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remarkable contribution of the century to criticism of the Maine, Mesdames de Lambert, đe Tencin, Geoffrin, du Defland, periodical kind was the Feuilles de Grimm, a circular sent for Necker, and above all, the baronne d'Holbach (whose busband, many years to the German courts by Frédéric Melchior Grimm however, was here the principal personage) presided over coteries (1723-1807), the comrade of Diderot and Rousseau, and con- which became more and more " philosophical.” Many of the taining a comple rendu of the ways and works of Paris, literary greatest mathematicians of the age, such as de Moivre and and artistic as well as social. These Leaves not only include Laplace, were French by birth, while others like Euler belonged much excellent literary criticism by Diderot, but also gave to French-speaking races, and wrote in French. The physical occasion to the incomparable salons or accounts of the exhibition sciences were also ardently cultivated, the impulse to them of pictures from the same hand, essays which founded the art being given partly by the generally materialistic tendency of of picture criticism, and which have hardly been surpassed since the age, partly by the Newtonian system, and partly also by the The prize competitions of the Academy were also a considerable extended knowledge of the world provided by the circumnavi. stimulus to literary criticism, though the prevailing taste in gatory voyage of Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811), and such compositions rather inclined to elegant themes than to other travels. P. L. de Moreau Maupertuis (1698-1759) and careful studies of analyses. The most characteristic critic of C. M. de la Condamine (1701–1774) 'made long journeys for the mid-century was the abbé Charles Batteux (1713-1780) scientific purposes and duly recorded their experiences. The who illustrated a tendency of the time by beginning with a treatise former, a mathematician and physicist of some ability but more on Les Beaux Arts réduils à un même principe (1746); reduced it oddity, is chiefly known to literature by the ridicule of Voltaire and others into Principes de la lillérature (1764) and added in in the Diatribe du Docteur Akakia. Jean le Rond, called 1771 Les Quatres Poéliques (Aristotle, Horace, Vida and Boileau). d'Alembert (1717-1783), a great mathematician and a writer of Batteux is a very ingenious critic and his attempt to con- considerable though rather academic excellence, is principally ciliate“ taste ” and “the rules," though inadequate, is interest-known from his connexion with and introduction to the Encydoing. Works on the arts in general or on special divisions of them pédie, of which more presently. Chemistry was also assiduously were not wanting, as, for instance, that of Dubos before alluded cultivated, the baron d'Holbach, among others, being a devotee to, the Essai sur la peinture of Diderot and others. Critically thereof, and helping to advance the science to the point where, annotated editions of the great French writers also came into at the conclusion of the century, it was illustrated by Berthollet fashion, and were no longer written by mere pedants. Of these and Lavoisier. During all this devotion to science in its modern Voltaire's edition of Corneille was the most remarkable, and his acceptation, the older and more literary forms of erudition were annotations, united separately under the title of Commentaire not neglected, especially by the illustrious Benedictines of the sur Corneille, form not the least important portion of his works. abbey of St Maur. Dom Augustin Calmet (1672–1757) the Even older writers, looked down upon though they were by the author of the well-known Dictionary of the Bible, belonged to general taste of the day, received a share of this critical interest. this order, and to them also (in particular to Dom Rivet) was In the earlier portion of the century Nicolas Lenglet-Dufresnoy due the beginning of the immense Histoire lilléraire de la France, (1674-1755) and Bernard de la Monnoye (1641-1728) devoted a work interrupted by the Revolution and long suspended, their attention to Rabelais, Regnier, Villon, Marot and others. but diligently continued since the middle of the 19th century. Etienne Barbazan (1696–1770) and P. J. B. Le Grand d'Aussy of less orthodox names distinguished for erudition, Nicolas (1737-1800) gathered and brought into notice the long scattered Fréret (1688–1749), secretary of the Academy, is perhaps the and unknown rather than neglected fabliaux of the middle ages. most remarkable. But in the consideration of the science and Even the chansons de geste attracted the notice of the Comte learning in the 18th century from a literary point of view, there de Caylus (1692-1765) and the Comte de Tressan (1705-1783). is one name and one book which require particular and, in the The latter, in bis Bibliothèque des romans, worked up a large case of the book, somewhat extended mention. The man is number of the old epics into a form suited to the taste of the Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de Buffon (1717-1788), the book century. In his hands they became lively tales of the kind the Encyclopédie. The immense Natural History of Buffun, suited to readers of Voltaire and Crébillon. But in this travestied though not entirely his own, is a remarkable monument form they had considerable influence both in France and abroad. of the union of scientific tastes with literary ability. By these publications attention was at least called to early as has happened in many similar instances, there is in parts French literature, and when it had been once called, a more more literature than science to be found in it; and from the serious and appreciative study became merely a matter of time. point of view of the latter, Buffon was far too careless in observaThe method of much of the literary criticism of the close of this tion and far too solicitous of perfection of style and grandiosity period was indeed deplorable enough. Jean François de la of view. The style of Buffon has sometimes been made the Harpe (1739-1803), who though a little later in time as to most subject of the highest eulogy, and it is at its best admirable; of his critical productions is perhaps its most representative but one still feels in it the fault of all serious French prose in this figure, shows criticism in one of its worst forms. The critic century before Rousseau-the presence, that is to say, of an specially abhorred by Sterne, who looked only at the stop-watch, artificial spirit rather than of natural variety and power. The was a kind of prophecy of La Harpe, who lays it down distinctly Encyclopédie, unquestionably on the whole the most that a beauty, however beautiful, produced in spite of rules is important French literary production of the century, clopédie. a “monstrous beauty" and cannot be allowed. But such a if we except the works of Rousseau and Voltaire, was writer is a natural enough expression of an expiring principle. conducted for a time by Diderot and d'Alembert, afterwards The year after the death of La Harpe Sainte-Beuve was born. by Diderot alone. It numbered among its contributors almost

18th-Century Savants.- In science and general erudition the every Frenchman of eminence in letters. It is often spoken of as is, 18th century in France was at first much occupied with the under the guise of an encyclopaedia, it had been merely a plaidoyer mathematical studies for which the French genius is so peculiarly against religion, but this is entirely erroneous. Whatever antiadapted, which the great discoveries of Descartes had made ecclesiastical bent some of the articles may have, the book as a possible and popular, and which those of his supplanter Newton whole is simply what it professes to be, a dictionary-that is to only made more popular still. Voltaire took to himself the credit, say, not merely an historical and critical lexicon, like those of which he fairly deserves, of first introducing the Newtonian Bayle and Moreri (indeed history and biography were nominally system into France, and it was soon widely popular-even ladies excluded), but a dictionary of arts, sciences, trades and technical devoting themselves to the exposition of mathematical subjects, terms. Diderot himself had perhaps the greatest faculty of any as in the case of Gabrielle de Breteuil, marquise du Châtelet man that ever lived for the literary treatment in a workman-like (1706–1749) Voltaire's" divine Emilie." Indeed ladies played manner of the most heterogeneous and in some cases rebellious a great part in the literary and scientific activity of the century, subjects; and his untiring labour, not merely in writing original by actual contribution sometimes, but still more by continuing articles, but in editing the contributions of others, determined and extending the tradition of " salons." The duchesse du l the character of the whole work. There is no doubt that it had,

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quite independently of any theological or political influence, it had always fared. Fabre d'Eglantine (1755-1794) (the an immense share in diffusing and gratifying the taste for general companion in death of Danton), Collin d'Harleville(1755-1806), information.

François G. J. S. Andrieux (1759-1833), Picard, Alexandre 1789-1830–General Skelck.The period which elapsed Duval, and Nepomucène Lemercier (1771-1840) (the most between the outbreak of the Revolution and the accession of vigorous of all as a poet and a critic of mark) were the comic Charles X. has often been considered a sterile one in point of authors of the period, and their works have not suffered the literature. As far as mere productiveness goes, this judgment complete eclipse of the contemporary tragedies which in part is hardly correct. No class of literature was altogether neglected they also wrote. If not exactly worthy successors of Molière, during these stirring five-and-thirty years, the political events they are at any rate not unworthy children of Beaumarchais. of which have so engrossed the attention of posterity that it in romance writing there is again, until we come to Madame de bas sometimes been necessary for historians to remind us that Staël, a great want of originality and even of excellence in during the height of the Terror and the final disasters of the workmanship. The works of Madame de Genlis (1746–1830) empire the theatres were open and the booksellers' shops pat. exhibit the tendencies of the 18th century to platitude and ronized. Journalism, parliamentary eloquence and scientific noble sentiment at their worst. Madame Cottin (1770-1807), writing were especially cultivated, and the former in its modern Madame de Souza (1761-1836), and Madame de Krudener, sense may almost be said to have been created. But of the higher exhibited some of the qualities of Madame de Lafayette and products of literature the period may justly be considered to more of those of Madame de Genlis. Joseph Fiévée (1767-1839), have been somewhat barren. During the earlier part of it there in Le Dot de Suzetle and other works, showed some power over the is, with the exception of André Chénier, not a single name of the domestic story; but perhaps the most remarkable work in first or even second order of excellence. Towards the midst point of originality of the time was Xavier de Maistre's (1763those of Chateaubriand (1768-1848) and Madame de Staël 1852) Voyage culour de ma chambre, an attempt in quite a (1766-1817) stand almost alone; and at the close those of new style, which has been happily followed up by other writers. Courier, Béranger and Lamartine are not seconded by any Turning to history we find comparatively little written at this others to tell of the magnificent literary burst which was to period. Indeed, until quite its close;men were too much occupied follow the publication of Cromwell. Of all departments of in making history to have time to write it. There is, however, literature, poetry proper was worst represented during this a considerable body of memoir writers, especially in the earlier period. André Chénier was silenced at its opening by the years of the period, and some great names appear even in history guillotine. Le Brun and Delille, favoured by an extraordinary proper. Many of Sismondi's (1773-1842) best works were longevity, continued to be admired and followed. It was the produced during the empire. A. G. P. Brugière, baron de palmy time of descriptive poetry. Louis, marquis de Fontanes Barante (1782-1866), though his best-known works date much (1754-1821, who deserves rather more special notice as a critic later, belongs partially to this time. On the other hand, the and an official patron of literature), Castel, Boisjolin, Esmenard, production of philosophical writing, especially in what we may Berchoux, Ricard, Martin, Gudin, Cournaud, are names which call applied philosophy, was considerable. The sensationalist chiefly survive as those of the authors of scattered attempts to views of Condillac were first continued as by Destutt de Tracy turn the Encyclopaedia into verse. Charles Julien de Chênedollé (1754-1836) and Laromiguière (1756-1837) and subsequently (1769-1833) owes his reputation rather to amiability, and to his opposed, in consequence partly of a religious and spiritualist association with men eminent in different ways, such as Rivarol revival, partly of the influence of foreign schools of thought, and Joubert, than to any real power. He has been regarded as especially the German and the Scotch. The chief philosophical a precursor of Lamartine; but the resemblance is chiefly on writers from this latter point of view were Pierre Paul Royer Lamartine's weakest side; and the stress laid on him recently, Collard (1763-1845), F. P. G. Maine de Biran (1776-1824), as on Lamartine himself and even on Chénier, is part of a passing and Théodore Simon Jouffroy (1796-1842). Their influence on reaction against the school of Hugo. Even more ambitiously, literature, however, was altogether inferior to that of the reLuce de Lancival, Campenon, Dumesnil and Parseval de Grand- actionist school, of whom Louis Gabriel, vicomte de Bonald Maison endeavoured to write epics, and succeeded rather worse (1754-1840), and Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821) were the great than the Chapelains and Desmarets of the 17th century. The leaders. These latter were strongly political in their tendencies, characteristic of all this poetry was the description of everything and political philosophy received, as was natural, a large share in metaphor and paraphrase, and the careful avoidance of any of the attention of the time. In continuation of the work of thing like directness of expression; and the historians of the the Philosophes, the most remarkable writer was Constantin Romantic movement have collected many instances of this François Chasseboeuf, comte de Volney (1757-1820), whose absurdity. Lamartine will be more properly noticed in the next Ruines are generally known. On the other hand, others belongdivision. But about the same time as Lamartine, and towards ing to that school, such as Necker and Morellet, wrote from the the end of the present period, there appeared a poet who may moderate point of view against revolutionary excesses. Of be regarded as the last important echo of Malherbe. This was the reactionists Bonald is extremely royalist, and carries out in Casimir Delavigne (1793-1843), the author of Les Messéniennes, his Législations primitives somewhat the same patriarchal and a writer of very great talent, and, according to the measure absolutist theories as our own Filmer, but with infinitely greater of J. B. Rousseau and Lebrun, no mean poet. It is usual to genius. As Bonald is royalist and aristocratic, so reckon Delavigne as transitionary between the two schools, but Maistre is the advocate of a theocracy pure and

Maistre. in strict ness he must be counted with the classicists. Dramatic simple, with the pope for its earthly head, and a vigorous despot. poetry exhibited somewhat similar characteristics. The system ism for its system of government. Pierre Simon Ballanche of tragedy writing had become purely mechanical, and every (1776-1847), often mentioned in the literary memoirs of his act, almost every scene and situation, had its regular and appro- time, wrote among other things Essais de palingénésie sociale, priate business and language, the former of which the poet was good in style but vague in substance. Of theology proper there pot supposed to alter at all, and the latter only very slightly. is almost necessarily little or nothing, the clergy being in the Poinsinet, La Harpe, M. J. Chénier, Raynouard, de Jouy, Briffaut, carlier period proscribed, in the latter part kept in a strict and Baour-Lormian, all wrote in this style. Of these Chénier (1764- somewhat discreditable subjection by the Empire. In moralizing 1811) had some of the vigour of his brother André, from whom literature there is one work of the very highest excellence, which, be was distinguished by more popular political principles and though not published till long afterwards, belongs in point of better fortune. On the other hand, Jean François Ducis (1733- composition to this period. This is the Pensées of Joseph 1816), wbo passes with Englishmen as a feeble reducer of Shake Joubert (1754–1824), the most illustrious successor

Joubert speare to classical rules, passed with his contemporaries as an of Pascal and Vauvenargues, and to be ranked perhaps introducer into French poetry of strange and revolutionary above both in the literary finish of his maxims, and certainly sovelties. Comedy, on the other hand, fared better, as indeed | above Vauvenargues in the breadth and depth of thought which

they exhibit. In pure literary criticism more particularly, seur de la constilulion), and Tallien (La Sentinelle) were the most Joubert, though exhibiting some inconsistencies due to his time, remarkable who had an intimate connexion with journalism. is astonishingly penetrating and suggestive. Of science and On the other hand, the type of the journalist pure and simple erudition the time was fruitful. At an early period of it appeared is Camille Desmoulins (1759-1794), one of the most brilliant, in a the remarkable work of Pierre Cabanis(1757-1808), the Rapporls literary point of view, of the short-lived celebrities of the time. du physique et du morale de l'homme, a work in which physiology of the same class were Pelletier, Durozoir, Loustalot, Royou. is treated from the extreme materialist point of view but with As the immediate daily interest in politics drooped, there were all the liveliness and literary excellence of the Philosophe move- formed periodicals of a partly political and partly literary ment at its best. Another physiological work of great merit character. Such had been the décode philosophique, which at this period was the Traile de la vie et de la mori of Bichat, counted Cabanis, Chénier, and De Tracy among its contributors, and the example set by these works was widely followed; while and this was followed by the Reque française at a later period, in other branches of science Laplace, Lagrange, Haüy,Berthollet, which was in its turn succeeded by the Revue des deux mondes. &c., produced contributions of the highest value. From the On the other hand, parliamentary eloquence was even more literafy point of view, however, the chief interest of this time important than journalism during the early period of the Revolu. is centred in two individual names, those of Chateaubriand and tion. Mirabeau naturally stands at the head of orators of this Madame de Staël, and in three literary developments of a more class, and next to him may be ranked the well-known names of or less novel character, which were all of the highest importance Malouet and Meunier among constitutionalists; of Robespierre, in shaping the course which French literature has taken since Marat and Danton, the triumvirs of the Mountain; of Maury, 1824. One of these developments was the reactionary movement Cazalès and the vicomte de. Mirabeau, among the royalists; of Maistre and Bonald, which in its turn largely influenced and above all of the Girondist speakers Barnave, Vergniaud, Chateaubriand, then Lamennais and Montalembert, and was and Lanjuinais. The last named survived to take part in the later represented in French literature in different guises, chiefy revival of parliamentary discussion after the Restoration. But by Louis Veuillot (1815-1883) and Mgr Dupanloup(1802–1878). the permanent contributions to French literature of this period The second and third, closely connected, were the immense of voluminous eloquence are, as frequently happens in such cases, advances made by parliamentary eloquence and by political by no means large. The union of the journalist and the parlia: writing, the latter of which, by the hand of Paul Louis Courier mentary spirit produced, however, in Paul Louis Courier a (1773-1825),contributed for the first time an undoubted master- master of style. Courier spent the greater part of

Courker. piece to French literature. The influence of the two combined his life, tragically cut short, in translating the classics has since' raised journalism to even a greater pitch of power in and studying the older writers of France, in which study he France than in any other country. It is in the development of learnt thoroughly to despise the pseudo-classicism of the 18th these new openings for literature, and in the cast and complexion century. It was not till he was past forty that he took to political which they gave to its matter, that the real literary importance writing, and the style of his pamphlets, and their wonderful of the Revolutionary period consists; just as it is in the new irony and vigour, at once placed them on the level of the very elements which they supplied for the treatment of such subjects best things of the kind. Along with Courier should be mentioned that the literary value of the authors of René and De l'Allemagne Benjamin Constant (1767-1830), who, though partly a romance mainly lies. We have already alluded to some of the beginnings writer and partly a philosophical author, was mainly a politician of periodical and journalistic letters in France. For some time, and an orator, besides being fertile in articles and pamphlets, in the hands of Bayle, Basnage, Des Maizeaux, Jurieu, Leclerc, Lamennais, like Lamartine, will best be dealt with later and the periodical literature consisted mainly of a series, more or less same may be said of Béranger; but Chateaubriand and Madame disconnected, of pamphlets, with occasional extracts from de Staël must be noticed here. The former represents, in the forthcoming works, critical adversaris and the like. Of a more influence which changed the literature of the 18th century into regular kind were the often-mentioned Journal de Trévoux and the literature of the 19th, the vague spirit of unrest and “ Welt. Mercure de France, and later the Année littéraire of Fréron and schmerz,” the affection for the picturesque qualities of nature, the like. The Correspondance of Grimm also, as we have pointed the religious spirit occasionally turning into mysticism, and the out, bore considerable resemblance to a modern monthly review, respect, sure to become more and more definite and appreciative, though it was addressed to a very few persons. Of political for antiquity. He gives in short the romantic and conservative news there was, under a despotism, naturally very little. 1789, element. Madame de Staël (1766–1817) on the other

Madame however, saw a vast change in this respect. An enormous hand, as became a daughter of Necker, retained a

de Slaa efilorescence of periodical literature at once took place, and a great deal of the Philosophe characterandthetraditions few of the numerous journals founded in that year or soon after- of the 18th century, especially its liberalism, its sensibilile, and wards survived for a considerable time. A whole class of authors | its thirst for general information; to which, however, she arose who pretended to be nothing more than journalists, while added a cosmopolitan spirit, and a readiness to introduce into many writers distinguished for more solid contributions to litera. France the literary and social, as well as the political and philoture took part in the movement, and not a few active politicians sophical, peculiaritiesofother countries to which the 18th century, contributed. Thus to the original staff of the Moniteur, or, as in France at least, had been a stranger, and which Chateaubriand it was at first called, La Gazette Nationale, La Harpe, Lacretelle, himself, notwithstanding his excursions into English literature, Andrieux, Dominique Joseph Garat (1749–1833) and Pierre had been very far from feeling. She therefore contributed to Ginguené (1748-1826) were attached. Among the writers of the positive and liberal side of the future movement. The the Journal de Paris André Chénier had been ranked. Fontanes absolute literary importance of the two was very different. contributed to many royalist and moderate journals. Guizot Madame de Staël's early writings were of the critical kind, and Morellet, representatives respectively of the 19th and the half aesthetic half ethical, of which the 18th century had been 18th century, shared in the Nouvelles politiques, while Bertin, fond, and which their titles, Lettres sur J.J. Rousseau, De l'infiiFievée and J. L. Geoffroy (1743-1814), a critic of peculiar ence des passions, De la littérature considérée dans ses rapports acerbity, contributed to the Journal de l'empire, afterwards asec les institutions sociales sufficiently show. Her roma nces, turned into the still existing Journal des débats. With Geoffroy, Delphine and Corinne, had immense literary influence at the time. François Bénoit Hoffman (1760-1828), Jean F. J. Dussault Still more was this the case with De l'Allemagne, which practically (1769-1824) and Charles F. Dorimond, abbé de Féletz (1765- opened up to the rising generation in France the till then unknown 1850), constituted a quartet of critics sometimes spoken of as treasures of literature and philosophy, which during "the Débats four," though they were by no means all friends. the most glorious half century of her literary history briazd

Chatea Of active politicians Marat(L'Ami du peuple), Mirabeau(Courrier Germany had, sometimes on hints taken from France de Provence), Barère (Journal des débats et des décrets), Brissot herself, been accumulating. The literary importance of Chateau(Patriote français), Hébert (Père Duchesne), Robespierre (Défen- Ibriand (1768-1848) is far greater, while his literary influence

can hardly be exaggerated. Chateaubriand's literary father was the belles-lellres and the kindred department of history. Poetry, Rousseau, and his voyage to America helped to develop the seeds not dramatic, has been revived; prose romance and literary which Rousseau had sown. In René and other works of the criticism have been brought to a perfection previously unknown; same kind, the naturalism of Rousseau received a still further and history has produced works more various, if not more remarkdevelopment. But it was not in mere naturalism that Chateau-able, than at any previous stage of the language. Of all these briand was to find his most fertile and most successful theme. branches we shall therefore endeavour to give some detailed It was, on the contrary, in the rehabilitation of Christianity as account. But the services done to the language were not limited an inspiring force in literature. The 18th century had used to the strictly literary branches of literature. Modern French, against religion the method of ridicule; Chateaubriand, by if it lacks, as it probably does lack, the statuesque precision and genius rather than by reasoning, set up against this method that elegance of prose style to which between 1650 and 1800 all else of poetry and romance. “ Christianity," says he, almost in was sacrificed, has become a much more suitable instrument so many words, " is the most poetical of all religions, the most for the accurate and copious treatment of positive and concrete attractive, the most fertile in literary, artistic and social results.” subjects. These subjects have accordingly been treated in an This theme he develops with the most splendid language, and abundance corresponding to that manifested in other countries, with every conceivable advantage of style, in the Génie du though the literary importance of the treatment has perhaps Christianisme and the Mortyrs. The splendour of imagination, proportionately declined. We cannot even attempt to indicate the summonings of history and literature to supply effective and the innumerable directions of scientific study which this copious touching illustrations, analogies and incidents, the rich colouring industry has taken, and must confine ourselves to those which so different from the peculiarly monotonous and grey tones of come more immediately under the headings previously adopted. the masters of the 18th century, and the fervid admiration for In philosophy proper France, like other nations, has been more nature which were Chateaubriand's main attractions and char- remarkable for attention to the historical side of the matter acteristics, could not fail to have an enormous literary influence. than for the production of new systems; and the principal Indeed he has been acclaimed, with more reason than is usually exception among her philosophical writers, Auguste Comte(1793– found in such acclamations, as the founder of comparative and 1857), besides inclining, as far as his matter went to the political imaginative literary criticism in France if not in Europe. The and scientific rather than to the purely philosophical side (which Romantic school acknowledged, and with justice, its direct indeed he regarded as antiquated), was not very remarkable indebtedness to him.

merely as a man of letters. Victor Cousin (1792-1867), on the Literature since 1830.-In dealing with the last period of the other hand, almost a brilliant man of letters and for a time history of French literature and that which was introduced by regarded as something of a philosophical apostle preaching the literary revolution of 1830 and has continued, in phases of eclecticism,” betook himself latterly to biographical and other only partial change, to the present day, a slight alteration of miscellaneous writing, especially on the famous French ladies of treatment is requisite. The subdivisions of literature have lately the 17th century, and is likely to be remembered chiefly in this become so numerous, and the contributions to each have reached department, though not to be forgotten in that of philosophical such an immense volume, that it is impossible to give more than history and criticism. The same curious declension was observcursory notice, or indeed allusion, to most of them. It so able in the much younger Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (1828–1893), happens, however, that the purely literary characteristics of this who, beginning with philosophical studies, and always maintainperiod, though of the most striking and remarkable, are confined ing a strong tincture of philosophical determinism, applied himself to a few branches of literature. The character of the 19th later, first to literary history and criticism in his famous Histoire century in France has hitherto been at least as strongly marked de la littérature anglaise (1864), and then to history proper in as that of any previous period. In the middle ages men of letters his still more famous and far more solidly based Origines de la followed each other in the cultivation of certain literary forms France contemporaine (1876). To him, however, we must recur for long centuries. The chanson de geste, the Arthurian legend, under the head of literary criticism. And not dissimilar the roman d' arenture, the fabliau, the allegorical poem, the phenomena, not so much of inconstancy to philosophy as of a rough dramatic jeu, mystery and farce, served successively as tendency towards the applied rather than the pure branches of moulds into which the thought and writing impulse of genera- the subject, are noticeable in Edgar Quinet (1803-1875), in tions of authors were successively cast, often with little attention Charles de Rémusat (1797-1875), and in Ernest Renan (1823to the suitability of form and subject. The end of the 15th 1892), the first of whom began by translating Herder while the century, and still more the 16th, owing to the vast extension second and third devoted themselves early to scholastic philoof thought and knowledge then introduced, finally broke up the sophy, de Rémusat dealing with Abelard (1845) and Anselm old forms, and introduced the practice of treating each subject (1856), Renan with Averroes (1852). More single-minded in a manner more or less appropriate to it, and whether appro- devotion to at least the historical side was shown by Jean priate or not, freely selected by the author. At the same time Philibert Damiron (1794-1862), who published in 1842 a Cours a vast but somewhat indiscriminate addition was made to the de philosophie and many minor works at different times; but actual vocabulary of the language. The 17th and 18th centuries the inconstancy recurs in Jules Simon (1814–1896), who, in the witnessed a process of restriction once more to certain forms earlier part of his life a professor of philosophy and a writer of and strict imitation of predecessors, combined with attention authority on the Greek philosophers (especially in Histoire de to purely arbitrary rules, the cramping and impoverishing effect l'école d'Alexandrie, 1844-1845), began before long to take an of this (in Fénelon's words) being counterbalanced partly by active and, towards the close of his life-work, all but a foremost ibe etiorts of individual genius, and still more by the constant part in politics. In theology the chief name of great literary and steady enlargement of the range of thought, the choice of eminence in the earlier part of the century is that of Lamennais, subjects, and the familiarity with other literature, both of the of whom more presently, in the later, that of Renan again. ancient and modern world. The literary work of the 19th But Charles Forbes de Montalembert (1810-1870), an historian century and of the great Romantic movement which began in its with a strong theological tendency, deserves notice; and among second quarter was to repeat on a far larger scale the work of the ecclesiastics who have been orators and writers the père Jean 16tb, to break up and discard such literary forms as had become Baptiste Henri Lacordaire (1802-1861), a pupil of Lamennais useless or hopelessly stiff, to give strength, suppleness and who returned to orthodoxy but always kept to the Liberal side; variety to such as were retained, to invent new ones where the père Célestin Joseph Félix (1810-1891), a Jesuit teacher and Decessary, to enrich the language by importations, inventions preacher of eminence; and the père Didon (1840-1900), a very and revivals,and, above all, to bring into prominence the principle popular preacher and writer who, though thoroughly orthodox, ci individualism. Authors and even books, rather than groups did not escape collision with his superiors. On the Protestant asd kinds, demand principal attention.

side Athanase Coquerel (1820-1875) is the most remarkable The result of this revolution is naturally most remarkable in name. Recently Paul Sabatier (b. 1858) bas displayed, especially in dealing with Saint Francis of Assisi, much power of literary | combined literary and linguistic competence more admirably. and religious sympathy and a style somewhat modelled on that The Société desAnciensTextes Français was formed for the purpose of Renan, but less unctuous and effeminate. There are strong of publishing scholarly editions of inedited works, and a lexicon philosophical tendencies, and at least a revolt against the re- of the older tongue by M. Godefroy at last supplemented, though ligious as well as philosophical ideas of the Encyclopédists, in not quite with equal accomplishment, the admirable dictionary the Pensées of Joubert, while the hybrid position characteristic in which Emile Littré (1801-1881), at the cost of a life's la bour, of the 19th century is particularly noticeable in Étienne Pivert de embodied the whole vocabulary of the classical French language. Sénancour (1770-1846), whose principal work, Obermann (1804), Meanwhile the period between the middle ages proper and the had an extraordinary influence on its own and the next generation 17th century has not lacked its share of this revival of attention. in the direction of melancholy moralizing. Thistone wasnotably To the literature between Villon and Regnier especial attention taken up towards the other end of the century by Amiel (9.0.), was paid by the early Romantics, and Sainte-Beuve's Tableau who, however, does not strictly belong to French literature: historique el critique de la poésie et du théâtre au seizième siècle while in Ximénès Doudon (1800-1872), author of Mélanges et was one of the manifestoes of the school. Since the appearance lellres posthumously published, we find more of a return to the of that work in 1828 editions with critical comments of the attitude of Joubert-literary criticism occupying a very large literature of this period have constantly multiplied, aided by the part of his reflections. Political philosophy and its kindred great fancy for tastefully produced works which exists among sciences have naturally received a large share of attention. the richer classes in France; and there are probably now few Towards the middle of the century there was a great develop countries in which works of old authors, whether in cheap reprints ment of socialist and fanciful theorizing on politics, with which or in édilions de luxe can be more readily procured. the names of Claude Henri, comte de Saint-Simon (1760-1825), The Romantic Movement. It is time, however, to return to the Charles Fourier (1772-1837), Etienne Cabet (1788–1856), and literary revolution itself, and its more purely literary results. others are connected. As political economists Fredéric Bastiat At the accession of Charles X. France possessed three

Béranges, (1801-1850), L. G. L. Guilhaud de Lavergne (1809-1880), Louis writers, and perhaps only three, of already remarkable Auguste Blanqui (1805-1881), and Michel Chevalier (1806–1879) eminence, if we except Chateaubriand, who was already of a may be noticed. In Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859) France past generation. These three were Pierre Jean de Béranger produced a political observer of a remarkably acute, moderate (1780–1857), Alphonse de Lamartine (1790-1869), and Hugues and reflective character, and Armand Carrel (1800-1836), whose Félicité Robert Lamennais (1782-1854). The first belongs life was cut short in a duel, was a real man of letters, as well as definitely in manner, despite his striking originality of nuance, a brilliant journalist and an honest if rather violent party to the past. He has remnants of the old periphrases, the cumpolitician. The name of Jean Louis Eugène Lerminier (1803- brous mythological allusions, the poetical properties" of French 1857) is of wide repute for legal and constitutional writings, and verse. He has also the older and somewhat narrow limitations thatof Henri, baron de Jomini (1779-1869) is still more celebrated of a French poet; foreigners are for him mere barbarians. At as a military historian; while that of François Lenormant (1837- the same time his extraordinary lyrical faculty, his excellent wit, 1883) holds a not dissimilar position in archaeology. With the which makes him a descendant of Rabelais and La Fontaine, publications devoted to physical science proper we do not attempt and his occasional touches of pathos made him deserve and to meddle. Philology, however, demands a brief notice. In obtain something more than successes of occasion. Béranger, classical studies France has till recently hardly maintained the moreover, was very far from being the mere improvisatore position which might be expected of the country of Scaliger which those who cling to the inspirationist theory of poetry and Casaubon. She has, however, produced some considerable would fain see in him. His studies in style and composition were Orientalists, such as Champollion the younger, Burnouf, Silvestre persistent, and it was long before he attained the firm and brilliant de Sacy and Stanislas Julien. The foundation of Romance philo- manner which distinguishes him. Béranger's talent, however, logy was due, indeed, to the foreigners Wolf and Diez. , But was still too much a matter of individual genius to have great early in the century the curiosity as to the older literature of literary influence, and he formed no school. It was different Francc created by Barbazan, Tressan and others continued to with Lamartine, who was, nevertheless, like Béranger, extend. Dominique Martin Méon (1748-1829) published many a typical Frenchman. The Méditations and the unprinted fabliaux, gave the whole of the French Renarl cycle, Harmonies exhibit a remarkable transition between with the exception of Renart le contrefail, and edited the Roman the old school and the new. In going direct to nature, in borror. de la rose. Charles Claude Fauriel (1772-1844) and François ing from her striking outlines, vivid and contrasted tints, Raynouard (1761-1836) dealt elaborately with Provençal harmony and variety of sound, the new poet showed himself poetry as well as partially with that of the trouvères; and the an innovator of the best class. In using romantic and religious latter produced his comprehensive Lexique romane. These associations, and expressing them in affecting language, he was examples were followed by many other writers, who edited the Chateaubriand of verse. But with all this he retained some manuscript works and commented on them, always with zeal of the vices of the classical school. His versification, harmonious and sometimes with discretion. Foremost among these must as it is, is monotonous, and he does not venture into the bold be mentioned Paulin Paris (1800-1881) who for fifty years served lyrical forms which true poetry loves. He has still the horror of the cause of old French literature with untiring energy, great the mot propre; he is always spiritualizing and idealizing, and literary taste, and a pleasant and facile pen. His selections from his style and thought have a double portion of the feminine manuscripts, his Romancero français, his editions of Garin le and almost flaccid softness which had come to pass for grace in Loherain and Berle aus grans piés, and his Romans de la table French. The last of the trio, Lamennais, represents an altogether ronde may especially be mentioned. Soon, too, the Benedictine bolder and rougher genius. Strongly influenced by Histoire littéraire, so long interrupted, was resumed under M. the Catholic reaction, Lamennais also shows the Paris's general management, and has proceeded nearly to the strongest possible influence of the revolutionary spirit. end of the 14th century. Among its contents M. Paris's dis- His earliest work, the Essai sur l'indifférence en matière de sertations on the later chansons de gestes and the early song religion (1817 and 1818) was a defence of the church on curiously writers, M. Victor le Clerc's on the fabliaux, and M. Littré's unecclesiastical lines. It was written in an ardent style, full of on the romans d'aventures may be specially noticed. For some illustrations, and extremely ambitious in character. The plan time indeed the work of French editors was chargeable with a was partly critical and partly constructive. The first part discertain lack of critical and philological accuracy. This reproach, posed of the 18th century; the second, adopting the theory of however, was wiped off by the efforts of a band of younger papal absolutism which Joseph de Maistre had already advocated, scholars, chiefly pupils of the École des Chartes, with MM.Gaston proceeded to base it on a supposed universal consent. The after Paris (1839-1903) and Paul Meyer at their head. Of M. Paris history of Lamennais was perhaps not an unnatural recoil from in particular it may be said that no scholar in the subject has ever | this; but it is sufficient bere to point out that in his prose,

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