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(Population, 5,300,000.)

No patents of any kind are allowed, but efforts have from to time time been made to again introduce a patent law. Holland has joined the Union for the Protection of Industrial Property, and the Government have stated their intention of bringing in a patent bill, which if passed will be added as an appendix.

Cost of registering a trade mark, £7 10s.


(Population, 38,000.)

The law, founded on the British law of 1852, is very similar to that now in force in England, except that there is no compulsory licensing and the costs and procedure are different, that the patent falls with the earliest prior foreign patent falling void; and the patent is subject to a tax of £10 at the end of the third year, and £20 at the end of the seventh. Usual costs: Patent, £64.

Fee for arranging payment of taxes, £2 each.


(Population, 780,000.)

A patent of any foreign country can be extended to Honduras. If the invention be not in use there by independent parties the cost is decided specially for each case according to the presumed importance of the patent. There is an annual tax. Average cost of patent, £5 to £20; and annual tax, £2 to


(Population, 325,000.)

Patents granted for duration of corresponding British patent if the invention be not already in use in the colony.

Usual costs: Patent, £45.

Registering a trade mark, 16.


(Population, 19,400,000.)

Kind of Patents.-There are two kinds of patents: patents of invention, for fifteen years, and patents of addition, to expire with the original patent. Who can Patent.-The inventor, his heirs, successors (assigns) can validly obtain a patent, and no one else.

What can be Patented.-Any new invention capable of being used industrially can be patented, except medicines, food for men and animals, and chemical products, and, if the Government opposes, warlike inventions. A process for making any of these can, however, be patented, and the process covers the article actually made by that process; but others have a right of making the same article by a different process.

Novelty. An invention is new only so long as it has not been published in print anywhere, or publicly worked, or patented by others in the realm. Official publications in a foreign state, granting reciprocity on this point to Hungary, may (by treaty with that state) not entail invalidity to a patent afterwards applied for.

Government employés cannot obtain patents for invention made through the knowledge obtained

in their Government employment, provided that the Government opposes the grant.

Patents obtained by fraud of the true and first inventor can be opposed by the latter, and if he be successful he can obtain a patent for himself for the invention.

Patents of Addition for improvements on prior patents can be obtained within the first year of such prior patents by the owners of such prior patents; but if others apply to patent said improvements during the year, their applications are kept secret till the end of the year, and then granted if the owners of the original patents have not, during the year, made an application for the same. Patents of addition are subject to no annual tax so long as the original patent is kept up, but expire when the annual taxes on original patent cease to be duly paid, or, in any case, on the expiration of the term of grant of the original patent.

Rights Conferred by Patents are practically the same as those in England or the United States; but any person who has begun to work the invention, or who has erected plant to work it in the realm before the date of the patent, can continue to work it in his own works, in defiance of the patentee. Government Rights.-The Government compulsorily take possession of a part or the whole of a patent, and compensate the owner.


Working. If a patent be not worked in the realm within three years from date of grant sufficiently to supply the demand, and the inventor refuse licenses on just terms, especially after three years from the grant, and after due admonition by the Patent Office, the Patent can be annulled.

Annulling Patents. Beside the clause set forth in the last paragraph, patents can be annulled in whole or in part if it be proved that they ought

not to have been granted for any legal reason, or if the specification be insufficient or ambiguous, or the claims not novel or patentable.

Procedure.-Patent applications are examined as to whether they are in order or whether they are in conflict with others applied for or granted within the preceding twelve months, but not otherwise as to the novelty. There is an appeal from the examiners' decisions.

If allowed the application is published at once or after a delay of not exceeding six months, at the option of the applicant.

Oppositions. During the next ensuing two months, after the patent is allowed and published, any one is at liberty to oppose the grant on the following grounds, either that the invention was not patentable or novel, or that the specification is not sufficiently exact or complete, or that the invention does not lawfully belong to the applicant, but had been wrongfully obtained, to the injury of the opponents' rights. Both parties in such case are heard before the judicial section of the Patent Office. No costs are allowed, but the court fees are apportioned against the parties, at the discretion of the Patent Office.

Amendments.-Can be made at small cost before grant, and disclaimers of parts of an invention, or the entire renunciation of a patent, can be made at any time.

Taxes. An annual tax, rapidly increasing, has to be paid on such patent of invention on pain of forfeiture. A delay of thirty days is allowed, and, subject to a fine of 1, an additional thirty days' grace can be obtained.

Joint Inventors are tenants in common, and each can work the invention or sell his share independently of the other all parties, however, have to join in

a license to a third party for such license to be valid.

Infringement. The law is very severe against infringements, and is easily and cheaply put in force. Persons apprehensive of an action for infringement can get a prior judgment from the Patent Office as to whether the article they are making is an infringement of any given patent.

Usual costs: Patent of Invention, £14.
Patents of Addition, £12.
The Taxes, including agency:-

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Trade mark registration is covered by Austrian.



(Including Burmah.)

(Population, 234,000,000, not including Native States. Mysore has a patent law of its own.) Grant and Duration.-A patent is granted for

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