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Towns; others formed plans, to attack Portugal; others assembled in large numbers, and took an oath against their legitimate Sovereign, and against the fundamental Laws of the Portuguese Monarchy, going so far as to proclaim Foreign Princes as having a right to the Crown of Portugal. Such was the degeneracy of these Monsters! And all this, Gentlemen, was allowed by the Authorities! All was in fact done at the instigation of the Spanish Government!"

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At last the moment arrived when the mask was to be thrown off. Whilst the Spanish Government were promising the restoration of the arms to the Portuguese Government, those arms, and many more, were given to the Portuguese Rebels, who attacked Portugal on different sides. Gentlemen! I cannot think on these horrible transactions, without being overwhelmed with grief and filled with indignation. May this be the only example of Portuguese disloyalty; and may history conceal the shameful fact from our posterity!


The Most Serene Infanta Regent, on receiving intelligence of the of the Rebels, immediately gave me orders to send a Note to the Spanish Ambassador, informing him that he was suspended from his functions, until the Cabinet of Madrid gave a clear and satisfactory explanation of the insult committed. Two Couriers were instantly dispatched to Madrid, with orders to the Chargé of Correspondence, who was there, to demand not only satisfaction, but a recognition of the present Government within 48 hours.

Should the Spanish Government attempt to satisfy us with words instead of deeds, there can be no doubt that its intentions are to con, tinue to make war agai tinue to make war against us: I say to continue, because what it has already done is in fact war. But should that occur, and should we want assistance, we possess our faithful and powerful Ally, who, with the greatest celerity, will fly to our aid. England will not delay an instant to assist us; and, as the Government is already authorized by the two Chambers to admit Foreign Troops into the Portuguese Territory, it will make use of that authority with circumspection; but it will not hesitate a single instant, should it find that measure to be necessary for the salvation of the State. I have, therefore, to announce to the Chamber that, should Portugal be attacked, with increased numbers, I have already applied to the English Government, in order that, in formity with Treaties, it may dispatch to us a force sufficient to enable us to resist our Enemies. I again repeat to you, Gentlemen, that we can, and ought, implicitly to rely on our faithful and ancient Ally.

I have

I fear I have already too much encroached d on the attention of the Chamber, but I cannot conclude without first explaining, what I ima gine, principally, to have given rise to the proceedings of the Spanish Government.

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Acust. The conduct of the Portuguese Rebels, and, above all that of the Viscount Canellas, the Marquis de Chaves, the Viscount de Monte Alegre, Magessi, &c. &c...

2d. The conduct of the Apostolick Junta, which holds great sway over the Spanish Government. That Junta, whose ramifications extend to Portugal, is composed of Men, who, covering themselves with the mask of Religion and of Royalism, conceal the most horrid crimes -that infamous Institution is undoubtedly the most baneful pest of modern Society, and ought to be accounted the most formidable enemy of the throne, the altar, and civilization.

3d. The embarrassed state of the negotiations, owing to the Marquis de Moustier, Ambassador of France, in Madrid. This Ambassador must not be confounded with the Government which he represents: from the latter, as I have already observed, we have received the strongest assurances of friendship, and I have, as I ought to have, the fullest confidence in its sincerity; but, I repeat it, the Marquis de Moustier, by not chusing to comply with the Instructions he received from his Government, acted very inimically to the cause of Portugal, and rendered the kind offices which His Most Christian Majesty was pleased to offer to us nugatory.

I think it right, no longer to take up the attention of the Chamber; but should it think proper to take a more enlarged view of the state of our relations with Spain, I shall be enabled to lay before it all the Correspondence which I have had with the Mission at Madrid, and all other Documents which can in any way tend to elucidate the merits of the question.

That my efforts may be useful to my Country, and that I may always deserve the name of a Portuguese, is the only glory to which I aspire. FRANCISCO D'ALMEIDA.

MESSAGE of the President of The United States to Congress, transmitting Correspondence with The Netherlands, relating to Discriminating Duties.-18th January, 1827.

To the House of Representatives of The United States.

Washington, 18th January, 1827. IN compliance with a Resolution of the House of Representatives, of the 6th instant, I transmit, herewith, a Report from the Secretary of State, together with Copies of the Correspondence with the Govern ment of The Netherlands, relating to discriminating duties.


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Department of State, 17th January, 1827.

THE Secretary of State, to whom has been referred the Resolution of the House of Representatives, of the 6th instant, requesting the President to communicate to the House, if compatible with the publick

interest, the Correspondence with the Government of The Netherlands, referred to in his Message, and relating to discriminating duties, has the honour now to report, that, in conformity to a Resolution of the House of Representatives, of the 21st January, 1825, a Report, on the 10th February, 1825, was made from this Department, submitting Copies of the Correspondence which had taken place up to the latter period, upon the subject-matter of the present Resolution, to which Report a reference is respectfully requested. Copies of the Correspondence, in relation to the same subject, which has since taken place, are now herewith reported. All which is respectfully submitted.





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1. Mr. Clay to the Chevalier Huygens. Washington, 10th December, 1825. 1062 2. The Chev. Huygens to Mr. Clay... Do. 3. Mr. Clay to the Chev. Huygens.... 4. The Chev, Huygens to Mr. Clay... 5. Mr. Clay to Mr. Hughes...

12th Do.


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27th Do.



27th April,

1826 1066

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(1.)—Mr. Clay to the Chevalier Huygens.

Department of State, Washington, 10th Dec. 1825. ACCORDING to the respective Regulations of The United States and the Kingdom of The Netherlands, each professes to act towards the other, in regard to Navigation, upon the basis of perfect reciprocity and equality. The United States have not deviated from their professions. The Vessels of The Netherlands and their Cargoes, consisting of the produce and manufactures of that Kingdom, or of such produce and manufactures as are most usually first shipped from its Ports, pay no higher duties, in the Ports of The United States, than their own Vessels and their Cargoes of similar produce. On the 7th of March, 1823, at Brussels, Mr. Everett, then representing the Government of The United States in The Netherlands, addressed an Official Note to the Baron de Nagell, stating that several articles of the Dutch Tariff established a difference of duties in favour of goods imported in Dutch Vessels; and, in particular, that the Law of the 26th August, 1822, creates, in the form of a drawback, a general discrimination to the same effect, according to which one-tenth of the duties paid upon the importation or exportation of all goods in Dutch Vessels, is to be returned, with the exception of those articles, the importation or exportation of which, in Dutch Vessels, is otherwise favoured, specifically, by the Tariff. On the 27th of May, 1823, the Baron de Nagell returned an answer to the Note of Mr. Everett;

in which he does not contest the existence of the above provisions of the Laws of The Netherlands. The Baron laboured under a misconception of the views of the American Government, in supposing that it contemplated an abolition of the principle of equality which it had adopted in the Ports of The United States between American and Dutch Vessels, as Mr. Everett shewed in his Reply of the 31st of the same month of May. The limitation of the duration of the Acts of Congress, by which that equality had been established, to the 1st of January, 1824, having been prescribed for the purpose of bringing the whole subject under the review of our Legislature, it was accordingly again taken up, and on the 7th January, 1824, a new Act was passed, (which took effect on the 1st of that month,) according to which the principle of equality is applied to all Foreign Powers who may be disposed to adopt it; and the continuance of this new Act as to time is indefinite. The Congress of The United States supposed that the Kingdom of The Netherlands had done away all discriminations unfavourable to the Vessels of The United States, in a fair competition with Dutch Vessels in the Ports of The Netherlands; and accordingly, in enumerating the Foreign Powers, to which the Act is to be extended, first designates that Kingdom. By the 3d Section of the Act it is declared, in effect, that its operation is to cease as to any of the Nations enumerated, which shall not continue to apply to Vessels of The United States the principle of equality between them and its own, of which the Act is predicated. A copy of this new Act of Congress was communicated to the Chevalier de Reinhold, by Mr. Everett, on the 22d March, 1824.

It is not my intention to discuss the question presented by Mr. Everett to the Government of The Netherlands. Whatever may be the form of the Law, it is manifest, that, if in the Ports of that Kingdom Vessels of The United States pay, in export or import duties, 10 per cent. more than Dutch Vessels, or Dutch Vessels pay 10 per cent. less than those of The United States, there does not exist an equality between them. This proposition is too clear to be considered as open to argument. If the Government of The Netherlands think proper to originate such a difference, or, having created it, think proper to continue it, we shall not controvert its right to do so. But we are entitled to know its dispositions in this respect. I am directed, therefore, by the President, to inquire of you, if you are authorized to state that the Vessels of The United States, and all goods and merchandise of the produce and manufacture of The United States, laden therein, and imported into any of the Ports of The Netherlands, are now exempted from all and every discriminating duty of impost and tonnage, direct or indirect, whatsoever, other or higher than is levied upon the Vessels, and similar goods and merchandise therein imported, belonging to the Subjects of The Netherlands; and, especially, if the

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Laws referred to in Mr. Everett's Note herein before-mentioned, of the 7th March, 1823, so far as they have an unequal operation upon the Vessels of The United States, in comparison with Dutch Vessels, have been modified or repealed. It will afford the President much satisfaction to find, in your answer, that the contingency provided for in the third section of the Act of the 7th January, 1824, has not arisen, and, consequently, that it is not his duty immediately to withdraw from Dutch Vessels the privileges which they now enjoy in the Ports of The United States, equal with their own Vessels.

The Chevalier Huygens.

I pray you, Sir, to accept, &c.


(2.)-The Chevalier Huygens to the Secretary of State. (Translation.)

Washington, 12th Dec.mber, 1825. THE Undersigned, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the King of The Netherlands, near The United States of America, has had the honour to receive the Note which Mr. Clay, Secretary of State, addressed to him, dated the 10th of this month, relative to representations made in 1823 and 1824, by the Chargé d'Affaires of The United States, near the Government of The Netherlands, against a deviation from the admission, at duties equal with the National Ships, of American Vessels in the Ports of The Netherlands, caused by certain fixations of duties in the Tariff of The Netherlands.

The Undersigned, not being furnished with Instructions in regard to this question, regrets, exceedingly, his inability to answer, in a positive manner, the demand, contained in the aforesaid Note: "If the Laws which gave rise to the representations of Mr. Everett, in 1823, so far as they operate unequally upon American Vessels, in comparison with the Vessels of The Netherlands, have been modified or repealed ?"

The Undersigned thought that the differences, in this regard, had been discussed or explained between Mr. Everett and Mr. Reinhold, charged at that time with the Port Folio of Foreign Affairs, and that the result of this discussion was not of a nature to suppose than an uniformity of measures between the two Governments was far distant. It may be that the change of Persons in the mutual Missions, and the interruption of diplomatick relations, have been the cause that the state of the question is such as is represented, without being removed or decided.

The Undersigned, however, believes to a certainty, that his Government, having adopted a system of reciprocity, in its commercial Relations with friendly Powers, is always disposed to apply this system in regard to The United States.

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