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Addington, March-July, 1801 ; after various changes separate articles headed with the name of the PREit terminated about 10 May, 1804.

MIER, given below in italics Henry Addington,* first lord of the treasury and chan- HENRY VIII.-Abp. Warham; bps. Fisher and cellor of the exchequer.

Fox ; earl of Surrey, &c.

A.D. 1509 Lord Eldon, lord chancellor.

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, &c.

1514 Duke of Portland, lord president.

Earl of Surrey ; Tunstall, bishop of London, &c.

1523 Earl of Westmoreland, lord privy seal.

Sir Thos. More; bps. Tunstall and Gardiner, and Lord Pelham, home secretary.

Craniner (afterwards abp. of Canterbury) • 1529 Mr. R. B. Jenkinson (lord Hawkesbury, 1803 ; and earl Abp. Cranmer; lord Cromwell, aft. earl of Essex; of Liverpool, 1808), foreign secretary.

Thos. Boleyn, earl of Wiltshire, &e. .

1532 Lord Hobart, colonial secretary.

Thomas, duke of Norfolk; Henry, earl of Surrey ; Earl St. Vincent, first lord of admiralty.

Thomas, lord Audley; bishop Gardiner; sir Earl of Chatham, ordnance.

Ralph Sadler, &c.

1540 Charles Yorke, secretary-at-war.

Lord Wriothesley : Thomas, duke of Norfolk ; lori Vicount Lewisham, Lord Auckland, &c.

Lisle; sir William Petre; sir William Paget, &. 1544

EDWARD VI. - Lord Wriothesley, now earl of ADDISCOMBE COLLEGE, near Croydon,

Southampton, lord chancellor (expelled): Edward, Surrey, purchased by the East Indian company in earl of Hertford, lord protector, created duke of 1809, for the education of candidates for the scien- Somerset; John, lord Russell : Henry, earl of tific branches of the Indian army, was closed in

Arundel ; Thomas, lord Seymour; sir Wm. Paget; 1861.

sir Wm. Petre, &c.

1547

John Dudley, late lord Lisle and earl of Warwick; ADDLED PARLIAMENT, see Parlia- created duke of Northumberland ; John, earl ment.

of Bedford ; bishop Goodrich, sir William Cecil,
&

1551 ADDRESSERS, see Abhorrers.

Mary. - Stephen Gardiner, bp. of Winchester ; Ed:

mund Bonner, bp. of London ; William, marq. of ADELAIDE, the capital of South Australia, Winchester : sir Edwd. Hastings, &c.

1554 was founded in 1836. It contained 14,000 inha- ELIZABETH.- Sir Nicholas Bacon: Edward lord bitants in 1850, and 18,259 in 1855. It was made

Clinton ; sir Robert Dudley, aftds. earl of Leia bishopric in 1847. It was visited by the duke

cester; sir William Cecil, aftds. lord Burleigh 1558 of Edinburgh, 1 March, 1869.

William, lord Burleigh (minister during nearly all
the reign); sir N. Bacon, &c.

1572 ADELPHI (Greek for brothers) several streets

Lord Burleigh ; sir Thomas Bromley; Robert

Devereux, earl of Essex (a favourite); earl of on the south side of the Strand, London, erected Leicester; earl of Lincoln ; sir Walter Mildmay ; about 1768 by the brothers, John, Robert, James, sir Francis Walsingham, &c.

1579 and William Adam, after whom the streets are Lord Burleigh ; Robert, earl of Essex ; sir Chrisnamed. ADELPHI THEATRE, built 1806, rebuilt

topher Hatton, &c.

1587 1858; see under Theatres.

Thomas Sackville, lord Buckhurst, afterwards eari
of Dorset ; Sir Thoinas Egerton, afterwards lord

Ellesmere and viscount Brackley; sir Robert
ADEN, a free port on the S. W. corner of

Cecil, &c.

1599 Arabia, where in Dec. 1836 a British ship was JAMES '1.-Thomas, carl of Dorset ; Thomas, lord wrecked and plundered. The sultan promised Ellesmere ; Charles, earl of Nottingham ; Thomas, compensation, and agreed to cede the place to the

earl of Suffolk ; Edward, earl of Worcester; English. The sultan's son refusing to fulfil this

Robert Cecil, afterwards earl of Salisbury, &e. 1603 agreement to captain Haynes, a naval and military Robert Cecil, carl of Salisbury: Thomas, lord

Ellesmere : Henry, earl of Northampton ; Charles force, under captain H. Smith, of the Volage, was earl of Nottingham ; Thomas, earl of Suffolk, &c. 1609 dispatched to Aden, which captured it, 19 Jan. Henry, carl of Northampton ; Thomas, lord Elles1839. It is now a garrison and coal depôt for mere ; Edward, earl of Worcester ; sir Ralph WinIndian steamers, &c.

wood ; Charles, earl of Nottingham; Robert,

viscount Rochester, afterwards earl of Somerset, ADIGE, a river in N. Italy, near which the

&c.

1612 Austrians defeated the French on 26, 30 March, Thomas, lord Ellesmere : Thomas, earl of Suffolk ; and 5 April, 1799.

Charles, earl of Nottingham ; Sir George Villiers

(a favourite), afterwards viscount Villiers, and ADMINISTRATIONS OF ENGLAND AND

successively earl, roarquis, and duke of BuckOF GREAT BRITAIN. Until the Restoration, 1660, Sir Henry Montagu, afterwards viscount Mande

ingham

1615 there was not any cabinet in the modern sense.

ville and earl of Manchester.

1620 The sovereign was aided by privy councillors, vary- Lionel, lord Cranfield, afterwards earl of middleing in number, the men and offices being frequently sex ; Edward, earl of Worcester : John, earl of changed. The separation of the cabinet from the Bristol ; John Williams, dean of Westminster; privy council became greater during the reign of

George Villiers, now marquis of Buckingham; William III., and the control of the chief, now

sir Edward Conway, &c.

1621

Charles I.-- Richard, lord Weston, afierwards eari termed the premier," began in the reign of of Portland ; sir_Thomas Coventry, afterwards Anne. “ The era of ministries may most properly be lord Coventry ; Henry, earl of Manchester (sucreckoned from the day of the meeting of the parliament after the general election of 1698." Macaulay.t For a fuller account of each, since 1700, see

control; chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster.

In 1850 the number was fifteen, and included the secretary-at

war, the postmaster-general, and the chief secretary for * Born 1757; became viscount Sidmouth, Jan. 1805; held Ireland. In the Palmerston-Russell cabinet (which see), various offices afterwards, and died in 1844. His circular the president of the poor-law-board replaced the secreto the lords lieutenants, dated 27 March, 1817, directing tary for Ireland. The avcruge duration of a ministry has them to adopt severe measures agaiust the authors of been set down at four, five, and six years; but instances blasphemous and seditious pamphlets, was greatly cen- have occurred of the duration of a ministry for much. sured, and not carried into effect.

longer periods : sir Robert Walpole was minister from + Till 1850 the cabinet council usually consisted of the

1721 to 1742 (21 years); Mr. Pitt, 1783 to 180r (18 following twelve meinbers : First lord of the treasury : years); and lord Liverpool 1812 to 1327 (15 years). lord chancellor ; lord president of the council; chan- Several ministries have not lasted beyond a few months, cellor of the exchequer; lord privy seal ; home, foreign, as the Coalition Ministry in 1783, and the "Talents' and colonial secretaries ; first lord of the admiralty : pre- Ministry in 1806. The Short-lived" Administration sident of the board of trade; president of the board of lasted 10 to 12 Feb. 1746.

Nov. 1744

17бо??

Jan. 1770

Robert Walpole, first lord of the treasury, and chancellor of the exchequer, &c.

: 1715 James (afterwards earl) Stanhope ; William lord Cowper, &c.

1717 Charles, earl of Sunderland, &c.

1718 Robert IValpole, afterwards sir Robert Walpole, and earl of Orford, &c.

• 1721 GEORGE II. --Robert Walpole continiai

1727 [Sir Robert remained prime minister twenty-one years ; nunerous changes occurring in the time;

see Walpole.] Earl of Wilmington ; lorid Hardwicke, &c.

1742 Henry Pelham, in the room of earl of Wilmington, deceased

Aug. 1743 Broul-bottom" administration-Henry Pelham ;

lord Hardwicke, &c. Short-lived" administration-earl of Both; lords Winchilsea and Granville

10-12 Feb. 1746 Henry Pelham, &c., again

12 Feb. 1746 Thos. H. Pelham, duke of Newcastle'; earl of Holderness, de

April, 1754 Duke of Devonshire; William Pitt, &c.

. Nov. 1756 Duke of Newcastle, and Mr. Pitt, afterwards earl of Chatham, &c.

June, 1757 W George 111. ---Duke of Newcastle, Mr. Pitt's minis:

try, continuat Earl of Bute ; lord Henley, &c.

May, 1762 George Grenville ; earls of Halifax and Sandwich, &c.

April, 1763 Marquis of Rockingham ; earl of Winchilsea, &c.

July, 1765 Earl of Chatham; duke of Grafton, &c. Aug. 1766 Duke of Grafton; lord North, &c..

Dec. 1767 W Frederick, lord North ; earl Gower, &c.

[Lord North was minister during the whole of the American war.) Marquis of Rockingham ; lord Camden, C. J. Fox; Edmund Burke, &c.

March, 1782 Earl of Shelburne (afterwards marquis of Lans

downe); William Pitt, de. Coalition Ministry," duke of Portland ; lord North; C. J. Fox ; Edmund Burke, &e.

April, 1783 William Pitt; Henry Dundas, &e.

Dee. [During Mr. Pitt's long administration, numerous changes in the ministry took place.) Henry Addington ; duke of Portland ; lord Eldon, &c.

March, et seq. 1801 William Pitt; lord Eldon ; George Caming, de.

May, et seq. 1804
[Mr. Pitt died 23 Jan. 1806.)
All the Talents"--lord Grenville; lord Henry

Petty ; lord Erskine ; C. J. Fox; sir Charles
Grey (afterwards earl Grey).

Feb. 1806
[Mr. Fox's death, 13 Feb. 1806, led to nu-
merous changes. )
Duke of Portland ; lord Eldon, &c.* March, 1807
Spencer Perceval ; earl of Liverpool ; viscount Pal-
merston, &c.

Nov. and Dec. 1809 REGENCY.–Mr. Spencer Perceval (shot by Bellingham, u May, 1812), &c.

5 Feb. 1811 Earl of Liverpool ; lord Eldon ; Mr. Vansittart ; lord

Melville; viscounts Castlereagh, Palmerston, &c.

May, June, 1812 Georce iv.--Earl of Liverpool, &c.

29 Jan. 1820 [During lord Liverpool's long administration numerous changes occurred.) George Canning; lord Lyndhurst; viscount Gode

rich; William Huskisson ; viscount Palmerston ; duke of Clarence, &c.

April, 1827 [Mr. Canning died 8 August, 1827.] Viscount Goderich ; viscount Palmerston ; marquess

of Lansdowne ; W. Huskisson, &c. .Aug. Duke of Wellington ; Robert Peel ; Mr. Huskisson ; &c.

Jan. 1828 [The ministry reconstructed on the retirement

P of the earl of Dudley, lord Palmerston, Mr. Grant, Mr. Huskisson.]

May and June,
WILLIAM IV.-Duke of Wellington, &c. 26 June, 1830
Earl Grey; marquis of Lansdowne; lord Brougham:

Viscount Althorpe ; earl of Durham ; viscounts
Melbourne, Palmerston, and Goderich; sir James
Graham ; lord John Russell, &c. .

Noy.
[Earl Grey resigns, owing to a majority against

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ceeded by James, earl of Marlborough, who, in
turn, gave place to Edward, lord, afterwards
viscount, Conway); William Laud, bp. of
London ; sir Albert Morton, &c.

1628 William Laud,

now arehbishop of Canterbury:
Francis, lord Cottington; James, marquis of
Hamilton; Edward, earl of Dorset; sir John
Coke; sir Francis Winde bank, &c.

1635 Willi un Juxon, bishop of London ; sir John Finch,

afterwards lord Finch ; Francis, lord Cottington ;
Wentworth, earl of Strafford ; Algernon, earl of
Northumberland ; James, marquis of Hamilton;
Laud, archbishop of Canterbury; sir Francis
Windebank ; sir Henry Vane, &c. .

1640 [The king beheaded, 30 Jan. 1649.] COMMONWEALTH. - Oliver Cromwell, protector,

named a council, the number not to exceed 21
members, or he less than 13

1653 Richard Cromwell, son of Oliver, succeeded on the

death of his father. A council of officers ruled at
Wallingford house .

1658 CHARLES II.-Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of

Clarendon ; George Monk, created duke of Albe-
marle; Edward Montagu, created carl of Sandl-
wich ; lord Saye and Sele; earl of Manchester ;
lord Seymour; sir Robert Long, &c.

1660 George Monk, duke of Albemarle, made first commissioner of the treasury, &c.

1667 Cabal" Ministry ; Clifford,

Ashley, Buckingham,
Arlington, Lauderdale (see Cabal)

1670 Thomas, lord Clifford ; Anthony, earl of Shaftesbury;

Henry, earl of Arlington ; Arthur, earl of Angle-
sey; sir Thomas Osborne, created viscount
Latimer ; Henry Coventry ; sir George Carteret ;
Edward Seymour, &c.

1672
Thomas, viscount Latimer, afterwards earl of Danby,
made lord high treasurer.

26 June 1673 Arthur, earl of Essex, (succeeded by Lawrence

Hyde, aft. earl of Rochester); Robert, earl of
Sunderland, &e..

1679 {The king nominated a new council on 21 April, con

sisting of zo members only, of whom the princi-
pal were the great officers of state and great

Officers of the household.)
Sidney, lord Godolphin ; Lawrence, earl of Ro-

chester ; Daniel, earl of Nottingham ; Robert,
earl of Sunderland; sir Thomas Chicheley;
George, lord Dartmouth ; Henry, earl of Claren-
don; earls of Bath and Radnor

1684 JAMES 11.–Lawrence, earl of Rochester ; George,

marquis of Halifax ; sir George Jeffreys, after-
waris lord Jeffreys ; Henry, carl of Clarendon ;
sir John Ernley ; viscount Preston, &c.

1685 The earl of Rochester was displaced, and John,'lord

Belasyse, made first commissioner of the treasury
in his room, 4 Jan. ; the earl of Sunderland made
president of the council ; viscount Preston, see-
retary of state, &c.

1687-8 {The king left whitehall in the night of i1 Dec., and

quitting the kingdom, landed at Ambleteuse, in

France, Dec. 1688.]
WILLIAM III. AND MARY.--Charles, viscount Mor-

daunt ; Thomas Osborne, earl of Danby, created
marquess of Carmarthen, afterwards duke of
Leeds; George, marquis of Halifax ; Arthur,
Herbert, afterwards lord Torrington ; earls of
Shrewsbury, Nottingham, and Sunderland; earl
of Dorset and Middlesex ; William earl (after-
wards duke) of Devonshire ; lord Godolphin ; lord
Montagu ; lord De la Mere, &c.

1689 Sidney, lord Godolphin : Thomas, earl of Danby;

Richard Hampden ; Thomas, earl of Pembroke ;
Henry, viscount Sydney ; Daniel, earl of Notting-
ham, &c.

1690 Sir John Somers became lord Somers in 1697, and

lord chancellor ; Charles Montagu, afterwards
lord Halifax, was made first commissioner of the

treasury, 1 May, 1698, succeeded by Ford, earl of 31 Tankerville

1699 ANNE. --Sidney, lord (afterwards earl of Godolphin :) Tbomas, earl of Pembroke, &c.

May, 1702 Robert Harley, earl of Oxford; sir Simon Harcourt,

1 June, 1711 Charles, duke of Shrewsbury, made lord treasurer

three days before the queen's death, &c. 30 July, 1714 GEORGE I. -Charles, earl of Halifax (succeeded on

his death by the earl of Carlisle), &c.

9

&c.

* The dnel between lord Castlereagh and Mr. Canning, 22 Sept., 1809, led to the breaking up of this adininistration.

was

him in the lords, on the Reform Bill, 10 May; but ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM ASSOresumes his post

18 May, 1832 CIATION derived its origin from an opinion Viscount Melbourne ; &c.

July, 1834 that the disasters which occurred to the army in the (Melbourne administration dissolved, Nov. 1834. The duke of Wellington held the seals of office till

Crimea in 1854-5 were attributable to the inefficient the return of sir Robert Peel from Italy, Dec.

and irresponsible management of the various de1834.)

partments of the state. The association Sir Robert Peel ; lord Lyndhurst; duke of Welling- organised in London, 5 May, 1855. A meeting ton ; earl of Aberdeen ; &c. Nov. and Dec.

was held in Drury-lane theatre, on 13 June, and Viscount Melbourne, &c. VICTORIA.- Viscount Melbourne, &c.

April, 1835 Mr. Layard's motion on the subject in parliament

20 June, 1837 [Subsequent accessions, F. T. Baring; earl of

was negatived 18 June following. The association Clarendon ; T. B. Macaulay, &c. Viscount Mel- was reorganised in 1856, Mr. Roebuck, M.P., bebourne, resigned, and sir Robert Peel received coming chairman, but soon became unimportant; the queen's commands to forin a new administra- see Civil Service. tion, 8 May. This command is withdrawn, and lord Melbourne returned to power 10 May, 1839

ADMIRAL. The title does not appear to have Sir Robert Peel; duke of Wellington ; lord Lynd- been adopted in England until about 1300, but was

hurst ; sir James Graham ; earl of Aberdeen ; lord previously in use in France. Sir Harris Nicolas. Stanley, &c.

Aug. and Sept. 1841 Alfred, Athelstan, Edgar, Harold, and other kings, [Accessions, Sidney Herbert; W. E. Gladstone,

were commanders of their own' fleets. The first &c.] Lord John Russell ; viscount Palmerston; earl

French admiral is said to have been appointed 1284. Grey, &c.

July, 1846 The rank of admiral of the English seas was first [Accessions : earl Granville ; Mr. Fox Maule"; given to William de Leybourne by Edward I. in earl of Carlisle ; sir Thomas Wilde, created lord 1297. Spelman ; Rymer. The first Lord High Truro, &c.]

ADMIRAL in England was created by Richard II. in Lord John Russell and the marquis of Lansdowne

1385: there had been previously high adinirals of on the 24 Feb. announced the resignation of ministers, owing to their defeat on Mr. Locke

districtsthe north, west, and south. The duties King's motion respecting the franchise ; they in- have generally been executed by lords commisformed parliament, that it having been found im- sioners; see Admiralty: A siinilar dignity existed possible to construct a coalition ministry, the in Scotland from the reign of Robert III. : In 1673, queen, by the advice of the duke of Wellington,

the king bestowed it upon his natural son Charles had called upon her late ministers to resume office. Lord Stanley (since earl of Derby), in the interval,

Lennox, afterwards duke of Richmond, then an had been unable to form a cabinet, 3 March, 1851 infant, who resigned the office to the crown in Earl of Derby ; (late lord Stanley) ; lord St. Leo- 1703: after the union it was discontinued. The

nards ; Benjamin Disraeli ; Spencer H. Walpole ; dignity of lord high admiral of Ireland (of brief earl of Malmesbury; sir John Pakington ; duke existence) was conferred upon James Butler by

of Northumberland, &c. Earl of Aberdeen ; lord John Russell ; viscount Pal

27 Feb. 1852 Henry VIII., in May, 1534. The Admiral of the inerston, &c.

28 Dec.

Fleet is the highest rank in the Royal Navy, corre[Various changes of offices took place ; a fourth sponding to that of marshal in the army. We have secretary of state was appointed, by the separa- now 3 admirals of the fleet, 14 admirals, 15 vice-adtion of the war from the colonial department; see mirals, and 25 rear admirals, 226 captains, (Jan. Serretaries of State. The retirement of lord J. Rus- 1873).' The first admiral of the United States of sell, 24 Jan. 1855, and a majority in the commons against ministers of 157 (305 to 148), on Mr. Roe.

America, David G. Farragut, was nominated in 1866. buck's motion respecting the conduct of the war, ADMIRALTY, COURT OF, a court for the led to the resignation of lord Aberdeen and his

trial of causes relating to maritime affairs, said to colleagues, 30 Jan. ; the cabinet was reconstructed

have been erected by Edward III., in 1357. It was by Viscount Palmerston ; lord Cranworth : &c. 7 Feb. 1855 enacted in the reign of Henry VIII., that criminal (Secession of sir J. Graham, Mr. Gladstone, and

causes should be tried by witnesses and a jury, some Mr. S. Herbert. Accession of lord John Russell ; of the judges at Westırínster (or, as now, at the Old earl of Clarendon ; sir G. Grey ; sir G. C. Lewis ; Bailey) assisting. The judgeship of the admiralty sir W. Molesworth, &c. [On the second' reading of the Foreign Con

was constituted in 1514, and was filled by two or

more functionaries until the Revolution, when it spiracy bill, the government (defeated by a vote of censure being passed by a majority of 19, on the

was restricted to one. Beatson. The judge has motion of Mr. Milner Gibson) resigned immedia

usually been an eminent doctor of the civil law. In tely.

19 Feb. 1858 1844 the criminal jurisdiction of this court was reEarl of Derby ; B. Disraeli ; Spencer Walpole ; lord moved, and by 20 & 21 Vict. c. 77 (1857), the judge Stanley ; sir F. Thesiger (lord Chelmsford), &c. of the Probate court was to be also judge of the

26 Feb. [The Derby administration, in consequence of a

Admiralty court. The judge of the Admiralty vote of want of contidence in it being carried by a

court,

Dr. Stephen Lushington (appointed majority of 13, 10 June, 1859, resigned the next

in 1838), resigned 1 July, 1867, and was sucday. Earl Granville failed to forin an adminis- ceeded by Sir Robert Phillimore. The jurisdictration.)

tion of this court was extended in 1861. Viscount Palmerston ; lord John (since earl) Russell, &c.

18 June, 1855

ADMIRALTY OFFICE dates from 1512, [Lord Palmerston died is Oct. 1865.]

when Henry VIII. appointed commissioners to inEarl Russell; W. E. Gladstone ; earl of Clarendon ; spect his ships of war. During the Commonwealth &c. [Resigned (in consequence of a minority on the

Oct. 1865 the admiralty affairs were managed by a committee Reform Bill, 19 June)

of the parliament; and at the restoration in 1660,

26 June, 1866 Earl of Derby, B. Disraeli, lord Stanley, &c.; for James, duke of York became lord high admiral. In changes see Derby Administrations. 6 July, 1866 1662 the admiralty was first put into commission, [Earl of Derby resigned through ill health] the great officers of state being the commissioners;

Feb. 25 1868 B. Disraeli reconstituted the administration 29 Feb.

see succeeding changes below. In 1688-9 the (Mr. Disraeli resigned in consequence of the

admiralty was put into commission, and the board elections in November giving a majority of about

appears to have assembled at admiral Herbert's 114 to the Liberals.

lodgings, in Channel-row, Westminster, he being W. E. Gladstone ; earl of Clarendon, Robert Lowe; at that time first lord. In 1830, 1832, and 1836 Johh Bright, and others, received seals

various changes were made in the civil depart

24 Feb.

9 Dec.

FIRST LORDS OF THE ADMIRALTY.

ments, several offices being abolished or conso- house made use of for the admiralty office, until the lidated with others. In March, 1861, a royal com- business was removed to Greenwich, and thence to mission recommended the abolition of the board of Wallingford-house, against Whitehall.” It was readmiralty and the appointment of a minister of the built by Ripley about 1726; the screen was erected, navy department. The board was reconstituted 14 to conceal the ugliness of the building, by the Jan. 1809, and 4 May, 1872.

brothers Adam, in 1776.–Lord Nelson lay in state

in one of the apartments on 8 Jan. 1806; and on the 1660. JAMES, DUKE OF YORK, lord high adı al, 6 June. next day was buried at St. Paul's. 1673. KING CHARLES II., 14 June. PRINCE RUPERT, 9 July.

“ADMONITION TO THE PARLIAMENT," 1679. Sir Henry Capel, 14 Feb.

condemning all religious ceremonies but those com1680. Daniel Finch, esq., 19 Feb.

manded by the New Testament, was published by 1681. Daniel, lord Finch, 20 Jan.

certain Puritans in 1571. Its presumed authors, 1633. Daniel, earl of Nottingham, 17 April.

Field and Wilcox, were imprisoned. A second Ad1684. KING CHARLES II. 1685. KING JAMES II., 17 May. Office in commission.

monition by Thomas Cartwright was answered by 1689. Arthur Herbert, esq., 8 March.

archbishop Whitgift. 1690. Thomas, earl of Pembroke and Montgomery,

ADORNO AND FREGOSO, two families, of 20 Jan. 1692. Charles, lord Cornwallis, 10 March.

which the doges were frequently members, dis1693. Anthony, viscount Falkland, 15 April.

turbed Genoa from the 14th to the 16th centuries, 1694. Edwand Russel, esq., (aft. earl of Orford), 2 May. | the former favouring the emperor, the latter the 1699. John, earl of Bridgewater, 2 June.

French king.

Their power was annihilated by 1701. Thomas, earl of Pembroke, 4 April.

Andrea Doria about 1528. 1702. GEORGE PRINCE OF DENMARK, lord high almiral, 20 May.

ADRIAN'S WALL (to prevent the irrup1708. Thomas earl of Pembroke, ditto, 29 Nov.

tions of the Scots and Picts into the northern counOffice in commission. 1709. Edward, earl of Orford, 8 Oct.

ties of England, then under the Roman government) 1710. Sir John Leake, 4 Oct.

extended from the Tyne to Solway firth, and was 1712. Thomas, earl of Stratford, 30 Sept.

eighty miles long, twelve feet high, and eight in 1714. Edward, earl of Orford, 14 Oct.

thickness, with watch-towers; built 121.

It was 1717. James, earl of Berkeley, 19 March.

repaired and strengthened by Severus, 207–210. 1727. George, viscount Torrington, 2 Aug. 1733. Sir Charles Wager, knt., 25 June.

ADRIANOPLE, in Turkey, so named after 1742. Daniel earl of Winchilsea, 19 March,

its restorer the emperor Adrian (who died 10 July, 1744. John, duke of Bedford, 27 Dec. 1748. John, earl of Sandwich, 10 Feb.

138). Near here Constantine defeated Licinius and 1751. George, lord Anson, 22 June.

gained the empire, 3 July, 323; also, near here the 1756. Richard, earl Temple, 19 Nov.

emperor Valens was defeated and slain by the Goths, 1757. Daniel, earl of Winehilsea, 6 April.

9 Aug. 378. Adrianople was taken by the Turks George, lord Anson, 2 July.

under Amurath in 1361, and was their capital till 1762. George M. Dunk, earl of Halifax, 19 June. 1763. George Grenville, esq., 1 Jan.

the capture of Constantinople in 1453. It was taken John, earl of Sandwich, 23 April.

by the Russians on 20 Aug. 1829; and restored John, earl of Egmont, 10 Sept.

14 Sept. same year; see Turkey. 1766. Sir Charles Saunders, 10 Sept. Sir Edward Hawke, 10 Dec.

ADRIATIC. The ceremony of the doge of 1771. John, earl of Sandwich, 12 Jan.

Venice wedding the Adriatic sea (instituted about 1782. Hon. Augustus Keppel, 1 April.

1173), took place annually on Ascension-day. The Augustus, viscount Keppel, 18 July.

doge dropped a ring into the sea from his bucentaur, 1783. Richard, viscount Howe, 28 Jan.

or state barge, being attended by his nobility and 1988. John, earl of Chatham, 16 July.

foreign ambassadors. The ceremony was first 1794. George John, earl Spencer, 20 Dec. 1801. John, earl St. Vincent, 19 Feb.

omitted in 1797. 1804. Henry, viscount Melville, 15 May.

ADULLAM, a cave to which David fled from 1805. Charles, lord Barham, 2 May. 1806. Hon Charles Grey, 10 Feb.

the persecution of Saul about 1062 B.C. (1 Sam. Thomas Grenville, esq., 23 Oct.

xxii. 1, 2). Mr. Horsman, Mr. R. Lowe, earl 1807. Henry, lord Mulgrave, 6 April.

Grosvenor, lord Elcho, and other liberals who 1809. Charles Yorke, esq., 10 May.

opposed the Franchise bill in 1866 were termed 1812. Robert, viscount Melville, 25 March,

“Adullamites.” During a debate on this bill on 1827. WILLIAM HENRY, DUKE OF CLARENCE, lord high animiral, 2 May, resigned 12 Aug. 1828.

13 March, 1866, Mr. Bright said of Mr. Horsman, 1828. Robert, viscount Melville, 19 Sept.

that he had retired into what may be called his 1830. Sir James R. G. Graham, bart., 25 Nov.

political cave of Adullam, to which he invited every 1834. George, lord Auckland, 11 June.

one who was in debt, and every one who was disThomas Philip, earl de Grey, 23 Dec.

contented,” &c. On 19 April, lord Eleho said, “No 1835. George, lord Auckland, 25 April.

improper motive has driven us into this cave, where Gilbert, earl of Minto, 19 Sept. 1841. Thomas, earl of Haddington, 8 Sept.

we are a most happy family, daily-I may say, 1846. Edward, earl of Ellenborough, 13 Jan.

hourly-increasing in number and strength, where George, earl of Auckland, 24 July.

we shall remain until we go forth to deliver Israel 1849. Sir Francis Thornhill Baring, 18 Jan.

from oppression.” Although their opposition led to 1852. Algernon, duke of Northumberland, 28 Feb. the defeat and resignation of the Russell ministry, 1853. Sir James Robert George Graham, 5 Jan.

they declined to take office under lord Derby in 1855. Sir Charles Wood, bart., 24 Feb. 1858. Sir John Pakington, bart., 26 Feb.

July, 1866. They did not vote together uniformly 1859. Edward, duke of Somerset, June.

in 1867, and (lord Elcho and Mr. Wyld excepted) 1866. Sir John Pakington, bart., 6 July.

voted with Mr. Gladstone, for the disestablishment 1867. Henry Lowry Corry, 8 March.

of the Irish church, 1 May, 1868. 1868. Hugh Culling Eardley Childers, 9 Dec. 1871. George Joachim Güschen, 9 March.

ADULTERATION. That of food was pro

hibited in England in 1267, and punishments for ADMIRALTY, Whitehall. “At the south it enacted, 1581, 1604, 1836, 1851, &c. Much end of Duke-street, Westminster, was seated a large attention was drawn to it in 1822, through Mr. Ac

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cum's book, called “Death in the Pot," and in 1855 established by sir G. Mackenzie about 1682; see through Dr. Hassall's book, “ Food and its Adulte- Judge Advocate. rations." By an act for preventing the adulteration of food, passed in 1860, parochial chemical analysts said to owe their name to having had charge of the

ÆDILES. Roman city officers of three degrees, may be appointed. An act to prevent the adultera

1. Two plebeian ædiles to prevent the adulteration

of food and drugs was looking after buildings, weights, and measures, the tion of seeds was passed 16 Aug. 1869; and another ædes or temple of Ceres.

Were appointed with the tribunes, to assist them in passed 10 Aug. 1872. Penalties for adulterating liquors were imposed by the new licensing act passed supply

of provisions and water, &c., 494 B.C.

The ædiles curules, at first patricians, were apsame time.

pointed 365 B.C., .3. Julius Caesar appointed adiles ADULTERY was punished with death by the cereales for watching over the supply of corn. The law of Moses (1490 B.C; Lev. XX. 10)—and by Ly- ædiles became a kind of police under the emperors. curgus (884 B.C.). The early Saxons burnt the

ÆDUI OR HEDUI, a Celtic people, N.E. adulteress, and erected a gibbet over her ashes, France, who were delivered from subjection to the whereon they hanged the adulterer. The ears and Sequani, by Julius Cæsar, B.c. 58 ; but afterwards, nose were cut off under Canute, 1031. Adultery opposing him, were subjugated by him, 52. Their was ordained to be punished capitally by the parlia- insurrection headed by Julius Sacrovir, A.D. 21, was ment, May 14, 1650 : but there is no record of this quelled by C. Silius. law taking effect; and it was repealed at the restoration. In New England the punishment for

ÆGATES ISLES, W. of Sicily: near these, adultery was made capital to both parties, and during the first Punic war, the Roman consul, c. several suffered for it, 1662. Hardie. Till 1857 the Lutatius Catulus gained a decisive victory over the legal redress against the male offender was byʻcivil Carthaginian fleet under Hanno, 10 March, 241 B.C. action for a money compensation; the female being Peace ensued, the Romans obtaining Sicily and a liable to divorce. By 20 & 21 Vict. c. 85 (1857)

tribute of 3200 talents. the “action for criminal conversation" was abolished, ÆGINA, a Greek island, a rival of Athens, was and the Court for Divorce and Matrimonial Causes humbled by Themistocles, 485 B.C. ; and taken and established with power to grant divorces for adultery its works destroyed 455. Its inhabitants, expelled, and ill usage; see Divorce. An act was passed in 431, were restored by the Spartans, 404; they re1869 permitting parties to suits for adultery to give newed war with Athens, 388, and made peace, 387. evidence.

A. E. I. 0." U., (for “Austria est imperare ADVENT (adveniens, coming). The season orbi universi," “ Austria is to rule all the world.") includes four Sundays, previous to Christmas, the was the motto of the weak and unfortunate emperor, first the nearest Sunday to St. Andrew's day Frederick IIl. 1440—1493. (Nov. 30), before or after. Homilies respecting Advent are mentioned prior to 378. Advent Sun: Chersonesus, where Lysander, the Lacedemonian,

ÆGOSPOTAMI, (the Goat-river.) in the day, 1872, 1 Dec.; 1873, 30 Nov.; 1874, 29 Nov.; defeated the Athenian tleet, 405 B.C, and ended the 1875, 28 Nov.; 1876, 3 Dec.; 1877, 2 Dec.

Peloponnesian war. ADVENTURE BAY, S.E. end of Van Die ÆLFRIC SOCIETY; founded 1842; closed men's Land, discovered in 1773 by capt. Furneaux 1856; published " Homilies of Ælfric, archbishop in his first voyage to the Pacitie,' and named from

of Canterbury” and other Anglo-Saxon works. his ship Adventure. It was visited by capt. Cook 1777; by capt. Bligh in 1788 and 1792.

ÆLIA CAPITOLINA, built on the ruins of

Jerusalem by the emperor Adrian, 130. ADVENTURERS, see MERCHANTS.

ÆMILIA, the name given to the provinces of ADVERTISEMENTS IN NEWSPAPERS, Parma, Modena, and the Romagna, united to Saras now published, were not general in England till dinia in 1860, and now part of the kingdom of the beginning of the eighteenth century: A penalty | Italy. of 501. was inflicted on persons advertising a reward with “ No questions to be asked” for the return of the adventures of Æneas, written about 24 B.c, by

ÆNEID, the great Latin epic poem, relating things stolen, and on the printer, 1754: The ad. Virgil, who died 22 Sept. 19 B.C., before he had vertisement duty, (first enacted, 1712,) formerly finally corrected the poem. It was first printed in charged according to the number of lines, was afterwards fixed, in England, at 38. 6d., and in Ireland 1469, at Rome. at 28. 6d. each advertisement. The duty (further ÆNIGMA Samson's riddle (about 1141 B.C.; reduced, in England to 18. 6d. and in Ireland to 18. Judges xiv. 12) is the earliest on record. Gale ateach, in 1833), was abolished in 1853. On 16th Oct. tributes ænigmatical speeches to the Egyptians. 1860, the whole libretto of MacFarren's Opera, The ancient oracles frequently gave responses adRobin Hood, was inserted as an advertisement in mitting of perfectly contrary interpretations. In the Times (4} columns).. ADVERTISING VANs, a Nero's time, the Romans had recourse to this great nuisance, were prohibited in 1853.

method of concealing truth. The following epitaph

on Fair Rosamond (mistress of our Henry II. about ADVOCATE, THE KING's, (always a doctor 1173) is a mediæval specimen :-“Hic jacet in of the civil law,) was empowered to prosecute at his tombê Rosa mundi, non Rosa munda; Non redolet, own instance certain crimes about 1597. The LORD sed olet, quæ redolere solet." ADVOCATE in Scotland is the same as the attorneygeneral in England with judicial powers.-- It was

ÆOLIA, in Asia Minor, was colonised by a decided in the parliament of Paris, in 1685, that principal branch of the Hellenic race about 1124 B.C. the king's advocate of France might at the same

The Æolians built several large cities both on the time be a judge; and in Scotland sir William Oli- mainland and the neighbouring islands; Mitylene, phant (1612) and șir John Nesbit (1666) were lord in Lesbos, was considered the capital. advocates and lords of session at the same time. ÆOLIAN HARP. Its invention is ascribed Beatson.—The Advocates' library in Edinburgh was to Kircher, 1650, but it was known before.

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