfortunately, but the first re- the first day of the year 1368. After this his troops en peror of markably so ; for of 100,003 persons employed in it, entered the province of Honan, which they presently
China, only four or five escaped with the melancholy news of reduced. In the third month, Chu, who had now the destruction of the rest, who all perished by ship- taken the title of Hong-vu or Tay-tsu, reduced the wreck. Shi-tsu reigned 15 years, died in the Botlı year fortress of Tong-quan ; after which his troops entered of his age, and was succeeded by bis grandson. The Pecheli from Honan on the one side, and Shang-tong
throne continued in the Ywen family to the year 1367, on the other. Here his generals defeated and killed 44
when Shun-ti, the last of that dynasty, was driven out one of Shun-ti's officers, after which they took the Mozels dri- by a Chinese named Chu. During this period the city of Tong-chew, and then prepared to attack the retot. Tartars had become enervated by long prosperity; capital, from which they were now but 12 miles distant.
and the Chinese had been roused into valour by their on their approach the emperor filed with all his family
48 sonk in sloth and debauchery; and the empire, besides, nasty of Ywen. In 1370 he died, and was succeeded Moguis
was oppressed by a wicked minister named Ama. In by bis son, whom the successor of Hong-vu drove be- driven bee Eviloits of June 1355, Chu, a Chinese of mean extraction, and yond the Kobi or Great Desert, which separates Chi-yond the Cha.
desert. head of a small party, set out from How-chew, passed na from Tartary.
na from Tartary. They continued their incursions, the Kyang, and took Tayping. He then associated however, for many years; nor did they cease their atbimself with some other malcontents, at the head of tempts till 1583, when vast numbers of them were cut whom he reduced the town of Tu-chew, in Kyang- in pieces by the Chinese troops. nan. Soon after he made himself master of Nanking, The 21st dynasty of Chinese emperors, founded in China a. baving defeated the Moguls who came to its relief. In 1368 by Chu, continued till the year 1644, when they gain con. December 1356, he was able to raise 100,000 men, were again expelled by the Tartars. The last Chinese quered by
the Tarat the head of whom he took the city of U.chew, in emperor was named Whay-tsong, and ascended the the east borders of Quang-si; and here, assembling his throue in 1628. He was a great lover of the sciengenerals, it was resolved neither to commit slaughter ces, and a favourer of the Christians ; though much nor to plunder. The most formidable enemy he had addicted to the superstitions of the Bonzes. He to deal with was Chen-yew-lyang, styled, “ emperor of found himself engaged in a war with the Tartars, and the Han.” This man being grieved at the progress a number of rebels in different provinces. That he made by Chu, equipped a fleet, and raised a formida- might more effectually suppress the latter, he resolved ble army, in order to reduce Nan-chang-fu, a city of to make peace with the former; and for that end sent of Kyang-si, which his antagonist had made himself one of his generals, named Ywen, into Tartary, at master of. The governor, however, found means to the head of an army, with full power to negotiate a inform Chu of his danger; upon which that chief peace; but that traitor made one upon such shameful caused a fleet to be fitted out at Nanking, in which terms, that the emperor refused to ratify it. Ywen, he embarked 200,000 soldiers. As soon as Chen-yew- in order to oblige his master to comply with the terms lyang was informed of his enemy's approach, he raised made by himself, poisoned bis. best and most faithful the siege of Nan-chang-fu, and gave orders for at general, named Mau-ven-lorg : and then desired the tacking Chu's naval force. An engagement ensued Tartars to march directly to Peking, by a road ditbetween a part of the fleets, in which Chu proved ferent from that which he took with his victorious; and next day, all the squadrons having they accordingly did, and laid siege to the capilal. VOL. VI. Part I.