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Secretaries of State: Thomas Jefferson, of Va., 26 Sept. 1789;

SEVENTH ADMINISTRATION-1829 TO 1837. Edmund Randolph, of Va., 2 Jan. 1794; Timothy Picker- President: Andrew Jackson, of Tenn. ing, of Mass., 10 Dec. 1795.

Vice-presidents: John C. Calhoun, of S. C. — resigned 28 Dec. Secretaries of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton, of N. Y., 11 1832; Martin Van Buren, of N. Y., 4 March, 1833. Sept. 1789; Oliver Wolcott, of Coon., 3 Feb. 1795.

Secretaries of State: Martin Van Buren, of N. Y., 6 March, Secretaries of War: Henry Knox, of Mass., 12 Sept. 1789; Tim- 1829; Edward Livingston, of La., 24 May, *1831; Louis

othy Pickering, of Mass., 2 Jan. 1795; James McHenry, of McLane, of Del., 29 March, 1833; John Forsyth, of Ga., 27 Md., 27 Jan, 1796.

June, 1834. Secretaries of the Navy. No navy department was organized Secretaries of the Treasury: Samuel D. Ingham, of Pa., 6 during Washington's administration.

March, 1829; Louis Mclane, of Del., 8 Aug. 1831; William Postmasters general: Samuel Osgood, of Mass., 26 Sept. 1789; J. Duane, of Pa., 29 May, 1833; Roger B. 'laney, of Md., 23 Timothy Pickering, of Mass., 7 Noy. 1794; Joseph Haber

Sept. 1833—not confirmed by the senate; Levi Woodbury, sham, of Ga., 25 Feb. 1795.

of N. H., 27 June, 1834. Attorneys - general: Edmund Randolph, of Va., 26 Sept. 1789; Secretaries of War: John H. Eaton, of Tenn., 9 March, 1829;

William Bradford, of Pa., 27 Jan. 1794; Charles Lee, of Va., Lewis Cass, of Mich., 1 Aug 1831-resigned Nov. 1836. 10 Dec. 1795.

Secretaries of the Navy: John Branch, of N. C., 9 March, 1829; SECOND ADMINISTRATION-1797 TO 1801.

Levi Woodbury, of N. H., 23 May, 1831; Mahlon Dickerson, President: John Adams, of Mass.

of N. J., 30 June, 1834.

Postmasters.general: William T. Barry, of Ky., 9 March, 1829. Vice-president: Thomas Jefferson, of Va. Secretaries of State: Timothy Pickering, continued in office;

Previous to this date the postmaster-general had noi been

recognized as a member of the president's cabinet, Amos John Marshall, of Va., 13 May, 1800. Secretaries of the Treasury: Oliver Wolcott, continued in of Attorneys-general: John McPherson Berrien, of Ga., 9 March,

Kendall, of Ky, 1 May, 1835. fice; Samuel Dexter, of Mass., 31 Dec. 1800. Secretaries of War: James McHenry, continued in office; Sam

1829; Roger B. Taney, of Md., 27 Dec. 1831; Benjamin F. uel Dexter, of Mass., 13 May, 1800; Roger Griswold, of Conn.,

Butler, of N. Y., 24 June, 1834. 3 Feb. 1801.

EIGHTH ADMINISTRATION-1837 TO 1841. Secretaries of the Navy: George Cabot, of Mass., 3 May, 1798, President: Martin Van Buren, of N. Y. declined; Benjamin Stoddert, of Md., 21 May, 1798.

Vice-president: Richard M. Johnson, of Ky. Postmaster general: Joseph Habersham, continued in office.

Secretary of State: John Forsyth, continued in office. Attorney-general: Charles Lee, continued in office.

Secretary of the Treasury: Levi Woodbury, continued in ofTHIRD ADMINISTRATION-1801 to 1809.

fice.

Secretary of War: Joel R. Poinsett, of S. C., 7 March, 1837. President: Thomas Jefferson, of l'a.

Secretaries of the Navy: Mahlon Dickerson, continued in of. Vice-presidents: Aaron Burr, of N. Y., from 1801 to 1805;

fice; James K. Paulding, of N. Y., 20 June, 1838. George Clinton, of N. Y., from 4 March, 1805. Secretary of State: James Madison, of Va., 5 March, 1801.

Postmasters general: Amos Kendall, continued in office; John Secretaries of the Treasury: Samuel Dexter, continued in of

M. Niles, of Conn., 18 May, 1840.

Attorneys general: Benjamin F. Butler, continued in office; fice; Albert Gallatin, of Pa., 26 Jan. 1802. Secretary of War: Henry Dearborn, of Mass., 5 March, 1801.

Felix Grundy, of Tenn., 7 July, 1838; Henry D. Gilpin, of Secretaries of the Nary: Benjamin Stoddert, continued in of

Pa., 10 Jan. 1840. tice; Robert Smith, of Md., 26 Jan. 1802; Jacob Crownin

NINTI ADMINISTRATION-1841 TO 1845. shield, of Mass., 2 March, 1805.

President: William Henry Harrison, of o. Died 4 April, 1841, Postmasters general: Joseph Habersham, continued in office; when John Tyler, the vice president, became president. Gideon Granger, of Conn., 26 Jan. 1802.

Vice president: John Tyler, of Va. Attorneys general: Levi Lincoln, of Mass., 5 March, 1801; Rob. Secretaries of State: Daniel Webster, of Mass., 5 March, 1841

ert Smith, of Md., 3 March, 1805; John Breckinridge, of -resigned 8 May, 1843; Hugh s. Legaré, of S. C., 9 May, Ky, 17 Jan. 1806; Cæsar A. Rodney, of Del., 20 Jan. 1807. 1843-died 20 June, 1843; Abel P. Upshur, of Va., 24 July,

1843—killed by the bursting of a cannon, 28 Feb. 1844; John FOURTH ADMINISTRATION-1809 TO 1817.

Nelson, of Md. (acting secretary), 29 Feb. 1844; John C. Cal. President: James Madison, of Va.

houn, of S. C., 6 March, 1844. Vice-presidents: George Clinton, of N. Y., died 20 April, 1812; Secretaries of the Treasury: Thomas Ewing, of 0., 5 March,

Elbridge Gerry, of Mass., 4 March, 1813-died 23 Nov. 1813. 1841- resigned 11 Sept. 1841; Walter Forward, of Pa., 13 Secretaries of State: Robert Smith, of Md., 6 March, 1809; Sept. 1841--resigned 1 March, 1843; Caleb Cushing, of Mass., James Monroe, of Va., 2 April, 1811.

rejected by the senate; John C. Spencer, of N. Y., 3 March, Secretaries of the Treasury: Albert Gallatin, continued in of

1843; George M. Bibb, of Ky, 15 June, 1844. tice; George W. Campbell, of Tenn., 9 Feb. 1814; Alexander Secretaries of War: John Bell, of Tenn., 5 March, 1841-reJ. Dallas, of Pa., 6 Oct. 1814.

signed 11 Sept. 1841; John McLean, of 0., 13 Sept. 1841, deSecretaries of War: William Eustis, of Mass., 7 March, 1809;

clined; John C. Spencer, of N. Y., 12 Oct. 1841; James M. John Armstrong, of N. Y., 13 Jan. 1813; James Monroe, of Porter, of Pa., 8 March, 1843, rejected by the senate; William Va., 27 Sept. 1814, acting secretary; William H. Crawford, Williams, of Penn., 15 Feb. 1844. of Ga., 3 March, 1815.

Secretaries of the avy: George E. Badger, of N. C., 5 March, Secretaries of the Navy: Paul Hamilton, of S. C., 7 March, 1841--resigned 11 Sept. 1841; Abel P. I'pshur, of Va., 13

1809; William Jones, of Pa., 12 Jan. 1813; Benjamin W. Sept. 1841; David Henshaw, of Mass., 24 July, 1843, rejected Crowninshield, of Mass., 17 Dec. 1814.

by the senate; Thomas W. Gilmer, of Va., 15 Feb. 1844– Postmasters-general: Gideon Granger, continued in office; died 28 Feb. 1844; John Y. Mason, of Va., 14 March, 1844.

Return J. Meigs, of 0., 17 March, 1814.
Attorneys general: Cæsar A. Rodney, continued in office; Postmasters-general: Francis Granger, of N. Y.. 6 Marcb, 1841

--resigned 12 Sept. 1841; Charles A. Wickliffe, of Ky., 13 William Pinckney, of Md., 11 Dec. 1811; Richard Rush, of Sept. 1841. Pa., 10 Feb. 1814.

Attorneys-general: John J. Crittenden, of Ky., 5 March, 1841FIFTH ADMINISTRATION-1817 TO 1825.

resigned il Sept. 1841; Hugh $. Legaré, of S. C., 13 Sept President: James Monroe, of Va.

1841; John Nelson, of Md., 1 July, 1843. Vice-president: Daniel D. Tompkins, of N. Y.

TENTH ADMINISTRATION-1845 TO 1849. Secretary of State: John Quincy Adams, of Mass., 5 March, President: James K. Polk, of Tenn.

1817.
Secretary of the Treasury: William H. Crawford, of Ga., 5 Secretary of State: James Buchanan, of Pa., 5 March 1845.

Vice-president: George M. Dallas, of Pa.
March, 1817.
Secretaries of War: Isaac Shelby, of Ky., 5 March, 1817, de

Secretary of the Treasury: Robert J. Walker, of Miss., 5 clined the appointment; George Graham, of Va., 7 April, Secretary of War: William L. Marcy, of N. Y., 5 March, 1845.

March, 1845. 1817; John C. Calhoun, of S. C., 8 Oct. 1817.

Secretaries of the Navy: George Bancroft, of Mass., 10 March, Secretaries of the Navy: Benjamin W. Crowninshield, contin. ued in ofhce; Smith Thompson, of N. Y., 9 Nov. 1818; John Postmaster-general: Cave Johnson, of Tenn., 5 March, 1845.

1845; John Y. Mason, of Va., 9 Sept. 1846. Rogers, of Mass., 1 Sept. 1823; Samuel L. Southard, of N. J., Attorneys general: John Y. Mason of Va., 5 March, 1845; Na

16 Sept. 1823 Postmasters-general: Return J. Meigs, continued in office;

than Clifford, of Me., 17 Oct. 1846; Isaac Toucey, of Coun., John McLean, of (., 26 June, 1823.

21 June, 1848. Attorneys.general: Richard Rush, continued in office; Will.

ELEVENTH ADMINISTRATION-1849 TO 1853. iam Wirt, of Va., 13 Nov. 1817.

President: Zachary Taylor, of La. Died 9 July, 1850, and was

succeeded by the vice-president. SIXTH ADMINISTRATION-1825 TO 1829.

Vice-president: Millard Fillmore, of N. Y. President: John Quincy Adams, of Mass.

Secretaries of State: John M. Clayton, of Del., 7 March, 1819Vice-president: John C. Calhoun, of S. C.

resigned 10 July, 1850; Daniel Webster, of Niass., 20 July, Secretary of State: Henry Clay, of Ky., 7 March. 1825.

1850—died 24 Oct. 1852; Edward Everett, of Mass., 9 Dec. Secretary of the Treasury: Richard Rush, of Pa., 7 March, 1852. 1825.

Secretaries of the Treasury: William M. Meredith, of Pa., 7 Secretaries of War: James Barbour, of Va., 7 March, 1825; Pe. March, 1849-resigned 10 July, 1850; Thomas Corwin, of 0., ter B. Porter, of N. Y., 26 May, 1828.

20 July, 1850. Secretary of the Nary: Samuel L. Southard, continued in of- Secretaries of War: George W. Crawford, of Ga., 7 March, 1849 fice.

- resigned 10 July, 1850; William A. Graham, of N. C., 20 Postmaster general: John McLean, continued in office.

July, 1850 — resigned 15 July, 1852; John P. Kennedy, of Attorney general: William Wirt, continued in office.

Md., 22 July, 1852.

Secretaries of the Interior (a new office): Thomas Ewing, of Secretary of the Treasury: John Sherman, of 0., 8 March,

0., 7 March, 1849-resigned 10 July, 1850; James A. Pearce, 1877. of Md., 20 July, 1850; T. McKennon, of Pa., 15 Aug. 1850, Secretaries of War: George W. McCrary, of Ia., 12 March, 1877; and died soon afterwards; Alexander H. H. Stuart, of Va., Alexander Ramsey, of Minn., 10 Dec. 1879. 12 Sept. 1850.

Secretaries of the Navy: Richard W. Thompson, of Ind., 12 Postmasters-general: Jacob Collamer, of Vt., 7 March, 1849— March, 1877; Nathan Goff, Jr., of W. Va., 6 Jan. 1881. resigned 10 July, 1850; N. K. Hall, of N. Y., 20 July, 1850— Secretary of the Interior: Carl Schurz, of Mo., 12 March, 1877. resigned Aug. 1852; Samuel D. Hubbard, of Conn., 31 Aug. Postmasters-general: David M. Key, of Tenn., 12 March, 1877; 1852.

Horace Maynard, of Tenn., 2 June, 1880. Attorneys general: Reverdy Johnson, of Md., 7 March, 1849— Attorney-general: Charles Devens, of Mass., 12 March, 1877. resigned 10 July, 1850; John J. Crittenden, of Ky., 20 July,

SEVENTEENTI ADMIXISTRATION-1881. 1850.

President: James A. Garfield, of 0.-died 19 Sept. 1881, when TWELFTH ADMINISTRATION-1853 to 1857.

vice-president Chester A. Arthur, of N.Y., becaine pres dent. President: Franklin Pierce, of N. H.

Vice-president: Chester A. Arthur, of N. Y., succeeded to the Vice-president. William R. King, of Ala. Died 18 April, 1853. presidency 19 Sept. 1881. Secretary of State: William L. Marcy, of N. Y., 5 March, 1853. Secretaries of State: James G. Blaine, of Me., 5 March, 1881; Secretary of the Treasury: James Guthrie, of Ky., 5 March, F. T. Frelinghuysen, of N. J., 12 Dec. 1881. 1853.

Secretaries of the Treasury: William Windom, of Minn., 5 Secretary of War: Jefferson Davis, of Miss., 5 March, 1853. March, 1881; Charles J. Folger, of N. Y., 27 Oct. 1881. Secretary of the Navy: James C. Dobbin, of N. C., 5 March, Secretary of War: Robert T. Lincoln, of III., 5 March, 1881.

1853. Secretary of the Interior: Robert McClellan, of Mich., 5 March, Secretary of the Navy: William H. Hunt, of La., 5 March, 1853.

Secretary of the Interior: Samuel J. Kirkwood, of la., 5 Postmaster-general: James Campbell, of Pa., 5 March, 1853. March, 1881. Attorney-general: Caleb Cushing, of Mass., 5 March, 1853. Postmasters-general: Thomas L. James, of N. Y., 5 March, THIRTEENTH ADMINISTRATION-1857 TO 1861.

1881; Timothy 0. Howe, of Wis., 20 Dec. 1881.

Attorneys general: Wayne McVeagh, of Pa., 5 March, 1881; President: James Buchanan, of Pa.

Benjamin Harris Brewster, of Pa. , 16 Dec. 1881. Vice-president: John C. Breckinridge, of Ky. Secretaries of State: Lewis Cass, of Mich., 6 March, 1857-re. Administrative Reform Association de

sigued 14 Dec. 1860. Jeremiah S. Black, of Pa., succeeded rived its origin from an opinion that the disasters which

him. Secretaries of the Treasury: Howell Cobb, of Ga., 6 March,

occurred to the army in the Crimea in 1854-5 were 1857-resigued 10 Dec. 1860; Philip F. Thomas, of Md. -re attributable to the inefficient and irresponsible managesigned 11 Jan. 1861; John A. Dix, of N. Y.

ment of the various departments of the state. The assoSecretaries of War: John B. Floyd, of Va., 6 March, 1857-reciation was organized in London, 5 May, 1855. A meet

signed 29 Dec. 1860; Joseph Holt, of Ky., 30 Dec. 1860. Secretary of the Navy: Isaac Toucey, or Conn., 6 March, 1857. ing was held in Drury-lane theatre on 13 June, and Mr. Secretary of the Interior: Jacob Thompson, of Miss., 6 March, Layarıl's motion on the subject in parliament was nega1857 --resigned 8 Jan. 1861.

tived 18 June following. The association was reorganPostmasters - general: Aaron V. Brown, of Tenn., 6 March,

1857—died 8 March, 1859; Joseph Holt, of Ky., 'July, 1859; ized in 1856, Mr. Roebuck, M.P., becoming chairman, but Horatio King, of Me., 12 Feb. 1861.

soon became unimportant; see Civil Service. Attorneys general: Jeremiah S. Black, of Pa., 6 March, 1857; Edwin H. Stanton, of 0., Dec. 1860.

Admiral. The title does not appear to have been FOURTEENTII ADMINISTRATION-1861 to 1869.

adopted in England until about 1300, but was previously Presidents: Abraham Lincoln, of III. - died 15 April, 1835. An. in use in France.-Sir Ilarris Nicolas. Alfred, Athelstari, drew Johnson, of Tenn., succeeded Abraham Lincoln, 15 Edgar, Harold, and other kings were commanders of April, 1865.

their own fleets. The first French admiral is said to Vice-presidents: Hannibal Hamlin, of Me.; Andrew Johnson, have been appointed 1284. The rank of admiral of the

of Tenn., 4 March, 1865-died 31 July, 1875. Secretary of State: William H. Seward, of N. Y., March, 1861. English seas was first given to William de Leybourne by Secretaries of the Treasury: Salmon P. Chase, of o., March, Edward I. in 1297.-Spelmun ; Rymer. The first LORD

1861; William P. Fessenden, of Me., Sept. 1864; Hugh High Admiral in England was created by Richard II.

McCulloch, of Ind., March, 1865. Socretaries of War: Simon Cameron, of Pa., March, 1861; Ed. in 1385; there had been previously high admirals of win M. Stanton, of 0., Jan. 1862.

districts—the north, west, and south. The duties have Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles, of Conn., March, 1861. Secretaries of the luterior: Caleb B. Smith, or Ind., March: Admiralty. A similar dignity existed in Scotland from

generally been executed by lords commissioners; see 1861–resigned Dec. 1862: Johur: Usher, orbud, panorami; the reign of Robert III. In 1673, Charles II. bestowed James Harlan, of la., May, 1865; 0. H. Browning, of all, July, 1866.

it upon his natural son Charles Lennox, afterwards duke Postmasters-general: Montgomery Blair, of Md., March, 1861; of Richmond, then an infant, who resigned the office to

William Deunison, of 0., Oct. 1864; Alexander W. Randall, the crown in 1703 : after the union it was discontinued.
of Wis., July, 1866.
Attorneys-general: Edward Bates of Mo., March, 1861; James — The dignity of lord high admiral of Ireland (of brief
Speed, of Ky., Dec. 1864; H. F. Slansberry, of Ky., July,

existence) was conferred upon James Butler by Henry FIFTEENTI ADMINISTRATION-1869 TO 1877.

VIII. in May, 1534. The Admiral of the Fleet is the President: Ulysses S. Grant, of Ill.

highest rank in the Royal navy, corresponding to that Vice-presidents: Schuyler Colfax, of Ind. ; Henry Wilson, of of tield-marshal in the army. We have now 5 aılmirals Mass., 4 March, 1873.

of the fleet, 16 admirals, 19 vice-admirals, 31 rear-admiSecretaries of State: Elihu B. Washburne, of III., 5 March,

rals, and 174 captains (April, 1881). The rank of admiral 1869; Hamilton Fish, of N. Y., 11 March, 1869. Secretaries of the Treasury: George S. Boutwell

, of Mass., 11 in the United States navy was created July 25, 1866, for March, 1869; Will am A. Richardson, of Mass., 17 March, the purpose of ho ring David G. Farragut and suitably 1873; Benjamin H. Bristow, of Ky., 2 June, 1874; Lot M. rewarding him for his eminent services.

Morrill, of Me., 21 June, 1876.
Secretaries of War: John A. Rawlins, of Mi., 11 March, 1869; Admiralty, Court of, a court for the trial of

William T. Sherman, of 0., 9 Sept. 1869; William W. Bel causes relating to maritime affairs, said to have been

knap, of la,, 25 Oct. 1869. Secretaries of the Navy: Adolph E. Borie, of Pa., 5 March,

erected by Edward III. in 1357. It was enacted in the 1869; George M. Robeson, of N. J., 25 June, 1869.

reign of Henry VIII, that criminal causes should be Secretaries of the Interior: Jacob D. Cox, of 0., 5 March, 1869, tried by witnesses and a jury, some of the judges at

Columbus Delano, of 0., 1 Nov. 1870; Zachariah Chandler, of Mich., 19 Oct. 1875.

Westminster (or, as now, at the Old Bailey) assisting. Postmasters-general: John A. J. Creswell, of Md., 5 March, The judgeship of the admiralty was constituted in 1514,

1869; James W. Marshall, of Pa, 3 July, 1874; Marshall and was filled by two or more functionaries until the
Jewell, of Conn., 24 Aug. 1874; James N. Tyner, of Ind., 12 Revolution, when it was restricted to one.-- Beatson.
July, 1876.
Attorneys general: Ebenezer R. Hoar, of Mass., 5 March, 1869; The judge has usually been an eminent doctor of the

Amos T. Akerman, of Ga., 23 June, 1870; George H. Will civil law. In 1844 the criminal jurisdiction of this court
iams, of Or., 10 Jan. 1872; Edwards Pierrepont, of N. Y., 15
May, 1875; Alphonso Taft, of 0., 22 May, 1876.

was removed, and by 20 & 21 Vict. c. 77 (1857), the

judge of the Probate court was to be also judge of the SIXTEENTI ADMINISTRATION-1877 To 1881.

Admiralty court. The judge of the Admiralty court, President: Rutherford B. Hayes, of 0. Vice-President: William A. Wheeler, of N. Y.

Dr. Stephen Lushington (appointed in 1838), resigned i Secretary of State: William M. Evarts, of N. Y., 12 March, July, 1867, and was succeeded by Sir Robert Phillimore. 1877.

The jurisdiction of this court was extended in 1861; see

1866.

FIRST LORDS OF THE ADMIRALTY.

Supreme Court. In the United States admiralty juris- | 1828. Robert, viscount Melville, 19 Sept. diction is exercised by the circuit and district courts.

1830. Sir James Robert George Graham, bart., 25 Nov.

1834. George, lord Auckland, 11 June. Admiralty, Whitehall. « At the south end of Thomas Philip, earl de Grey, 23 Dec. Duke street, Westminster, was seated a large house 1835. George, lord Auckland, 25 April.

Gilbert, earl of Minto, 19 Sept. made use of for the admiralty office, until the business | 1841. Thomas, earl of Haddington, 8 Sept. was removed to Greenwich, and thence to Wallingford 1846. Edward, earl of Ellenborough, 13 Jan. house, against Whitehall.” It was rebuilt by Ripley 1849. Sir Francis Thornhill Baring, 18 Jan.

George, earl of Auckland, 24 July. about 17-26; the screen was erected, to conceal the ugli- 1852. Algernon, duke of Northumberland, 28 Feb. ness of the building, by the brothers Adam, in 1776.- 1853. Sir James Robert George Graham, 5 Jan. Lord Nelson lay in state in one of the apartments on 8 1855. Sir Charles Wood, bart., 24 Feb.

1858. Sir John Pakington, bart,, 26 Feb. Jan. 1806, and on the next day was buried at St. Paul's.

1859. Edward, duke of Somerset, June. Admiralty and War-office Act, to facilitate 1866. Sir John Pakington, bart., 6 July. improvements in the organization of these offices, by the 1868. Hugh Culling Eardley Childers, 9 Dec.

1867. Henry Lowry Corry, 8 March. retirement of clerks from certain of the civil depart- 1871. George Joachim Göschen, 9 March. ments by granting gratuities, was passed 10 Aug. 1878. 1874. George Ward Hunt, 21 Feb. ; died 29 July, 1877.

1877. William Henry Smith, about 7 Aug. Admiralty Office dates from 1512, when Henry 1880. Thomas George Baring, earl of Northbrook, 23 April. VIII. appointed commissioners to inspect his ships of Admonition TO THE PARLIAMENT,” condemning war. During the Commonwealth the admiralty affairs all religious ceremonies but those commanded by the were managed by a committee of the parliament; and New Testament, was published by certain Puritans in at the restoration in 1660, James, duke of York, became 1571. Its presumed authors, Field and Wilcox, were imlord high admiral. In 1662 the admiralty was first put prisoned. A second Admonition, by Thomas Cartwright, into commission, the great officers of state being the was answered by archbishop Whitgift. commissioners; see succeeding changes below. In 1688-9

Adorno And Fregoso, two families, of which the the admiralty was put into commission, and the board doges were frequently members

, disturbed Genoa from appears to have assembled at admiral Herbert's lodg- the fourteenth to the sixteenth century; the former ings, in Channel row, Westminster, he being at that time first lord. In 1830, 1832, and 1836 various changes favoring the emperor, the latter the French king. Their were made in the civil departments

, several offices being power was annihilated by Andrea Doria about 1528. abolished or consolidated with others. In March, 1861, Adrian's (or Hadrian's) Wall (to prevent the a royal commission recommended the abolition of the irruptions of the Scots and Picts into the northern board of admiralty and the appointment of a minister of counties of England, then under the Roman governthe navy department. The board was reconstituted 14 ment) extended from the Tyne to Solway frith, and was Jan. 1869, and 4 May, 1872.

eighty miles long, twelve feet high, and eight feet in

thickness, with watch-towers; built 121. It was re1660. JAMES, DUKE OF YORK, lord high admiral, 6 June.

paired and strengthened by Severus, 207-210. 1673. KING CHARLES II., 14 June.

Adrianople, in Turkey, so named after its restorer, PRINCE RUPERT, 9 July.

the emperor Adrian, or Hadrian (who died 10 July, 138). 1679. Sir Henry Capel, 14 Feb. 1680. Daniel Finch, esq., 19 Feb.

Near here Constantine defeated Licinius and gained the 1681. Daniel, lord Finch, 20 Jan.

empire, 3 July, 323; also, near here the emperor Valens 1683. Daniel, earl of Nottingham, 17 April.

was defeated and slain by the Goths, 9 Aug. 378. Adri1684. KING CHARLES II. 1685. KING JAMES II., 17 May. Office in commission.

anople was taken by the Turks, under Amurath, in 1361, 1689. Arthur Herbert, esq., 8 March.

and was their capital till the capture of Constantinople 1690. Thomas, earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, 20 Jan. in 1453. It was taken by the Russians on 20 Aug. 1692. Charles, lord Cornwallis, 10 March. 1693. Anthony, viscount Falkland, 15 April

1829; and restored 14 Sept, same year; occupied by the 1694. Edward Russel, esq. (afterwards earl of Orford), 2 May.

Russians, without resistance, 20 Jan. 1878; see Turkey. 1699. John, earl of Bridgewater, 2 June.

Adriatic. 1701. Thomas, earl of Pembroke, 4 April.

The ceremony of the doge of Venice 1702. GEORGE PRINCE OF DENMARK, lord high admiral, 20 May. wedding the Adriatic sea (instituted about 1173) took 1708. Thomas, earl of Pembroke, ditto, 29 Nov. Office in com place annually on Ascension-day. The doge dropped a

mission. 1709. Edward, earl of Orford, 8 Oct.

ring into the sea from his Bucentaur, or state barge, being 1710. Sir John Leake, 4 Oct.

attended by his nobility and foreign ambassadors. The 1712. Thomas, carl of Strafford, 30 Sept.

ceremony was first omitted in 1797. 1714. Edward, earl of Orford, 14 Oct. 1717. James, earl of Berkeley, 19 March.

Adullam, a cave to which David fled from the per1727. George, viscount Torrington, 2 Aug.

secution of Saul about 1062 B.C. (1 Sam. xxii. 1, 2). 1733. Sir Charles Wager, knt., 25 June. 1742. Daniel, earl of Winchilsea, 19 March.

Mr. Horsman, Mr. R. Lowe, earl Grosvenor, lord Elcho, and 1744. John, duke of Bedford, 27 Dec.

other liberals who opposed the Franchise bill in 1866 were 1748. John, earl of Sandwich, 10 Feb.

termed “Adullamites.” During a debate on this bill on 13 1751. George, lord Anson, 22 June.

March, 1866, Mr. Bright said of Mr. Horsman that he “had 1756. Richard, earl Temple, 19 Nov.

retired into what may be called his political cave of Adul. 1757. Daniel, earl of Winchilsea, 6 April.

lam, to which he invited every one who was in debt, and George, lord Anson, 2 July.

every one who was discontented,” etc. On 19 April, lord 1762. George M. Dunk, earl of Halifax, 19 Junc.

Elcho said, “No improper motive has driven us into this 1763. George Grenville, esq., 1 Jan.

cave, where we are a most happy family, daily--I may say, John, earl of Sandwich, 23 April.

hourly-increasing in number and strength, where we shall John, earl of Egmont, 10 Sept.

remain until we go forth to deliver Israel from oppression." 1766. Sir Charles Saunders, 10 Sept.

Although their opposition led to the defeat and resignation Sir Edward Hawke, 10 Dec.

of the Russell ministry, they declined to take office under 1771. John, earl of Sandwich, 12 Jan.

lord Derby in July, 1866. They did not vote together uni. 1782. Hon. Augustus Keppel, 1 April.

formly in 1867, and (lord Elcho and Mr. Wyld excepted) Augustus, viscount Keppel, 18 July.

voted with Mr. Gladstone for the disestablishment of the 1783. Richard, viscount Howe, 28 Jan.

Irish church, 1 May, 1868. 1788. John, earl of Chatham, 16 July.

Adulteration. That of food was prohibited in 1794. George John, earl Spencer, 20 Dec. 1801. John, earl St. Vincent, 19 Feb.

England in 1267, and punishments for it enacted, 1581, 1804. Henry, viscount Melville, 15 May.

1604, 1836, 1851, etc. Much attention was drawn to it 1805, Charles, lord Barham, 2 May.

in 1822, through Mr. Accum's book, called “Death in the 1806. Hon. Charles Gray, 10 Feb. Thomas Grenville, esq., 23 Oct.

Pot," and in 1855 through Dr. Hassall's book," Food and 1807. Henry, lord Mulgrave, 6 April.

its Adulterations." By an act for preventing the adul1809, Charles Yorke, esq., 10 May.

teration of food, passed in 1860, parochial chemical ana1812. Robert, viscount Melville, 25 March. 1827. WILLIAM HENRY, DUKE OF CLARENCE, lord high admiral, lysts may be appointed. An act to prevent adulteration 2 May; resigned 12 Aug. 1828.

of seeds passed 16 Aug. 1869, amended 1878. Another

war.

to prevent adulteration of food and drugs passed 10 Aug. parliament of Paris in 1685 that the king's advocate of 1872. Penalties for adulterating liquors were imposed France might at the same time be a judge; and in Scotby the new licensing act passed same time. The report land, sir William Oliphant (1612) and sir John Nesbit of a commission, issued in July, 1874, declared that the (1666) were lord advocates and lords of session at the public “were cheated rather than poisoned.” All the same time.-Beatson. The Advocates’ library in Edinanti-adulteration acts were repealed by the Sale of Food burgh was established by sir G. Mackenzie about 1682; and Drugs Act, passed 11 Aug. 1875; which was amend- see Judge Advocate. ed in 1879.

Ædiles. Roman city officers of three degrees, said Adultery was punished with death by the law of to owe their name to having had charge of the ædes, or Moses (1490 B.C.; Lev. xx. 10), and by Lycurgus (884 temple, of Ceres. 1. Two plebeian ædiles were appointed B.c.). The early Saxons burned the adulteress and erect- with the tribunes to assist them in looking after builded á gibbet over her ashes, whereon they hanged the ings, weights, and measures, the supply of provisions and adulterer. The ears and nose were cut off under Canute, water, etc., 494 B.C. 2. The ædiles curules, at first patri1031. Adultery was ordained to be punished capitally cians, were appointed 365 B.C. 3. Julius Cæsar appointby the parliament, May 14, 1650 ; but there is no record ed ædiles cereales for watching over the supply of corn. of this law taking effect; and it was repealed at the res- The ædiles became a kind of police under the emperors. toration. In New England the punishment for adultery

Ædui, or Hedui, a Celtic people, N.E. France, was made capital to both parties, and several suffered for who were delivered from subjection to the Sequani by it, 1662.--Hardie. Till 1857 the legal redress against Julius Cæsar, B.C. 58; but afterwards, opposing him, the male offender was by civil action for a money com

were subjugated by him, 52. Their insurrection, headed pensation, the female being liable to divorce. By 20 by Julius Sacrovir, A.D. 21, was quelled by C. Silius. & 21 Vict. c. 85 (1857), the action for criminal conversation ” was abolished, and the Court for Divorce and first Punic war, the Roman consul C. Lutatius Catulus

Ægates Isles, W.of Sicily: near these, during the Matrimonial Causes established with power to grant divorces for adultery and ill-usage; see Divorce. An act gained a decisire victory over the Carthaginian fleet un

Peace ensued, the Rowas passed in 1869 permitting parties to suits for adul- der Hanno, 10 March, 241 B.C. tery to give evidence. In the United States adultery is mans obtaining Sicily and a tribute of 3200 talents. variously punished under differing state laws, usually by Ægina, a Greek island, a rival of Athens, was humfine or imprisonment or both. It is also good ground for bled by Themistocles, 485 B.C.; and taken and its works absolute divorce in all the states.

destroyed, 455. Its inhabitants expelled, 431, were reAdvent (adventus, arrival). The season includes stored by the Spartans, 404; they renewed war with four Sundays, previous to Christmas, the first the nearest Athens, 388, and made peace, 387. Sunday to St. Andrew's day (Nov. 30), before or after. Ægospotami (the Goat-rivers), in the ChersoneHomilies respecting Advent are mentioned prior to 378. sus, where Lysander, the Lacedæmonian, defeated the Advent Sunday, 1880, 28 Nov.; 1881, 27 Nov.; 1882, 3 Athenian fleet, 405 B.C., and ended the Peloponnesian Dec.; 1883, 2 Dec.; 1884, 30 Nov.; 1885, 29 Nov. Adventists. An American sect who look for the

A. E. I. O. U. (for “Austria est imperare orbi uniearly second coming of Christ. A fanatical member of versi,” “ Austria is to rule all the world”) was the motto the sect in Pocasset, Mass., professing to imitate Abra- of the weak and unfortunate emperor Frederick III., ham, sacrificed his child, the mother looking on, May,

1440-93. 1879.

Elfric Society, founded 1842; closed 1856; pubAdventure Bay, S.E. end of Van Diemen's Land, and other Anglo-Saxon works.

lished “Homilies of Elfric, Archbishop of Canterbury," discovered in 1773 by capt. Furneaux in his first voyage to the Pacific, and named from his ship Adventure. It Ælia Capitolina, built on the ruins of Jerusalem was visited by capt. Cook 1777 ; by capt. Bligh in 1788 by the emperor Adrian, 130. and 1792.

Æmilia, the name given to the provinces of Parma, Adventurers, see Merchants.

Modena, and the Romagna, united to Sardinia in 1860, Advertisements in NEWSPAPERS, as now pub

and now part of the kingdom of Italy. lished, were not general in England till the beginning Æneid, the great Latin epic poem relating the adof the eighteenth century. A penalty of 501. was inflict- ventures of Æneas, written about 24 B.c. by Virgil, who ed on persons advertising a reward with “ No questions died 22 Sept. 19 B.C., before he had finally corrected the to be asked” for the return of things stolen, and on the poem. It was tirst printed in 1469 at Rome. printer, 1754. The advertisement duty (first enacted Ænigma. Samson's riddle (about 1141 B.C.; Judg. 1712), formerly charged according to the number of xiv. 12) is the earliest on record. Gale attributes æniglines, was afterwards fixed, in England, at 3s. 6d., and in matical speeches to the Egyptians. The ancient oracles Ireland at 2s.6d. each advertisement. The duty (fur- frequently gave responses admitting of perfectly conther reduced, in England to 1s. 6d. and in Ireland to 1s. trary interpretations. In Nero's time, the Romans had each, in 1833) was abolished in 1853.

recourse to this method of concealing truth. The folEarly advertisements are found in Perfect Occurences

lowing epitaph on Fair Rosamond (mistress of our Henry of every Daie, 26 March to 2 April, 1647, and Mercu- II. about 1173) is a mediæval specimen: “Hic jacet in rius Elencticus

.4 Oct. 1648 tomba Rosa mundi, non Rosa munda; Non redolet, sed H. Sampson's “ History of Advertising," published. Nov; 1874 olet, quæ redolere solet.” The whole libretto of Macfarren's opera “Robin Hood”

inserted as an advertisement in the Times (4% col- Æolia, in Asia Minor, was colonized by a principal umns)..

.16 Oct. 1860 branch of the Hellenic race about 1124 B.C. The ÆoA debate in the Portuguese parliament, translated, inserted as advertisement in the Daily News (8 col

lians built several large cities both on the mainland and umns).

.3 May, 1877 the neighboring islands; Mitylene, in Lesbos, was conADVERTISING VANs, a great nuisance, prohibited... 1853 sidered the capital. The American system of advertising agencies was orig- Æolian Harp. Its invention is ascribed to Kirinated by Orlando Bourne in 1828. The system was cher, 1650, who wrote on it, but it was known before. brought to perfection in 1860.

Æolina, a free-reed wind-instrument, invented by Advocate, The King's (always a doctor of the Wheatstone in 1829. civil law), was empowered to prosecute at his own in- Æolopile, a hollow ball with an orifice in which a tube stance certain crimes about 1597. The Lord Advo- might be screwed, was used in the seventeenth century as cate in Scotland is the same as the attorney-general in a boiler for experimental steam-engines; a similar apEngland with judicial powers.--It was decided in the paratus is described by Vitruvius, first century, A.D.

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Equi, an ancient Italian race, were subdued by the altered in 1702, 1721, 1837, and in April, 1859.— The inRomans, and their lands annexed, after a severe strug- dulgence was granted to persons who were formerly gle, 471-302 B.C.

Quakers, but who had seceded from that sect, 2 Vict. Æras, see Eras.

1838; and extended to other dissenters by 9 Geo. IV. C. Aerated Waters. Apparatus for combining gases laugh's case, see Parliament, 1880-1.

32, 1828, and 18 & 19 Vict, c. 2, 1855. For Mr. Bradwith water were patented by Thomson in 1807, F. C. Bakewell in 1832 and 1847, Tylor in 1840, and by oth- Afghanistan (the Greek Ariana), a large country ers.

:-AERATED BREAD is made by processes patented in central Asia, successively part of the Persian and by Dr. Dauglish, 1856-7.

Greek empires. Chief cities, Cabul, Herat, Candahar,

Ghuznee. Aerians, followers of Aerius, a presbyter in the fourth

The tribes are ruled by sirdars. century, who held that there was no distinction between Early Afghan conquests in India...

1200-1290 a bishop and a presbyter; that there was no Pasch to be Conquests of Genghis Khan about 1221, and by Tamer

1398 observed by Christians; that the Lent and other fasts Baber conquered Cabul.

1525 should not be observed; and that prayers should not be On his death Afghanistan divided between Persia and offered for the dead.--Epiphanius.

Hindostan.

The Afghans revolt in 1720; invade Persia and take Ispa. Aerolites, see Meteors.

han; repulsed by Nadir Shah in 1728, who subdues the whole of the country.

1738 Aeronautics AND Aerostatics, see Balloons On his assassination, one of his officers, Ahmed Shah, an and Flying. The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain Afghan, made Afghanistan independent, and reigned was established by the duke of Argyll and others, 12

prosperously...

1747-73 Jan. 1866.

Timur Shah (son), succeeds, 1773; rules cruelly; dies, leaving 23 sons..

1793 Aerophore, an apparatus invented by M. Denay- Zeman bec es ameer, 1793; cripples the power of the rouze to enable persons to enter a noxious inflammable Mahmud 'Shah, son, ameer 1800; deposed for his brother,

sirdars; blinded and dethroned

1800 atmospbere. It comprises an air-pump, lamp, and flexi- Suja Shah, 1803; Mahmud restored, Futtih Khan the ble tubing. It was tried at Chatham, 12-14 Jan. 1875, vizier predominant, 1809; Fultih blinded; Mahmud

flees from Cabul and becomes ruler at Herat......... and reported successful. A gold medal was awarded to

1816

Impotent rulers at Cabul ; Dost Mahomed Khan becomes the inventor at the Vienna Exhibition, 1873.

1826

He is dethroned by the British, and sent to Calcutta ; Aero-steam Engine, see under Air.

Suja Shah restored.

1838 Asculapius, god of medicine: his worship intro- British occupation of Cabul causes great discontent ; induced at Rome, about 291 B.C.

surrection; sir Alexander Burnes and 23 others killed,

2 Nov. 1841 Æsop's Fables, see Fables.

Akbar Khan, son of Dost Mahomed, head of the rebels ;

invites sir Wm. Macnaghten to meet, and assassinates Æsthetics (from the Greek aïoonris, perception), him and others...

23 Dec. the science of the beautiful (especially in art); a term The British army retires from Cabul, and is destroyed by invented by Baumgarten, a German philosopher, whose

the Ghilzais in the Khyber pass; of 3849 soldiers, and

about 12,000 camp-followers, only Dr. Brydone and four work • Æsthetica" was published in 1750.

or five natives escaped massacre... ...6-13 Jan. 1842 Æthiopia, see Ethiopia.

Sir George Pollock forces the Khyber pass; defeats Ak

bar Khan at Tezeen; captures Cabul and releases lady Æthiopica," see Romances.

Sale and others, 16 Sept. ; destroys the great bazaar; retires.

12 Oct. Aetians, followers of Aetius, an Arian heretic about Dost Mahomed becomes ameer... 351.

His treaty of friendship with lord Dalhousie (faithfully kept)..

.30 March, 1855 Ætna, see Elna.

He dies, leaving 16 sons; appointing as his successor

Shore Ali, the third son, 9 June; who is much opposed Ætolia, in Greece, a country named after Ætolus

by his brothers, especially by t'fzul, the eldest son of Elis, who is said to have accidentally killed a son of (and his son Abdul-Rahman, or Abdur-Rabman), Azim, Phoroneus, king of Argos, left the Peloponnesus, and set- Ameen, and Shureef; yet is recognized by them.Sept. 1863 tled here. After the ruin of Athens and Sparta, the Æto- Unsuccessful insurrection of Ufzul and Azim; Azim flees

to British territories, 16 May; [fzul reconciled to lians became the rivals of the Achæans, and were alter- Shere Ali....

.2 June, 1864 nately allies and enemies of Rome.

Ineurrection of Abdul-Rahman; Ufzul imprisoned.. Aug.
Shere Ali enters Cabul...

14 Nov. The Ætolians join Sparta against Athens.

.B.C. 455

Azim and his confederates defeated at Kujhbaz, near The Ætolian league of tribes opposes Macedon

323

Khelat-i-Ghilzye, by Shere Ali (whoso gallant son is Invaded by Antipater during the Lamian war.

322

killed), 6 June; he enters Candalar.... ...14 June, 1865 Aid in expulsion of the Gauls..

279 Azim joins his nephew Abdul-Rahman; defection of MaInvade the Peloponnesus, ravage Messenia (Social war), homed Rufeek from Ibrahim (Shere Ali's son) weakly and defeat the Achæans at Caphyæ....

220 ruling Cabul; it surrenders to Azim..... .2 March, 1806 Philip V. of Macedon invades Ætolia, and takes Ther- Shere Ali rouses himself from his grief; raises an army; mum---Peace of Naupactus concluded

217

some of his treacherous friends return to him; he is Alliance with Rome

211 defeated at Sheikhabad, and flees to Candahar 10 May Deserted by the Romans, the Ætolians make peace with Ufzul (sensual and easy) and Azim (cruel and tyrannical) Philip

205 rule at Cabul..

.. May, et seq. War with Philip, 200; he is defeated at Cynoscephalæ... 197 Azim and Abdul Rahman defeat Shere Ali at Kujhbaz, 17 The Ætolians invite the kings of Macedon, Syria, and Jan.; he flees to Candahar; shut out, flees to Herat Sparta to coalesce against the Romans... 193-2 held by his son Yakoob..

.Jan. 1867 Defeat of the allies near Thermopylæ

191 His army again defeated and his general and brother, Conquered by the Romans under Fulvius.

189
Fyz Mahomed, killed..

.17 Sept. Leading patriots massacred by the Roinan party. 167 Uszul dies; Az'm sole ruler at Cabul.

Oct. Ætolia inade a province of Rome......

146 He quarrels with Abdul-Rahman; who leaves him, and

refuses to help him. Affinity. Marriage within certain degrees of kin- Yakoob defeats Azim's troops, and enters Candahar

March, 1868 dred was prohibited in almost every age and country,

April, but has yet taken place to a considerable extent. The Azim leaves Cabul, July; his army dissolves by deserJewish law is given in Lev. xviii. (1490 B.C.). In the Sir John Lawrence helps Shere Ali with arms and mon

tion; Shere Ali enters Cabul..

...8 Sept. English Prayer-book the table restricting marriage with

ey; the attempts of Abdul Rahman repulsed, Nov., Dec. in certain degrees was set forth by authority, 1563. Shere Ali totally defeats him and Azim (who dies soon Prohibited marriages were adjudged to be incestuous sliere Ali honorably received at Umballah by the vice

..Jan. 1869 and unlawful by the 99th canon, in 1603. All marriages roy, the earl of Mayo, and receives a subsidy, within the forbidden degrees are declared to be abso

27 March et seq. lutely void by 5 & 6 Will. IV.c. 54, 1835; see Marriage His son Yakoob rebels; captures Herat..........6

May

The limits of his territories defined.. ..about June, 1870 (of Wife's Sister). The probibited degrees were set forth Feramoz Khan, his father's general, assassinated. June, 1871 in 25 Hen. VIII. c. 22, 1533-4.

Yakoob reconciled to his father through lord Mayo, July;

made governor of Herat; soon rebels. ... ...Sept. Affirmation ; sec Quakers. The affirmation was 'slum, murderer of Feramoz, killed in prison...... Oct.

66

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