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1512. Ferd. 5 (Cast.), 2 (Aragon).
1542. Mary.
1516. Charles 1 (5 of Germ. 1519).

(EMPERORS–Kings Of 1647. Ed. 6. 1547. Henry 2.

HUNGARY.) 1553. Mary.

1556. Philip 2. Holland. 1557. Sebastian. 1558. Eliz 1559. Fr'ncis 2.

1558. Ferdinand. 1560. Chas. 9.

1564. Maximilian 2. 1567. Jas. 6.

1579. William of

1578. Henry
1574. Henry 3.

1576. Rudolph 2.
1580. Annexed to
Orange, stadt-
holder.

Spain.
1589. Henry 4.

1587. Maurice.

1598. Philip 3. 1603. James 1 (6 of Scot.). 1010.Louis 13.

1612, Mathias. 1625. Charles 1. 1621. Philip 4.

1619. Ferdinand 2. 1625. Fred. Hen. Kingd. restored.

1637. Ferdinand 3.

1640. John of 1643. Louis 14.

1647. William 2. Braganza. 1649. Commonwealth.

1050-72. No 1660. Charles 2.

1665. Charles 2.

1656. Alfonso 6.
stadtholder.
1667. Peter,

1658. Leopold 1. 1688. James 2.

1672. Will. Hen.

regent. 1689. William and Mary.

(Will. 3 of 1683. Peter 2. 1694. William 3.

1700. Philip 5. England). 1704 Anne.

1702-47. No 1706. John 5. 1705.Joseph. Prussia. 1714. (orge 1. 1715. Louis 15. 1724. (abdicated). stadtholder.

1711. Chas. 6. Louis.

1701. Fred. 1. 1797. Gerge 2. Philip 5,

1713. Fred. again.

William 1.

1742. Chas. 7. 1740. Fred. 2. 1746. Ferd. 6. 1747. Will. Hen.

1750. Joseph.

1745. Fr'ncis. 1757. William 4.

1759. Charles 3. 1760. George 3.

1765. Jos. 2. 1774. Louis 16.

1777. Maria and

Peter 3. 1783. (United States in

1786. Maria,

1786. Fred. dependent.) 1788. Charles 4

alone.

William 2. 1793. Louis 17. (abdicated). 1795. Annexed to 1791. John, 1790. Leop. 2. 1797. Fred. Republic 1.

France.
regent. 1792. Fran. 2.

William 3. 1802. C'ns'l'te. 1808. Ferd. 7 1816. Lou., king.

Austria. 1811. (George, Prince of 1804. Napol. 1. (dethroned). Wales, regent.) 1814. Louis 18. Jos. Bonap. Netherlands. 1814. Ferd. 7

1806. Fran. 1.

(restored). 1814. Will. Fred. 1320. George 4.

king. *

1816. John 6. 1924. Chas. 10.

1826. Peter 4.

Maria 2

1828. Miguel. 1830, William 4. 1830. L. Phil.

1833. Maria 2.

1833. Isabella 2. 1837. Victoria.

1840. William 2.

1935. Terd. 2.

1840. Fred. 1848. Repub.2.

William 4. 1849. William 3.

1848. Francis 1852. Napol. 3.

1853. Peter 5.

Joseph.

1860. Will. 1.

1861. Luis 1.
1868. (dethroned).

1870. Amadeus
1870. Repub. 3. (abdicated 1873).
1971. L. A.
Thiers, pres.

1871. Emper1873. Marshal 1873. Republic.

or of GERMacMahon. 1875. Alfonso 12.

MANY. 1879. J. Grévy.

* BELGIUM.-1831, Leopold 1; 1865, Leopold 2.

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POPULATION AND GOVERNMENTS OF THE WORLD.

(According to the Almanach de Gotha.)

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..... 1850

..... 1877

Anhalt, E.... Population in Dec. 1875 213,689 Frederick, duke...

29 April, 1831.. 22 May, 1871. Argentine Confederation, R.C... 1869 1,877,490 N. Avellaneda, president.

12 Oct. 1874. Austrian Empire, R.C. (after cession 1866)

Dec. 1875 37,904,435 Francis Joseph, emperor. 18 Aug. 1830... 2 Dec. 1845.
Baden, R.C..

..Dec. 1875 1,507,179 Frederick, grand-duke. 9 Sept. 1826.... 24 April, 1852.
Bavaria, R.C. (after cessions 1866)
Dec. 1975 5,022,390 Louis II., king...

25 Aug. 1845... 10 March, 1864.
Belgium, R.C...
Dec. 1875 5,403,006 Leopold II., king.

9 April, 1835. 10 Dec. 1865. Bolivia, R.C... 2,325,000 N. Campero, president..

1 June, 1880. Brazil, R.C. 1876 10,108,291 Pedro II., emperor.

2 Dec. 1825. 7 April, 1831. Brunswick, L... Dec. 1875 327,493 William, duke..

25 April, 1806.. 20 April, 1831. Bulgaria.. 1873 1,965,474 Alexander I., prince.

5 April, 1857. 29 April, 1879. Chili, R.C.. 1876 2,136,724 Anibal Pinto, president..

13 Sept. 1876. Chinese Empire (estimated), B.. 1877 434,600,000 Kwang-su, emperor.

1971.

Jan. 1876. Colombia, state, R.C.. 1880 3,000,000 Aquileo Parra, president..

1 April, 1876. Costa Rica, R.C. 1880 185,000 Thomas Guardia, president. .

Oct. 1877. Denmark & colonies, L. (estm.). 1876 2,032,000 Christian IX., king..

8 April, 1818.. 15 Nov. 1863. Egypt, etc., M. 1874 16,922,000 Mehemed Tewtik, khedive.

1852.

8 Aug. 1879. Equator, R.C. (estimated). 1,040,400 J. de Veintamilla(?), president..

8 Sept. 1876. France alone, R.C.... 1876 36,905,788 Jules Grévy, president..

15 Ang. 1813.. 80 Jan, 1879. Germany, R.C., la, and E....Dec. 1875 42,727,360 William I., emperor.

22 March, 1797. 18 Jan. 1871. Gt. Britain & colonies, P. (estm.) 1877 238, 159,800 Victoria, queen..

24 May, 1819... 20 June, 1837. Greece & Ion. Is., G.C. (estm.)... 1870 1,457,894 George I., king.

24 Dec. 1845.... 6 June, 1863. Guatemala, R.C. 1880 1,190, 754 Rutinos Barrios, president.

1879. Hayti (estimated). 572,000 Gen. Salomon

July, 1876. Hesse-Darmstadt, L.. 1875 884,218 Louis IV., grand-duke.

12 Sept. 1837.. 13 June, 1877. Holland, not colonies, C.. 1879 4,037,010 William III., king

19 Feb. 1817 ... 17 March, 1919. Hondaras, R.C.. 1874 351,700 M. A. Soto, president.

29 May, 1877. Italy, R.C. (estimated).. Dec. 1875 27,165,553 Humbert I., king.

14 March, 1844. 9 Jan. 1878. Japan (estimated) 35 to 40 mil. Moutz Hito, mikado

1852..

1867. Liberia, P..... 380,000 A. W. Gardner, president.

1880. Liechtenstein, R.C..

1876
8,664 John II., prince..

5 Oct. 1840. 12 Nov. 1858.
Lippe, C....
Dec. 1875 112, 452 Waldemar, prince.

18 April, 1824.. 8 Dec. 1870. Mecklenburg-Schwerin, L.. Dec. 1875 553,785 Frederic Francis, grand-duke .. 28 Feb. 1823.. 7 March, 1842. Mecklenburg-Strelitz, L.. 1875 95,673 Frederic William, grand-duke.. 17 Oct. 1819. 6 Sept. 1860. Mexico, R.C. (estimated). 1879 9,636,777 Manuel Gonzales, president.

1 Dec. 1SSO. Monaco, R.C..

1873
5,741 Charles III., prince...

8 Dec. 1818... 20 June, 1856. Montenegro, G.C. (estm.). 1875 170,000 Nicholas I., prince..

7 Oct. 1841..... 14 Aug. 1860. Morocco, M.' about 8,000,000 Muley Hassan, sultan,

25 Sept. 1873. | Nicaragua, R.C.. 1875 300,000 Joaquin Zavala, president..

1 March, 1879. Oldenburg, P. (estimated).. 1971 314,591 Peter, grand-duke.

8 July, 1827.. 27 Feb. 1863. Papal States annexei to Italy.. 1870

Leo XIII., pope.

2 March, 1810.. 20 Feb. 1978. Paraguay, R.C. 1873 221,079 Candido Bareiro, president.

25 Nov. 1678. Persia, M. (estimated) 1877 7,000,000 Nassir-ed-Deen, shah.

1830..

10 Sept. 1848. Peru, R.C. (estimated) 1876 2,673,075 N. de Pierola, president..

23 Dec. 1879. Portugal and col., R.C.... Dec. 1872 7,618,729 Luis I., king...

31 Oct. 1839... 11 Nov. 1861. Prussia, E.. Dec. 1875 25,742,204 William I., king.

22 March, 1797. 2 Jan. 1861. Reuss, i...

1871 149,360 Henry XXII., prince... 28 March, 1846.8 Nov. 1859. Roumania (Dan. Prncip.), estm. 1975 4,500,000 Chs. of Hohenzollern, king 20 April, 1839.. 20 April, 1866. Russia, G.C., Poland, etc. (estm.) 1874 85,685,945 | Alexander III., czar.

10 March, 1845. 13 March, 1881. Sandwich Islands (Hawaii, etc.). 1861 69,800 Kalakana I., king..

16 Nov. 1830... 12 Feb. 1874. San Marino, R.C..

1874

7,816 Capitani reggenti . San Salvador, R.C..

1874
600,000 R. Zaldivar, president.

May, 1876.
Saxe-Altenburg, P.

1875
145,844 Ernest, duke.

16 Sept. 1826... 3 Aug. 1853.
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, L.
1875 152,599 Ernest II., duke..

21 June, 1818 29 Jan. 1944. Saxe-Meiningen, L.. 1875 194,494 George II., duke.

2 April, 1826... 20 Sept. 1566. 8:1xe-Weimar-Eisenach, L.. 1975 292,933 Chas. Alexander, grand-duke... 24 June, 1818.. 8 July, 1553. Saxony, P... 1975 2,760,556 Albert, king ...

23 April, 1828.. 29 Oct. 1873. Schaumburg-Lippe, L. 1875 33,133 Adolphus, prince.

1 Aug. 1817. 21 Nov. 1860. Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt, L. ... 1875 70,676 George, prince.

23 Nov. 1838. 26 Nov. 1869. Schwartzburg-Sondershausen, L. 1875 67,450 Charles, prince.

7 Aug. 1830... 17 July, 1980. Servia, G.C. (estimated).... 1,338,505 Milan IV.

10 June, 1868. Spain and colonies, R.C. (estm.). 1870 25,779,976 Alfonso XII.

28 Nov. 1857.. 2 July, 1874. Si. Domingo, R.C. (estimated) 136,600 F. A. de Merino

10 Aug. 1854.. 1880. Sweden, Norway, L. (estimated). 1871 6,137,559 Oscar II., king...

21 Jan. 1829 18 Sept. 1872. Switzerland, R.C. and P.... Dec. 1876 2,759,554 E. Marte, president..

4 June, 1877. Turkish Empire, M. (estimated). 1974 47,627,000 Abdul Hamid II., sultan. 22 Sept. 1842.. 31 Aug. 1676. Uruguay, R.C. 1875 450,000 F. S. Vidal, president...

11 March, 1880. Venezueln, R.C. 1873 1,784,194 | A. G. Blanco, president..

1879. Würtemberg, L. 1,881,505 Charles, king.

6 March, 1923.. 25 Jane, 1664. United States of America, P..... 1880 50,155, 783 Chester A. Arthur, president... 5 Oct. 1830.. 19 Sept. 1891.

... 1873

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.. 1875

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PREDOMINANT RELIGIOxs.-R.C., Roman Catholic; G.C., Greek Church ; P., Protestant; L., Lutheran; E., Evan

gelical Church-a combination of Calvinists and Lutherans; C., Calvinist or Reformed; M., Mahometan; B., Buddhist.

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Lescov V. of Poland...

B.C. 79 A.D. 305

1131 1142 1200

1206 .1296 ..1309 1439

1449 ..25 Oct. 1555 16 Jan. 1556

..1669

1704 1724

1730 .1759 . 1795

Aargau (Switzerland), formerly included in Berne, abbots of Reading, Glastonbury, and St. John's, Colcheswas made an independent canton in 1803, and settled as ter, were executed as traitors for denying the king's susuch in 1815. It was much disturbed by religious dis-premacy, probably for not surrendering their abbeys, sensions in 1841; and the expulsion of the Jesuits was 1539; see Glastonbury. demanded in 1841.

Abbot's Ripton, see Railway Accidents, 1876. Abacus, the tile on the capital of a column. That

ABC Club, a name adopted by certain republican on the Corinthian column is ascribed to Callimachus, enthusiasts in Paris, professing to relieve the abaissés, or about 540 B.C.—This name is also given to a frame trav-depressed. Their insurrection, 5 Juve, 1832, was supersed by stiff wires, on which beads were strung, used pressed with bloodshed, 6 June. These events are defor calculating by the Greeks, Romans, and Chinese. M. scribed by Victor Hugo in “Les Misérables" (1862). Lalanne published an ABACUS at Paris in 1845.— The multiplication-table has been called the Pythagorean abacus.

Abdications of sovereigns, voluntary or compulsory,

have been numerous : Abancay, a river in Peru, on the banks of which the Spanish marshal Almagro defeated and took prisoner Sylla, Roman dictator.

Diocletian, Roman emperor.. Alvarado, a partisan of Pizarro, 12 July, 1537.

Stephen II. of Hungary.. Abattoirs, slaughter - houses for cattle. In 1810 Albert the Bear of Brandenburg Napoleon decreed that five should be erected near Paris, Vladislaus III. of Poland.. which were opened in 1818. One was erected at Edin- John Balliol of Scotland.. burgh in 1831; and they form part of the new London otho (of Bavaria) of Hungary. metropolitan cattle - market, opened on 13 June, 1855. Pope Felix V...

Eric IX. of Denmark, etc.. Abattoirs were first introduced into America in 1866. Charles V. as emperor.. Abbassides, descendants of Mahomet's uncle, Ab- Christina of Sweden...

as king of Spain.,

16 June, 1654 bas-Ben-Abdul-Motalleb. Merwan II., the last of the Job Casimir of Poland. Ommiades, was defeated and slain by Abul Abbas in 750, James II. of England..

fled 11 Dec. 1688 and became caliph. Thirty - seven Abbasside caliphs Philip V. of Spain (resumed).

Frederick Augustus II. of Poland.. (including Haroun al Raschid, 786-809) reigned from Victor Amadeus of Sardinia. 750 to 1258. They settled at Bagdad, built by Al-Man- Charles of Naples.... sour about 762. Their color was black; that of the Charles Emmanuel 11. of Sardinia.

Stanislaus of Poland..

.4 June, 1802 Fatimites being green, and that of the Ommiades white. Francis II. of Germany, who became emperor of Aus

tria... Abbaye, a military prison near St.-Germain-des

11 Aug. 1804 Prés, Paris, where 164 prisoners were murdered by in-Charles J. of Spain, in favor of his son, 19 March; in

1 May, 1803 furiated republicans led by Maillard, 2 and 3 Sept. 1792. Joseph Bonaparte of Naples (for Spain).. .1 June, 1803

Gustavus IV. of Sweden.... Abbeville, N. France. Here Henry III. met Louis Louis of Holland. .

1 July, 1810 IX. of France and made peace, renouncing his right to Jerome of Westphalia.

20 Oct. 1813 Normandy and other provinces, 20 May, 1259.

Napoleon I. of France..

5 April, 1814 Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia.

13 March, 1821 Abbeys, monasteries for men or women; see Mona- Pedro IV. of Portugal. .

....2 May, 1826 chism and Convents. The first abbey founded in Eng- Charles X. of France...

2 Aug 1830 land was at Bangor in 560; in France, at Poitiers, about Dom Miguel of Portugal (by leaving it).

.7 April, 1831

26 May, 1834 360; in Ireland in the fifth century; in Scotland in the William I. of Holland... sixth century. 110 alien priories were suppressed in Louis Philippo of France.

21 March, 1848 England, 2 Henry V. 1414.–Sulmon. The gross disor- Louis Charles of Bavaria... ders in these establishments occasioned their destruction Charles Albert of Sardinia... in Britain. After visitations of inquiry, king Henry Leopold II. of Tuscany...

..July, 1859 VIII. commenced the suppression of small monasteries Bernhard of Saxe- Meiningen..

20 Sept. 1866 Isabella II. of Spain. .

25 June, 1870 to raise revenues for Wolsey's colleges at Oxford and Amadeus of Spain....

11 Feb. 1873 Ipswich, 7 June, 1525; many small monasteries were suppressed in 1536; and all religious houses were sup

Abecedarians, followers of Storch, an Anabaptist pressed throughout the realm by parliament, 1539-40 in the sixteenth century, derive their name from their 186 large monasteries (revenue 104,9191. 138. 3d.), 347 less rejection of all worldly knowledge, eren of the alphabet. monasteries (revenue 33,4791. 138. 7şd.), and 48 houses Abecedarium, a logical machine, constructed by of the knights hospitallers (revenue 2385l. 12s. 8d.; total, Mr. William Stanley Jevons, and described in his “ Prinhouses, 608 ; estimated revenue, 140,7841. 19s. 64d.).- ciples of Science,” 1874. He states that, by means of Tanner. Many abbeys were suppressed in France in symbolic terms, it can perform all the processes of ana1790, in Spain in 1837 and 1868, and in Italy in 1866-73. lytic reasoning with infallible accuracy.

Abbot (from Ab, father), the head of an abbey. In Abelard, a celebrated teacher of theology and logic, England, mitred abbots were lords of parliament; twen- in 1118 fell in love with Heloise, the niece of Fulbert, a ty-seven abbots and two priors thus distinguished, 1329; canon of Paris, became her tutor, and seduced her. After the number reduced to twenty-five, 1396.-Coke. The la compulsory marriage, he placed her temporarily in a

..1809

8 Oct. 1840 24 Feb, 1848

2 Dec. 1848 23 March, 1849

convent. Ilaring been cruelly mutilated at the instiga- Aberdeen Peerage Case. George, earl of Abertion of her relatives, he entered the abbey of St. Denis, deen, grandson of the premier, succeeded his father, 22 from which he was compelled to depart, accused of heresy, March, 1864. After travelling in a yacht, he became a on account of his censuring the dissoluteness of the mercbant seaman, and chief mate of the Hera; he was monks. He then built and lectured at the oratory of drowned 27 Jan. 1870. His brosher John's claim to the the Paraclete (or Comforter) which eventually he made succession was allowed by the house of lords, 3 May, a convent, with Heloise for the abbess. He died under 1872. the charge of heresy, 21 April, 1142, and was buried in Aber Edw, S. Radnorshire. Near here Llewelyn, the Paraclete, where also Heloise was laid, 17 May, 1164. the last independent prince of Wales, was surprised, deThe ashes were removed to the garden of the Muséum fcated, and slain by the lords marchers, 11 Dec. 1282. Français in 1800, and to the cemetery of Pere la Chaise

Abergele (N. Wales), see Railway Accidents, 20 in 1817. Their epistles, etc., were published in 1616.

Aug. 1868. Abencerrages, a powerful Moorish tribe of Gra

Aberration of Light; discovered by James Bradnada, opposed to the Zegris. From 1480 to 1492 their ley, through his observation of an apparent motion of quarrels deluged Granada with blood and hastened the the fixed stars, 1727. fall of the kingdom. They were exterminated by Boabdil (Abu Abdallah), the last king, who was dethroned by

Abhorrers, a name given in 1679 (reign of Charles Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492 ; bis dominions were an. II.) to the court party in England, the opponents of the nexed to Castile.

Addressers (afterwards Whigs), so called from their adAbensberg, Bavaria. The Austrians were here de- of the parliament, which was delayed on account of its

dress to the king praying for the immediate assembly seated by Napoleon J. 20 April, 1809.

being adverse to the court, The former (afterwards Abeokuta, see Dahomey.

T'ories) expressed their abhorrence of those who endearAberdeen (N. Scotland), said to have been founded ored to encroach on the royal prerogative, 1680.- llume. in the third century after Christ, and erected into a city The commons expelled several members for being Ab about 893. Old Aberdeen was made a royal burgh in horrers, among them sir Francis Withens (whom they 1154; it was burned by the English in 1336; and soon sent to the Tower), and prayed his majesty to remove after New Aberdeen was built. A statue of the prince others from places of trust. They also resolved, “ that consort was inaugurated by the queen 13 Oct. 1863; and it is the undoubted right of the subject to petition for one of queen Victoria by the prince of Wales, 20 Sept. 1866. the calling of a parliament, and that to traduce such The University was founded by bishop William Elphinstone, petitions as tumultuous and seditious is to contribute to

who had a bull from pope Alexander VI. in 1494. King's the design of altering the constitution.” Oct. 1680. college was erected in 1500-6. Marischal college was founded by George Keith, earl marischal of Scotland, in

Abingdon Láw. In 1645, lord Essex and Waller 1593; rebuilt in 1837. In 1858 the university and colleges held Abingdon, an ancient abbey town in Berks, against were united. By the reform act of 1868, the universities Charles I. The town was unsuccessfully attacked by

of Aberdeen and Glasgow send one member to parliament. Above thirty persons drowned by overcrowding a boat, o sir Stephen Hawkins in 1644, and by prince Rupert in April, 1876.

1645. On these occasions the defenders put every Irish Malcolm III., having gained a great victory over the prisoner to death without trial; hence the term “ AbingDanes in the year 1010, resolved to found a new Bishop

don law." ric, in token of his gratitude for his success, and pitched Abiogenesis (a, not, Bioc, life), a term given to upon Mortlach in Banffshire, where St. Beanus was first spontaneous generation by professor Huxley in his Britbishop, 1015. The see, removed to Aberdeen early in the ish Association address, 1870. twelfth century, was discontinued at the revolution, 1689,

Abjuration of the pope was enjoined by statute in and is now a post-revolution bishopric, instituted in 1721; the reigns of Henry VIII., Elizabeth, and James I., and see Bishops in Scotland.

of certain doctrines of the church of Rome by stat. 25 Aberdeen Act, introduced by the carl of Aber- Charles II. 1673. The oath of abjuration of the house deen, and passed, 1845, to enforce the observance of a of Stuart was enjoined by stat. 13 & 14 Will. III. 1702; convention made with Brazil in 1826 to put down the the form was changed in after-reigns. By 21 & 22 Vict. slave-trade. Repealed in April, 1869.

c. 48 (1858) one oath for the three oaths of abjuration, Aberdeen Administration, called the Coali- allegiance, and supremacy was substituted; see Oaths. tion Ministry, as including Whigs, Radicals, and followers Abkasia, a province of the Caucasus, annexed by of sir R. Peel. Formed in consequence of the resigna- Russia, the last prince (Michael Shervashiji) being detion of the first Derby administration; sworn in, 28 Dec. posed. An insurrection against the Russian authorities, 1852; resigned 30 Jan. 1855; succeeded by the Palmer- 8 Aug. 1866, was quelled with much bloodshed. ston administration, which see.

Abney Park, see Cemeteries.
Earl of Aberdeen,* first lord of the treasury.
Lord Cranworth, lord chancellor.

Abo, a port of Russia, founded prior to 1157, was till Earl Granville, president of the council.

1809 capital of Swedish Finland. It has suffered much Duke of Argyll, lord privy seal.

by fire, especially in 1775 and 1827; was seized by the Lord John Russell, 1 foreign secretary. Viscount Palmerston, home secretary.

Russians in Feb. 1808; ceded to them, 17 Sept. 1809; Duke of Newcastle, I colonial and war secretary.

and rebuilt by them after the great fire in 1827. The William Ewart Gladstone, chancellor of erchequer.

university, erected by Gustavus Adolphus and Christina, Sir James Graham, first lord of the admiralty. Sir Charles Wood, president of the India board.

1640 et seq., was removed to Helsingfors, 1827. The Edward Cardwell, president of board of trade.

peace of Abo, by which Sweden ceded part of Finland to Hon. Sidney Herbert, secretary-at-war.

Russia, was signed 18 Aug. 1743.
Sir William Molesworth, chief commissioner of works.
Marquess of Lansdowne (without ofhce).

Abolitionists, the party in the northern part of Viscount Canning, lord Stanley of Alderloy, right hon. Edward the United States opposed to slavery. They formed a Strutt, etc.

small society at Boston about 1832, which became the * Born in 1784; engaged in foreign diplomacy, 1813; be- nucleus of a great political party, and ultimately attained came foreign secretary, Jan. 1823; joined the party of sir R. its object by the war of 1861-5. During the revolution, Peel, 1846; died 14 Dec 1860.

and when the constitution was made, various societies | Lord John Russell was succeeded as foreign secretary by were formed for the abolition of slavery. The first of the earl of Clarendon (Feb. 1853), but atinued a member of the cabinet, without office; he afterwards became president these originated in Philadelphia, 14 April, 1775, Benjaof the council

, in the room of carl Granville, appointed to the min Franklin president. John Jay, and after him Alexduchy of Lancaster (June, 1854).

ander Hamilton, were the first presidents of a second so1 In June, 1854, the offices were separated;

the duke of ciety for the same purpose, formed in New York, 25 Jan. Newcastle remained secretary of war, and sir George Grey was 1785. Others followed in different parts of the Union. made colonial secretary.

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