Page images




[ocr errors]

China, their armies in two bloody battles, in one of which make them repent of it, and was soon as good as his China.

the ground was strewed with dead bodies for upwards word. He decamped in August 1231 ; and baving
of four leagues.

forced the passes, put to the sword the inhabitants of
The same year. Yong-tsi was slain by his general Wha-yang and Fong-chew, two cities in the district Exploits of

Toley. Hujaku; and Sun, a prince of the blood, advanced in of Hang-chong-fu. Then having cut down rocks to his room.

After this the Moguls, attacking the em- fill up deep abysses, and made roads through places pire with four armies at once, laid waste the provinces almost inaccessible, he came and besieged the city of of Shansi, Honan, Pecheli, and Shan-tong. In 1214 Hang-chong-fu itself. The miserable inhabitants fled Jenghiz-khan sat down before Peking ; but instead of to the mountains on his approach, and more than assaulting the city, offered terms of peace, which were 100,oo of them perished. After this, Toley divided accepted, and the Moguls retired into Tartary. Af his forces, consisting of 30,000 borse, into two bodies. ter their departure, the emperor, leaving his son at One of these went westward to Mlyen-chew : from

Peking, removed his court to Pyen-lyang near Kay. thence, after opening the passages of the mountains,
Peking la- fong-fu, the capital of Honan. At this Jenghiz khan they arrived at the river Kyaling, which runs into

being offended, immediately sent troops to besiege the great Kyang. This they crossed on rafts made
Peking. The city held out to the hfili month of the of the wood of demolished houses ; and then, march-
year 1215, and then surrendered. At the same time ing along its banks, seized many important posts.
the Moguls finished the conquest of Lyau-tong; and At last, having destroyed more than 140 cities, towns,

the Song refused to pay the usual tribute to the Kin. or fortresses, they returned to the army. The second Southern In 1216, Jengliz-khan returned to pursue his con- detachment seized an important post in the mountains, Chinese de

quests in the west of Asia, where he staid seven years; called Toutong, six or seven leagues to the eastward
clared war
ang ating the during which time his general Mubuli made great of Hang-chong-fu. On the other side Oktay advan-
Kin progress in China against the Kin emperor. He was ced, in October, towards Pu chew a city of Sliansi ;

greatly assisted by the motions of Ning tsong emperor which being taken after a vigorous defence, he pre-
of the song, or southern China ; who, incensed by the pared to pass the Whang-bo. Toley, after surmount-
frequent perfidies of the Kin, had declared war against ing incredible difficulties, arrived in December on the
them, and would hearken to no terms of peace, though borders of Honan, and made a slow as if he designed
very advantageous proposals were made. Notwith- to attack the capital of the Kin empire. On his first
standing this, however, in 1220, the Kin, exerting appearance in Honan through a passage so little sus-
themselves, raised two great armies, one in Shensi, pected, every body was filled with terror and astonish-
and the other in Shan-tong. The former baffled the ment, so that he proceeded for some time without
attempts of the song and king of Hya, who had united opposition. At last the emperor ordered his generals,
against them; but the latter, though no fewer than Hota, Ilapua, and others, to march against the enemy.
200,000, were entirely defeated by Mubuli. In 1221, Toley boldiy attacked them; but was obliged to re-
that officer passed the Whang-ho, and died after con- tire, which be did in good order. Hota was for pur-
quering several cities.

suing him, saying that the Mogul army did not exceed
In 1224, the Kin emperor died; and was succeeded


30,000 men, and that they seened not to have eaten khan de

by his son Shew, who made peace with the king of any thing for two or three days. Ilapua, however,
stroys the
kingdom of Hya; but next year, that kingdom was entirely de- was of opinion that there was no occasion for being
Hya; stroyed by Jenghiz khan. In 1226, Oktay, son to so basty, as the Moguls were enclosed between the

Jenghiz-khan, marched into Honan, and besieged Kay- rivers Han and Whang-ho, so that they could not
fong fu, capital of the Kin empire, but was obliged escape. This negligence they soon had occasion to re-
to withdraw into Shensi, where he took several cities, pent of: for Toley, by a stratagem, made himself ma-
and cut in pieces an army of 30,000 men.

ster of their heavy baggage ; which accident obliged and dies. Jenghiz-khan died, after having desired his sons to de- them to retire to Tang-chew. From thence they sent

mand a passage for their army through the dominions a messenger to acquaint the emperor that they had
of the Song, without which he said they could not easily gained the battle, but concealed the loss of their bag.
vanquish the Kin.

gage. This good news filled the court with joy; and
After the death of that great conqueror, the war the people who had retired into the capital for its de-
was carried on with various success; but though the fence, left it again, and went into the country : but,
Moguls took above 60 important posts in the province in a few days after, the vanguard of the Moguls, who
of Shensi, they found it impossible to force Ton-quan, had been sent by the emperor Oktay, appeared in the
which it behoved them to do in order to penetrate ef. field, and carried off a great number of those that had
fectually into Honan. In April 1231 they took the quitted the city.
capital of Shensi, and defeated the kin arny which In January 1232, Oktay passing the Whang-ho, Capital of
came to its relief. Here one of the officers desired encamped in the district of Kay-fong fu, capital of the the Kin
Prince Toley to demand a passage from the Song Kin empire, and sent his general Suputay to besiege empire le-
through the country of Han-chong-fu. This proposal

tu This proposal the city. At that time the place was near 30 miles siebed. Toley communicated to his brotlier Oktay, who ap- .in circumference; but having only 40,000 soldiers to proved of it as being conformable to the dying advice defend it, as many more from the neighbouring cities,

of Jenghiz-khan. Herenpon Toley, having assembled and 20,000 peasants, were ordered into it; while the Moguls

all bis forces, sent a messenger to the Song generals to emperor published an affecting declaration, animating quarrel

demand a passage through their territories. This, how the people to defend it to the last extremity. Oktay, with the ever, they not only refused, but put the messenger to having heard with joy of Toley's entrance into lluSong. death; which so enraged 'Toley that he swore to nan, ordered him to send succours to Suputay. On



In 1227



The emperor


[ocr errors]


China. the other hand, the Kin generals advanced with empire of the Kin. Gan-yong, a young Mogul lord, Ch

150,000 men to relieve the city; but being obliged having assumed the government of some cities in
to divide their forces, in order to avoid in part the Kyany-nan, and killed the officer sent to take posses-
great road, which Toley had obstructed with trees, sion of them, declared for the Kin.
they were attacked by the prince at a disadvantage, unwarily took Gan-yong into bis service, and gave
and, after a faint resistance, defeated with great slaugh. him the title of prince. Upon this Oktay sent an en.
ter, and the loss of both their generals, one killed and voy, 'attended by 30 other persons, to inquire into the
the other taken. The emperor now ordered the army affair ; but the Kin oflicers killed them all, without
at Tong-quan and other fortified places to march to being punished by the emperor. Suputay, having in-
the relief of Kay-fong-fu. They assembled accord- formed his master of all these proceedings, was or-
ingly, to the number of 110,000 foot and 15,000 dered to continue the war in Honan. Shew-fu now
horse ; and were followed by vast numbers of people, commanded his officers to unite their troops for the
who expected by their means to be protected from the defence of the capital ; but before his orders could be
enemy." But many of these troops having deserted, obeyed, they were attacked and defeated, one after
and the rest being enfeebled by the fatigues of their another, by the Moguls. This obliged him to raise
march, they dispersed on the approach of their pur- soldiers from among the peasants, for whose subsistence
suers, who killed all they found in the highways. Af- the people were taxed ths of the rice they possessed.
ter this the Moguls took Tong-quan and some other The city began now to be distressed for want of provi-
considerable posts; but were obliged to raise the sieges sions; and as it was but in a bad posture of defence,
of Quey-te-fu and Loyang by the bravery of the go- the emperor marched with an army against the Moguls.
vernors. Kyang-shin, governor of Loyang, had only His expedition proved unfortunate ; for, sending part Capita
3 or 4000 soldiers under him, while his enemies were of his army to besiege a city called Why-chew, it was again,
30,000 strong. He placed his worst soldiers on the totally cut' in pieces, and Suputay a second time sat

si ged,
walls, putting himself at the head of 400 brave men; down before the capital.
whom he ordered to go naked, and whom be led to On hearing this bad news, the emperor repassed the and ta
all dangerous attacks. He invented engines to cast Wbang-ho, and retired to Quey-te-fu. Here he had
large stones, which required but few bands to play not been long before the capital was delivered up by
them, and aimed so true as to hit at 100 paces dis. treachery, and Suputay put all the males of the impe-
tance. When their arrows failed, he cut those shotrial race to death ; but, by the express command of
by the enemy into four pieces ; pointed them with Oktay, spared the inhabitants, who are said to have
pieces of brass coin ; and discharged them from wooden amounted to 1,400,000 families. After this disaster,
tubes with as much force as bullets are from a musket. the unhappy monarch left his troops at Quey-te-fu,
Thus he barassed the Moguls for three months so grie- and retired to Juning-fu, a city in the southern part
vously, that they were obliged, notwithstanding their of Honan, attended only by 400 persons.
numbers, to abandon the enterprise.

distance of the Moguls made bim think of living at Juning Bravery of Oktay, at last, notwithstanding his successes, resol. ease ; but wbile he flattered himself with these vain the te ved to return to Tartary; and offered the Kin empe. hopes, the enemy's army arrived before the city and sieged.

ror peace, provided he became tributary, and delic invested it. The garrison were terrified at their apvered up to him 27 families which he named. These proach; but were encouraged by the emperor, and his offers were very agreeable to the emperor; but Supu. brave general Hu-sye-hu, to hold out to the last. As tay, taking no notice of the treaty, pushed on the there was not in the city a sufficient number of men, siege of the capital with more vigour than ever. By the women, dressed in men's clothes, were employed the help of the Chinese slaves in bis army, the Mogul to carry wood, stones, and other necessary materials to general soon filled the ditch ; but all his efforts seem- the walls. All their efforts, however, were ineffeced only to inspire the besieged with new vigour. The tual. They were reduced to such extremities, that Moguis at that time made use of artillery, but were for three months they fed on human flesh; killing the unable to make the least impression upon the city walls. old and feeble, as well as many prisoners, for food. They raised walls round those they besieged, which This being known to the Moguls, they made a genethey fortified with ditches, towers, and battlements. ral assault in January 1234. The attack continued They proceeded also to sap the walls of the city; but from morning till night; but at last the assailants were were very much annoyed by the artillery of the besie- repulsed. In this action, however, the Kin lost all ged, especially by their bombs, which sinking into the their best officers ; upon which the emperor resigned galleries, and bursting under ground, made great ha- the crown to Cheng-lin a prince of the blood. Next vock among the miners. For 16 days and nights the morning, while the ceremony of investing the new emattacks continued without intermission ; during which peror was performing, the enemy mounted the south time an incredible number of men perished on both walls, which were defended only by 200 men; and

sides ; at length, Suputay, finding that he could not the south gate being at the same time abandoned, the Peace con- take the city, withdrew his troops, under pretence of whole army broke in. They were opposed, however, cluded;

conferences being on foot. Soon after the plague be. by Hu-sye-hu; who, with 1000 soldiers, continued to gan

in Kay-fong.fu; and raged with such violence, fight with amazing intrepidity. In the mean time Unhapr that, in 50 days, 900,000 biers were carried out, be- Shew-fo, seeing every thing irreparably lost, lodged fate of sides a vast multitude of the poorer sort, who could not the seal of the empire in a house ; and then causing emperor

sheaves of straw to be set round it, ordered it to be set and bro- In a short time two unlucky accidents occasioned on fire as soon as he was dead. After giving this orken. a renewal of the war; which now put an end to the der he banged himself, and bis commands were exe2



Here the Siege o


[ocr errors]



afford any


[ocr errors]


China cuted by his domestics. Hu-sye-lu, who still con- able to make any considerable progress; but his death, China.

tinued fighting with great bravery, no sooner heard in 1246, proved of the greatest detriment to the Chi34

of the tragical death of the emperor, than he drown- nese affairs : and soon after, the Tartars renewed the
of the Kin ed himself in the river Ju; as did also soo of his most war with more vigour and success than ever. In
empire. resolute soldiers. The same day the new emperor, 1255, they re-entered the province of Se-chwen; but

Cheng-lin, was slain in a tumult; and thas an end still met with vigorous opposition in this quarter, be-
was put to the dominion of the Kin Tartars in cause the Chinese took care to bave Se-chwen furnish-

ed with good troops and generals. Though they were

. The empire of China was now to be shared between always beaten, being greatly inferior in number to the Song, or southern Chinese, and the Moguls. It their enemies, yet they generally retook the cities the bad been agreed upon, that the province of Honan Moguls had reduced, as the latter were commonly should be delivered up to the Song as soon as the war obliged to withdraw for want of provisions and fowas finished. But they, without waiting for the ex- rage. In 1259 they undertook the siege of Ho-chew, Siege of

. piration of the term, or giving Oktay notice of their a strong city to the west of Peking, defended by Vang-Ho-chew.

proceedings, introduced their troops into Kay-fong-fu, kyen, a very able officer, who commanded a numerous 35 War be.

Lo-yang, and other considerable cities. On this the garrison. The siege continued from the month of Fetween the Mogul general resolved to attack them; and repassing bruary till August; during which time the Moguls Song and the Whang-ho, eut in pieces part of the garrison of lost an immense number of men. On the roth of Au. the Mo.

Lo-yang, while they were out in search of provisions. gust they made a general assault in the night. They guls.

The garrison of Kay-fong-fu likewise abandoned that mounted the walls before the governor bad intelli-
place; and the Song emperor degraded the officers gence; but were soon attacked by him with the ut-
who had been guilty of those irregularities, sending most fury. The Mogut emperor, Meng-ko, himself
ambassadors to Oktay, at the same time, to desire a came to the scalade ; but his presence was not suffi-

continuance of the peace. What Oktay's answer was cient to overcome the valour of Vang-kyen. At the Moguls de.
we are not told, but the event shorved that he was not same time the scaling-ladders of the Moguls were feated, and
well pleased; for, in 1235, be ordered his second son blown down by a storm ; upon which a terrible slaugh-their empe-
Prince Kotovan, and his general Chabay, to attack ter ensued, and amongst the rest fell the emperor him.ror killed.
the Song in Se-chwen, while others marched towards self. Upon this disaster the Mogul generals agreed to
the borders of Kyang-nan.

raise the siege, and retired towards Shen-si.
In 1236, the Moguls made great progress in the On the death of Meng ko, Hupilay, or Kublay
province of Huquang, where they took several cities, Khan, who succeeded bim, laid siege to Vu-chang-fu,
and put vast numbers to the sword. This year they a city not far distant from the capital of the Song em-
introduced paper or silk money, which had formerly pire.
been used by Chang-tsong, sixth emperor of the Kin. At this the emperor being greatly alarmed, distri-
Prince Kotovan forced the passages into the district of buted immense sums among his troops ; and, having

Hang-chong-fu in the province of Shensi, which he raised a formidable army, marched to the relief of Vu-
Dreadful entered with an army of 500,000 men. Here a ter- chang-fu. Unfortunately the command of this army
engage- rible battle was fought between the vast army of the was committed to the care of Kya-tse-tau, a man with-
ment Moguls and the Chinese troops, who bad been driven out either courage or experience in war. He was be-

from the passages they defended. The latter consisted sides very vain and vindictive in his temper; often
only of 10,000 horse and foot, who were almost en- using the best officers ill, and entirely overlooking
tirely cut off; and the Moguls lost such a number of their merit, which caused many of them to go over to
men, that the blood is said to liave run for two leagues the Moguls. The siege of Vu-chang-fu was commen-
together. After this victory the Moguls entered Se- ced, and had continued a considerable time, when
chwen, which they almost entirely reduced, commit. Kya-tse tau, afraid of its being lost, and at the same
ting such barbarities, that, in one city, 40,000 people time not daring to take any effectual step for its relief,
chose rather to put an end to their own lives than sub- made proposals of peace. A treaty was accordingly
mit to such cruel conquerors.

concluded, by which Kya-tse-tau engaged to pay an
In 1237, the Moguls received a cousiderable check annual tribute of about 50,000l, in silver and as much
before the city of Gantong in Kyang-nan, the siege of in silk; acknowledging likewise the sovereignty of the
which they were obliged to raise with loss. In 1238, Moguls over the song empire. In consequence of this
they besieged Lu-chuw, another city in the same pro- treaty, the Moguls retreated after the boundaries of
vince. They surrounded it with a rampart of earth the two empires had been fixed, and repassed the Ky.
and a double ditch ; but the Chinese general ordered ang ; but 170 of them having staid on the other side of
their intrenchments to be filled with immense quanti- the river, were put to death by Kya-tse-tau.
ties of herbs steeped in oil, and then set on fire, while This wicked minister totally concealed from the Treachery
he shot stones upon them from a tower seven stories emperor his having made such a shameful treaty with

nesc mini. high. At the same time a vigorous sally was made; the Moguls; and the 170 soldiers massacred by his and the Mogul army being thrown into the utmost order, gave occasion to a report that the enemy

had disorder, were obliged finally to abandon the siege, been defeated ; so that the Song court believed that and retire northwards.

they had been compelled to retreat by the superior In 1239, these barbarians were opposed by a gene- valour and wisdom of Kya-tse-tau. This proved the ral called Meng-kong, with great success; who, this ruin of the empire ; for, in 1 260, the Mogol emperor and the following year, gained great honour by his sent Hauking to the Chinese court to execute the treaexploits. While he lived, the Moguls were never ty according to the terms agreed on with Kya-tse-tau.



of a Chi.


China. The minister, dreading the arrival of this envoy, im- press was constrained to put herself, with her son, then Ch

prisoned him near Nanking; and took all possible care an infant, into the hands of Pe-yen, who immediately
that neither Hupilay, nor Li-tsong the Chinese empe- sent them to Hupilay.
rur, should ever bear any thing of bim.

The submission of the empress did not yet put an It was impossible such unparalleled conduct could end to the war. Many of the chief officers swore to Sail to produce a new war. Hupilay's courtiers in- do their utmost to rescue her from the hands of her cessantly pressed him to revenge himself on the Song enemies. In consequence of this resolution they disfor their treacherous behaviour; and he soon publish- tributed their money among the soldiers, and soon ed a manifesto against them, which was followed by got together an army of 40,000 men.

This army ata renewal of hostilities in 1268. The Mogul army tacked the city where the young emperor Kongamounted to 300,000 men ; but notwithstanding their tsong was lodged, but without success ; after which, numbers, little progress was made till the year 1271. and several other vain attempts, they raised one of Syan-yang and Fan-ching, cities in the province of his brothers to the throne, who then took upon him Se-chew, had been besieged for a long time ineffec- the name of Twon-tsong. He was but nine


of tually; but this year an Igur lord advised Hupilay to age when he was raised to the imperial dignity, and send for several of those engineers out of the west, who enjoyed it but a very short time. In 1277 he was in knew how to cast stones of 150 pounds weight out of great danger of perishing, by reason of the ship on their engines, which made holes of seven or eight feet board which he then was being cast away. The poor wide in the strongest walls. Two of these engineers prince fell into the water, and was taken up half dead were accordingly sent for ; and after giving a speci- with the fright. A great part of his troops perished men of their art before Hupilay, were sent to the ar- at that time, and he soon after made offers of submismy in 1 272. In the beginning of 1273 they planted sion to Hupilay. These, however, were not accepttheir engines against the city of Fan-ching, and pre- ed; for, in 1278, the unhappy Twon-tsong was oblisently made a breach in the walls, After a bloody ged to retire into a little desert island on the coast of

conflict the suburbs were taken; and soon after the Quang-tong, where he died in the nith year of his 40 Desperate

Moguls made themselves masters of the walls and gates age. conflict.

of the city. Nevertheless, a Chinese oflicer, with on- Notwithstanding the progress of the Moguls, vast Disse
ly 100 soldiers, resolved to figlit from street to street. territories still remained to be subdued before they of the
This he did for a long time with the greatest obstina- could become masters of all the Chinese empire. Onempi
cy, killing vast numbers of the Moguls ; and both the death of Twon-tsong, therefore, the mandarins
parties are said to have been so much overcome with raised to the throne bis brother, named Te-ping, at
thirst, that they drank human blood to quench it. that time but eight years of age. His army consisted
The Chinese set fire to the houses, that the great of no fewer than 200,000 men ; but being utterly void
beams, falling down, might embarrass the way of their of discipline, and entirely ignorant of the art of war,
pursuers; but at last, being quite wearied out, and fill they were defeated by 20,000 Mogul troops. Nor
ed with despair, they put an end to their own lives. was the fleet more successful; for being put in confu-
After the taking of Fan-ching, all the materials which sion by that of the Moguls, and the emperor in dan-
had served at the siege were transported to Seyen- ger of falling into their hands, one of the officers ta.
yang. The two engineers posted themselves against a king bim on his shoulders, jumped with bim into the
wooden retrenchment raised on the ramparts. This sea, where they were both drowned. Most of the
they quickly demolished ; and the besieged were so in- mandarins followed this example, as did also the eni-
timidated by the noise and havock made by the stones press and minister, all the ladies and maids of honour,
cast from these terrible engines, that they immediately and multitudes of others, insomuch that 100,000 peo-

ple are thought to bave perished on that day. Thus
In 1274, Pe-yen, an officer of great valour, and en- ended the Chinese race of emperors ; and the Mogul
dowed with many other good qualities, was promoted dynasty, known by the name of Twen, commenced.
to the command of the Mogul army. His first ex- Though no race of men that ever existed were Reis
ploits were the taking of two strong citiee; after more remarkable for cruelty and barbarity than the Ilupi
which he passed the great river Ky-ang, defeated the Moguls ; yet it doth not appear that the emperors of
Song army, and laid siege to Vu-chang-fu. This city the Ywen dynasty were in any respect worse than
was soon intimidated into a surrender; and Pe-yen, their predecessors. On the contrary, Hupilay, by the
by restraining the barbarity of his soldiers, whoni bé Chinese called Shi-tsu, found the way of reconciling

he would not allow to hurt any body, soon gained the the people to his government, and even of endearing hearts of the Chinese so much, that several cities sur- bimself to them so much, that the reign of bis family rendered to bim on the first summons.

In the niean

is to this day stiled by the Chinese the wise govern. time tlie treacherous Kya-tse.tau, who was sent to op

ment. This be accomplished by keeping as close as pose Pe-yen, was not ashamed to propose peace on the possible to their ancient laws and customs, by his mild terms he bad formerly concluded with Hopilay ; bot and just government, and by his regard for their these being rejected, he was obliged at length to come

learned men.

He was indeed ashamed of the igno. to an engagement. In this he was defeated, and le- rance and barbarity of his Mogol subjects, when comyen continued his conquests with great rapidity. Ha- pared with the Chinese. The whole knowledge of the

ving taken the city of Nanking, and some others, he former was summed up in their skill in managing their 41 marched towards Hang-chew-lu, the capital of the arms and horses, being perfectly destitute of every art Chinese

Song empire. Peace was now again proposerl, but or science, or even of the knowledge of letters. In (mpress submits. Bejected by the Mogul general; and at last the em- 1269, he had caused the Mogul characters to be con3




[ocr errors]


China trived. In 1280, he caused some mathematicians search joined in order to come to a general engagement, China.

for the source of the river Whang-ho, which at that Chu gained a second victory, and burnt 100 of the
time was unknown to the Chinese themselves. In four enemy's vessels. A third and fourth engagement bap-
months time they arrived in the country where it rises, pened, in both which Chu gained the victory; and in
and made a map of it, which they presented to his ma- the last, Chen-yew-lyang himself was killed, bis son
jesty. The same year a treatise on astronomy was taken prisoner, and bis generals obliged to surrender
published by his order; and, in 1282, he ordered the themselves, with all their forces and vessels.
jearned men to repair from all parts of the empire, to In January 1364, Chu's. generals proposed to pro- He is pro-
examine the state of literature, and take measures for claim bim emperor ; but this he declined, and at Erst claimed
its advancement.

contented himself with the title of king of U. In king of U.
At bis first accession to the crown he fixed his resi. February he made himself master of Vu-chang-fu,
dence at Tay-ywen-fu, the capital of Shen-si; but capital of Hu-quang: where, with his nsual huma-
thought proper afterwards to remove it to Peking. nity, be relieved those in distress, encouraged the
Here, being informed that the barks which brought literati, and would allow his troops neither to plunder
to court the tribute of the southern provinces, or car- nor destroy. This wise conduct procured him an
ried on the trade of the empire, were obliged to come easy conquest both of Kyang-si and Hu-quang. The
by sea, and often suffered shipwreck, be caused that Chinese submitted to him in crowds, and professed the
celebrated canal to be made, which is at present one greatest veneration and respect for bis person and go-
of the wonders of the Chinese empire, being 300 vernment.
leagues in length. By this canal above 9000 imperial All this time Shun-ti, with an unaccountable negli-
barks transport with ease, and at small expence, the gence, never thought of exerting himself against Chu,
tribute of grain, rice, silk, &c. wbich is annually paid but continued to employ his forces against the rebels
to the court. In the third year of his reign, Shi-tsu who had taken up arms in various parts of the empire ;
formed a design of reducing the islands of Japan,

and so that Chu found himself in a coudition to assume the the kingdoms of Tonquin and Cochin-china. Both title of emperor. This he chose to do at Nanking on Becomes these enterprises ended unfortunately, but the first re- the first day of the year 1368. After this his troops en peror of markably so ; for of 100,003 persons employed in it, entered the province of Honan, which they presently

China, only four or five escaped with the melancholy news of reduced. In the third month, Chu, who had now the destruction of the rest, who all perished by ship- taken the title of Hong-vu or Tay-tsu, reduced the wreck. Shi-tsu reigned 15 years, died in the Botlı year fortress of Tong-quan ; after which his troops entered of his age, and was succeeded by bis grandson. The Pecheli from Honan on the one side, and Shang-tong

throne continued in the Ywen family to the year 1367, on the other. Here his generals defeated and killed 44

when Shun-ti, the last of that dynasty, was driven out one of Shun-ti's officers, after which they took the Mozels dri- by a Chinese named Chu. During this period the city of Tong-chew, and then prepared to attack the retot. Tartars had become enervated by long prosperity; capital, from which they were now but 12 miles distant.

and the Chinese had been roused into valour by their on their approach the emperor filed with all his family
subjection. Shun-ti, the reigning prince, was quite beyond the great wall, and thus put an end to the dy-

48 sonk in sloth and debauchery; and the empire, besides, nasty of Ywen. In 1370 he died, and was succeeded Moguis

was oppressed by a wicked minister named Ama. In by bis son, whom the successor of Hong-vu drove be- driven bee Eviloits of June 1355, Chu, a Chinese of mean extraction, and yond the Kobi or Great Desert, which separates Chi-yond the Cha.

desert. head of a small party, set out from How-chew, passed na from Tartary.

na from Tartary. They continued their incursions, the Kyang, and took Tayping. He then associated however, for many years; nor did they cease their atbimself with some other malcontents, at the head of tempts till 1583, when vast numbers of them were cut whom he reduced the town of Tu-chew, in Kyang- in pieces by the Chinese troops. nan. Soon after he made himself master of Nanking, The 21st dynasty of Chinese emperors, founded in China a. baving defeated the Moguls who came to its relief. In 1368 by Chu, continued till the year 1644, when they gain con. December 1356, he was able to raise 100,000 men, were again expelled by the Tartars. The last Chinese quered by

the Tarat the head of whom he took the city of U.chew, in emperor was named Whay-tsong, and ascended the the east borders of Quang-si; and here, assembling his throue in 1628. He was a great lover of the sciengenerals, it was resolved neither to commit slaughter ces, and a favourer of the Christians ; though much nor to plunder. The most formidable enemy he had addicted to the superstitions of the Bonzes. He to deal with was Chen-yew-lyang, styled, “ emperor of found himself engaged in a war with the Tartars, and the Han.” This man being grieved at the progress a number of rebels in different provinces. That he made by Chu, equipped a fleet, and raised a formida- might more effectually suppress the latter, he resolved ble army, in order to reduce Nan-chang-fu, a city of to make peace with the former; and for that end sent of Kyang-si, which his antagonist had made himself one of his generals, named Ywen, into Tartary, at master of. The governor, however, found means to the head of an army, with full power to negotiate a inform Chu of his danger; upon which that chief peace; but that traitor made one upon such shameful caused a fleet to be fitted out at Nanking, in which terms, that the emperor refused to ratify it. Ywen, he embarked 200,000 soldiers. As soon as Chen-yew- in order to oblige his master to comply with the terms lyang was informed of his enemy's approach, he raised made by himself, poisoned bis. best and most faithful the siege of Nan-chang-fu, and gave orders for at general, named Mau-ven-lorg : and then desired the tacking Chu's naval force. An engagement ensued Tartars to march directly to Peking, by a road ditbetween a part of the fleets, in which Chu proved ferent from that which he took with his victorious; and next day, all the squadrons having they accordingly did, and laid siege to the capilal. VOL. VI. Part I.






army. This

« PreviousContinue »