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great part enumerated (I call them forms of the first class), and discovery of new arguments. In method the difference is even which (like the letters of the alphabet) are not many, and yet more fundamental. Hitherto the mode of demonstration had make up and sustain the essences and forms of all substances- been by the syllogism; but the syllogism is, in many respects, this, I say, it is which I am attempting, and which constitutes an incompetent weapon. It is compelled to accept its first and defines that part of metaphysic of which we are now inquir- principles on trust from the science in which it is employed; it ing.” Physics inquires into the same qualities, but does not push cannot cope with the subtlety of nature; and it is radically its investigations into ultimate reality or reach the more general vitiated by being founded on hastily and inaccurately abstracred causes. We thus at last attain a definite conclusion with regard notions of things. For a syllogism consists of propositions, to forms, and it appears clear that in Bacon's belief the true propositions of words, and words are the symbols of notions. function of science was the search for a few fundamental physical Now the first step in accurate progress from sense to reason, or qualities, highly abstract and general, the combinations of which true philosophy, is to frame a bona notio or accurate conception give rise to the simple natures and complex phenomena around of the thing; but the received logic never does this. It flies off us. His general conception of the universe may therefore be called at once from experience and particulars to the highest and most mechanical or statical; the cause of each phenomenon is sup- general propositions, and from these descends, by the use of posed to be actually contained in the phenomenon itself, and by middle terms, to axioms of lower generality. Such a mode of a sufficiently accurate process could be sifted out and brought to procedure may be called onticipatio naturae (for in it reason is light. As soon as the causes are known man regains his power over allowed to prescribe to things), and is opposed to the true nature, for “ whosoever knows any form, knows also the utmost method, the interpretatio naturae, in which reason follows and possibility of superinducing that nature upon every variety of obeys nature, discovering her secrets by obedience and submatter, and so is less restrained and tied in operation either to mission to rule. Lastly, the very form of induction that has been the basis of the matter or to the condition of the efficients.” 1 used by logicians in the collection of their instances is a weak and
Nature thus presented itself to Bacon's mind as a huge useless thing. It is a mere enumeration of a few known facts, congeries of phenomena, the manifestations of some simple and makes no use of exclusions or rejections, concludes precariously, primitive qualities, which were hid from us by the complexity and is always liable to be overthrown by a negative instance. of the things themselves. The world was a vast labyrinth, amid In radical opposition to this method the Baconian induction the windings of which we require some clue or thread whereby begins by supplying helps and guides to the senses, whose un. we may track our way to knowledge and thence to power. This assisted information could not be relied on. Notions were thread, the filum labyrinthi, is the new method of induction. But, formed carefully, and not till after a certain process of induction as has been frequently pointed out, the new method could not was completed? The formation of axioms was to be carried on be applied until facts had been observed and collected. This is by a gradually ascending scale. “Then and only then may we an indispensable preliminary. “Man, the servant and inter- hope well of the sciences, when in a just scale of ascent.and by preter of nature, can do and understand so much, and so much successive steps, not interrupted or broken, we rise from paronly, as he has observed in fact or in thought of the course of ticulars to lesser axioms; and then to middle axioms, one above nature; beyond this he neither knows anything nor can do the other; and last of all to the most general.”& Finally the anything." The proposition that our knowledge of nature very form of induction itself must be new. “The induction necessarily begins with observation and experience, is common which is to be available for the discovery and demonstration of to Bacon and many contemporary reformers of science, but he sciences and arts must analyse nature by proper rejections and laid peculiar stress upon it, and gave it a new meaning. What exclusions; and then, after a sufficient number of negatives, he really meant by observation was a competent natural history come to a conclusion on the affirmative instances, which has not or collection of facts. “The firm foundations of a purer natural yet been done, or even attempted, save only by Plato.... philosophy are laid in natural history.”? “First of all we must And this induction must be used not only to discover axioms, prepare a natural and experimental history, sufficient and good; but also in the formation of notions."'10 This view of the function and this is the foundation of all.”: The senses and the memory, of exclusion is closely connected with Bacon's doctrine of forms, which collect and store up facts, must be assisted; there must be.a ministration of the senses and another of the memory. For
• Bacon's summary is valuable..." In the whole of the process
which leads from the senses and objects to axioms and conclusions, not only are instances required, but these must be arranged in the demonstrations which we use are deceptive and incompetent. such a manner as not to distract or confuse the mind, i.e. tables The process consists of four parts, and has as many faults. In the and arrangements of instances must be constructed. In the first place, the impressions of the sense itself are faulty, for the sense
both fails us and deceives us. But its shortcomings are to be supplied preliminary collection the greatest care must be taken that the
and its deceptions to be corrected. Secondly, notions are all drawn mind be absolutely free from preconceived ideas; nature is only from the impressions of the sense, and are indefinite and conto be conquered by obedience; man must be merely receptive. sused, whereas they should be definite and distinctly bounded. " All depends on keeping the eye steadily fixed upon the facts of Thirdly, the induction is amiss which infers the principles of sciences nature, and so receiving their images simply as they are; for by simple enumeration, and does not, as it ought, employ exclusions
and solutions (or separations) of nature. Lastly, that method of God forbid that we should give out a dream of our own imagina- discovery and proof according to which the most general principles tion for a pattern of the world; rather may He graciously grant are first established, and then intermediate axioms are tried and to us to write an apocalypse or true vision of the footsteps of proved by them, is the parent of error and the curse of all science." —
N. 0. i. 69. the Creator imprinted on his creatures.”'Concealed among the
7 N. 0. i. 105.
# Ibrd, i. 104; cf. i. 19-26. facts presented to sense are the causes or forms, and the problem • This extract gives an answer to the objection sometimes raised therefore is so to analyse experience, so to break it up into that Bacon is not original in his theory cf induction. He certainly pieces, that we shall with certainty and mechanical ease arrive admits that Plato has used a method somewhat akin to his own; at a true conclusion. This process, which forms the essence of but it has frequently been contended that his induction is nothing
more than the énárwyn of Aristotle (see Rémusat's Bacon, &c., pp. the new method, may in its entirety, as a ministration to the 310-315, and for a criticism, Waddington, Essais de Logique; p. 261. reason, be called a logic; but it differs widely from the ordinary sqq.) This seems a mistake. Bacon did not understand by inor school logic in end, method and form. Its aim is to acquireduction the argument from particulars to a general proposition; he command over nature by knowledge, and to invent new arts,
looked upon the exclusion and rejection, or upon elimination, as the
essence of induction. To this process be was led by his doctrine of whereas the old logic strove only after dialectic victories and the forms, of which it is the necessary consequence; it is the infallible
Thus the last step in the theoretical analysis gives the first means result of his view of science and its problem, and is as original as that for the practical operation. Cf. Aristotle, Eih. Nic. iii. 3. 12, TÓ Whoever accepts Bacon's doctrine of cause must accept at the έσχατον έν τη αναλύσει πρώτον είναι εν τη γενέσει. Cf. also Noυ. same time his theory of the way in which the cause may be sifted out Org. i. 103.
from among the phenomena. It is evident that the Socratic search Cogitationes (Works, iii. 187).
*N. 0. ii. 10.
for the essence by an analysis of instances-an induction ending in Prel. to Instaur. Ci, Valerius Term. (Works, iji, 224), and N. O. a definition-has a strong resemblance to the Baconian inductive i. 68, 124.
. Pref. to Inst. method.
20 N. 0. i. 105.
and is in fact dependent upon that theory. But induction is on the other heads we have but a few scattered hints. But Deither the whole of the new method, nor is it applicable to forms although the rigorous requirements of science could only be only. There are two other grand objects of inquiry: the one, fulfilled by the employment of all these means, yet in their the transformation of concrete bodies; the other, the investiga- absence it was permissible to draw from the tables and the tion of the latent powers and the latent schematism or configura- exclusion a hypothetical conclusion, the truth of which might tion. With regard to the first, in ultimate result it depends upon be verified by the use of the other processes; such an the theory of forms; for whenever the compound body can be hypothesis is called fantastically the First Vintage (Vindemiatio). regarded as the sum of certain simple natures, then our know- | The inductive method, so far as exhibited in the Organum, is ledge of the forms of these natures gives us the power of super- exemplified by an investigation into the nature of heat. inducing a new nature on the concrete body. As regards the Such was the method devised by Bacon, and to which he latent process (latens processus) which goes on in all cases of ascribed the qualities of absolute certainty and mechanical generation and continuous development or motion, we examine simplicity. But even supposing that this method were accurate carefully, and by quantitative measurements, the gradual and completely unfolded, it is evident that it could only be made growth and change from the first elements to the completed applicable and produce fruit when the phenomena of the universe thing. The same kind of investigation may be extended to many have been very completely tabulated and arranged. In this cases of natural motion, such as voluntary action or nutrition; demand for a complete natural history, Bacon also felt that he and though inquiry is here directed towards concrete bodies, and was original, and he was deeply impressed with the necessity for does not therefore penetrate so deeply into reality as in research it;? in fact, he seems occasionally to place an even higher for forms, yet great results may be looked for with more con- value upon it than upon his Organum. Thus, in the preface to fidence. It is to be regretted that Bacon did not complete this his series of works forming the third part of the Instauratio, he portion of his work, in which for the first time he approaches says: “It comes, therefore, to this, that my Organum, even if it modern conceptions of change. The latent configuration (latens were completed, would not without the Natural History much schematismus) or inward structure of the parts of a body must be advance the Instauration of the Sciences, whereas the Natural known before we can hope to superinduce a new nature upon
it. History without the Organum would advance it not a little.”3 This can only be discovered by analysis, which will disclose the But a complete natural history is evidently a thing impossible, ultimate constituents (natural particles, not atoms) of bodies, and in fact a history can only be collected by attending to the and lead back the discussion to forms or simple natures, whereby requirements of the Organum. This was seen by Bacon, and alone can true light be thrown on these obscure questions. Thus, what may be regarded as his final opinion on the question is in all cases, scientific explanation depends upon knowledge of given in the important letter to Jean Antoine Baranzano forms; all phenomena or secondary qualities are accounted for("Redemptus ": 1590-1622):—“With regard to the multitude by being referred to the primary qualities of matter.
of instances by which men may be deterred from the attempt, The several steps in the inductive investigation of the form of here is my answer. First, what need to dissemble? Either any nature flow readily from the definition of the form itself. store of instances must be procured, or the business must be For that is always and necessarily present when the nature is given up. All other ways, however enticing, are impassable. present, absent when it is absent, decreases and increases accord. Secondly, the prerogatives of instances, and the mode of experiing as the nature decreases and increases. It is therefore requisite menting upon experiments of light (which I shall hereafter for the inquiry to have before us instances in which the nature explain), will diminish the multitude of them very much. is present.' The list of these is called the table of Essence and Thirdly, what ma ter, I ask, if the description of the instances Presence. Secondly, we must have instances in which the nature should fill six times as many volumes as Pliny's History? ... is absent; only as such cases might be infinite, attention should For the true natural history is to take nothing except instances, be limited to such of them as are most akin to the instances of connections, observations and canons." 5 The Organum and presence. The list in this case is called table of Absence in the History are thus correlative, and form the two equally Prezimity. Thirdly, we must have a number of instances in necessary sides of a true philosophy; by their union the new shich the nature is present in different degrees, either increasing philosophy is produced. or decreasing in the same subject, or variously present in different Summary.—Two questions may be put to any doctrine which subjects. This is the table of Degrees, or Comparison. After professes to effect a radical change in philosophy or science. Is the formation of these tables, we proceed to apply what is perhaps it original? Is it valuable? With regard to the first, it has the most valuable part of the Baconian method, and that in which been already pointed out that Bacon's induction or inductive the author took most pride, the process of exclusion or rejection. method is distinctly his own, though it cannot and need not be This elimination of the non-essential, grounded on the funda- maintained that the general spirit of his philosophy was entirely mental propositions with regard to forms, is the most important new. of Bacon's contributions to the logic of induction, and that in The value of the method is the separate and more difficult which, as he repeatedly says, his method differs from all previous question It has been assailed on the most opposite grounds. philosophies. It is evident that if the tables were complete, Macaulay, while admitting the accuracy of the process, denied its and our notions of the respective phenomena clear, the process of efficiency, on the ground that an operation performed naturally exclusion would be a merely mechanical counting out, and would was not rendered more easy or efficacious by being subjected infallibly lead to the detection of the cause or form. But it is to analysis.? This objection is curious when confronted with just as evident that these conditions can never be adequately Bacon's reiterated assertion that the natural method pursued fulfilled. Bacon saw that his method was impracticable (though by the unassisted human reason is distinctly opposed to his; be seems to have thought the difficulties not insuperable), and and it is besides an argument that tells so strongly against many therefore set to work to devise new helps, adminicula. These he sciences, as to be comparatively worthless when applied to any enumerates in ii., Aph. 21:- Prerogative Instances, Supports one. There are, however, more formidable objections against of Induction, Rectification of Induction, Varying the Investiga- the method. It has been pointed out, and with perfect justice, tien according to the Nature of the Subject, Prerogative Natures, ? Distrib. OP. (Works, iv. 28); Parasceve (ibid. 251, 252, 255-256); Limits of Intestigation, Application to Practice, Preparations for Descrip. Glob. Iniel. ch. 3. I nestigation, the Ascending and Descending Scale of Axioms.
3 Works, ii. 16; cf. N. 0. i. 130. The remainder of the Organum is devoted to a consideration of
* A Barnabite monk, professor of mathematics and philosophy at
Annecy. the twenty-seven classes of Prerogative Instances, and though Leiters and Life, vii. 377. it contains much that is both luminous and helpful, it adds little * For a full discussion of Bacon's relation to his predecessors and to our knowledge of what constitutes the Baconian method. contemporaries, see Fowler's N. 0. introd. $ 13.
7 Cf. what Bacon says, N. 0. i. 130. That is to say, differing in nothing save the absence of the nature & Brewster, Life of Newlon (1855) (see particularly vol. ii. 403, coder investigation.
405); Lasson, Uber Bacon von Verulam's wissenschaftliche Principien that science in its progress has not followed the Baconian method, , nected system the new mode of thinking, and to the incomparable that no one discovery can be pointed to which can be definitely power and eloquence with which he expounded and enforced it. ascribed to the use of his rules, and that men the most celebrated Like all epoch-making works, the Novum Organum gave ex. for their scientific acquirements, while paying homage to the pression to ideas which were already beginning to be in the air. name of Bacon, practically set at naught his most cherished | The time was ripe for a great change; scholasticism, long precepts. The reason of this is not far to seek, and has been decaying, had begun to fall; the authority not only of school pointed out by logicians of the most diametrically opposed doctrines but of the church had been discarded; while here and schools. The mechanical character both of the natural history there a few devoted experimenters were turning with fresh zeal and of the logical method applied to it, resulted necessarily from to the unwithered face of nature. The fruitful thoughts which Bacon's radically false conception of the nature of cause and of lay under and gave rise to these scattered efforts of the human the causal relation. The whole logical or scientific problem is mind, were gathered up into unity, and reduced to system in treated as if it were one of co-existence, to which in truth the the new philosophy of Bacon. It is assuredly little matter for method of exclusion is scarcely applicable, and the assumption wonder that this philosophy should contain much that is not is constantly made that each phenomenon has one and only one inapplicable, and that in many respects it should be vitiated cause. The inductive formation of axioms by a gradually by radical errors. The details of the logical method on which ascending scale is a route which no science has ever followed, its author laid the greatest stress have not been found of practical and by which no science could ever make progress. The true service; 5 yet the fundamental ideas on which the theory rested, scientific procedure is by hypothesis followed up and tested the need for rejecting rash generalization, and the necessity for by verification; the most powerful instrument is the deductive a critical analysis of experience, are as true and valuable now as method, which Bacon can hardly be said to have recognized. they were then. Progress in scientific discovery is made mainly, The power of framing hypothesis points to another want in the if not solely, by the employment of hypothesis, and for that no Baconian doctrine. If that power form part of the true method, code of rules can be laid down such as Bacon had devised. Yet then the mind is not wholly passive or recipient; it anticipates the framing of hypothesis is no mere random guesswork; it is nature, and moulds the experience received by it in accordance left not to the imagination alone, but to the scientific imagination. with its own constructive ideas or conceptions; and yet further, There is required in the process not merely a preliminary critical the minds of various investigators can never be reduced to the induction, but a subsequent experimental comparison, verificasame dead mechanical level. There will still be room for the tion or proof, the canons of which can be laid down with scientific use of the imagination and for the creative flashes of precision. To formulate and show grounds for these laws is genius.
to construct a philosophy of induction, and it must not be If, then; Bacon himself made no contributions to science, forgotten that the first step towards the accomplishment of if no discovery can be shown to be due to the use of his rules, the task was made by Bacon when he introduced and gave if his method be logically defective, and the problem to which prominence to the powerful logical instrument of exclusion or it was applied one from its nature incapable of adequate solution, elimination. it may not unreasonably be asked, How has he come to be looked It is curious and significant that in the domain of the moral upon as the great leader in the reformation of modern science? and metaphysical sciences his influence has been perhaps more How is it that he shares with Descartes the honour of inaugurat powerful, and his authority has been more frequently appealed ing modern philosophy? To this the true answer seems to be to, than in that of the physical. This is due, not so much to his that Bacon owes his position not only to the general spirit of his expressed opinion that the inductive method was applicable to philosophy, but to the manner in which he worked into a con- all the sciences, as to the generally practical, or, one may say, (1860); Liebig, Über Francis Bacon von Verulam, &c. (1863). Vindemiatio has been already pointed out; with regard to axioms, Although Liebig points out how little science proceeds according he says (N. 0. i. 106), “ In establishing axioms by this kind of into Bacon's rules, yet his other criticisms seem of extremely little duction, we must also examine and try whether the axiom so estabvalue. In a very offensive and quite unjustifiable tone, which is lished be framed to the measure of these particulars, from which it severely commented on by Sigwart and Fischer, he attacks the is derived, or whether it be larger or wider. And if it be larger and Baconian methods and its results. These results he claims to find in wider, we must observe whether, by indicating to us new particulars, the Sylva Sylvarum, entirely ignoring what Bacon himself has said it confirm that wideness and largeness as by a collateral security: of the nature of that work (N. 0. i. 17; cf. Rawley's Pref. to the that we may not either stick fast in things already known, or loosely S. S.), and thus putting a false interpretation on the experiments grasp at shadows and abstract forms, not at things solid and realized there noted. It is not surprising that he should detect many flaws, in matter." (Cf. also the passage from Valerius Terminus, quoted but he never fails to exaggerate an error, and seems sometimes com- in Ellis's note on the above aphorism.) of the syllogism be pletely to miss the point of what Bacon says. (See particularly his says, “I do not propose to give up the syllogism altogether, S. is remarks on S. S. 33, 336.) The method he explains in such a way incompetent for the principal things rather than useless for the as to show he has not a glimpse of its true nature. He brings against generality. In the mathematics there is no reason why it should not Bacon, of all men, the accusations of making induction start from be employed. It is the flux of matter and the inconstancy of the the undetermined perceptions of the senses, of using imagination, physical body which requires induction, that thereby it may be fixed and of putting a quite arbitrary interpretation on phenomena. He as it were, and allow the formation of notions well defined. In crowns his criticism by expounding what he considers to be the true physics you wisely note, and therein I agree with you, that after the scientific method, which, as has been pointed out by Fischer, is notions of the first class and the axioms concerning them have been simply that Baconian doctrine against which his attack ought to by induction well made out and defined, syllogism may be applied have been directed. (See his account of the method, Über Bacon, safely; only it must be restrained from Icaping at once to the most 47-49: K. Fischer, Buion, pp. 499-502.)
general notions, and progress must be made through a fit succession 1 Mill, Logic, ii. pp. 115, 116, 329, 330.
of steps."-("Letter to Baranzano,' Letters and Life, vii. 377). * Whewell, Phil. of Ind. Sc. ii. 399: 402-403; Ellis, Int. to Bacon's And with this may be compared what he says of mathematics No. Works, i. 39, 61; Brewster, Newton, ii. 404; Jevons, Princ. of Science Org. ii. 8; Parasceve, vii.). In his account of Experientia Literata ii. 220.
A severe judgment on Bacon's method is given in Dühring's (De Aug. v. 2) he comes very near to the modern mode of experiable but one-sided Kritische Gesch. d. Phil., in which the merits of mental research. It is, he says, the procedure from one experiment Roger Bacon are brought prominently forward.
to another, and it is not a science but an art or learned sagacity Although it must be admitted that the Baconian method is fairly (resembling in this Aristotle's á xxivora), which may, however, be open to the above-mentioned objections, it is curious and significant enlightened by the precepts of the Interpretatio. Eight varieties that Bacon was not thoroughly ignorant of them, but with deliberate of such experiments are enumerated, and a comparison is drawn consciousness preferred his own method. We do not think, indeed, between this and the inductive method; “ though the rational that the notiones of which he speaks in an way correspond to what method of inquiry by the Organon promises far greater things in the Whewell and Ellis would call conceptions or ideas furnished by the end, yet this sagacity, proceeding by learned experience, will in the mind of the thinker "; nor do we imagine that Bacon would have meantime present mankind with a number of inventions which lie admitted these as necessary elements in the inductive process. near at hand." (Cf. N. 0. i. 103.) he was certainly not ignorant of what may be called a deductive " See the vigorous passage in Herschel, Discourse on the Study of method, and of a kind of hypothesis. This is clear from the use he Natural Philosophy, $ 105; cf. § 96 of the same work. makes of the Vindemiatio, from certain hints as to the testing of * Bacon himself seems to anticipate that the progress of science axioms, from his admission of the syllogism into physical reasoning, would of itself render his method antiquated (Nov. Org. i. 130). and from what he calls Experientia Literata. The function of the . Nov. Org. i. 127.
Positive spirit of his system. Theological questions, which had | Ode to the Royal Society, and to Dr John Wallis's remarks in tortured the minds of generations, are by him relegated from Hearne's Preface to P. Langloft's Chronicle (appendix, num. xi.). the province of reason to that of faith. Even reason must be Joseph Glanvill
, in his Scepsis Scientifica (dedication) says, restrained from striving after ultimate truth; it is one of the “Solomon's house in the New Atlantis was a prophetic scheme errors of the human intellect that it will not rest in general of the Royal Society "; and Henry Oldenburg (c. 1615-1677), principles, but must push its investigations deeper. Experi- one of the first secretaries of the society, speaks of the new eace and observation are the only remedies against prejudice eagerness to obtain scientific data as “a work begun by the single and error. Into questions of metaphysics, as commonly under- care and conduct of the excellent Lord Verulam." Boyle, in stood, Bacon can hardly be said to have entered, but a long whose works there are frequent eulogistic references to Bacon, line of thinkers have drawn inspiration from him, and it is not regarded himself as a disciple and was indeed known as a second without justice that he has been looked upon as the originator Bacon. The predominating influence of Bacon's philosophy is and guiding spirit of what is known as the empirical school. thus clearly established in the generation which succeeded his
Bacon's Influence. It is impossible within our limits to do own. There is abundant evidence to show that in the unimore than indicate the influence which Bacon's views have had on versities of Oxford and Cambridge (especially the latter) the new subsequent thinkers. The most valuable and complete discussion spirit had already modified the old curricula. Bacon has freof the subject is contained in T. Fowler's edition of the Novum quently been disparaged on the ground that his name is not Orgonun (introd. $ 14). It is there argued that, both in philo- mentioned by Sir Isaac Newton. It can be shown, however, that sophy and in natural science, Bacon's influence was immediate Newton was not ignorant of Bacon's works, and Dr Fowler and lasting. Under the former head it is pointed out (i.) that explains his silence with regard to them on three grounds: (1) the fundamental principle of Locke's Essay, that all our ideas that Bacon's reputation was so well established that any
definite are product of sensation and reflection, is briefly stated in the mention was unnecessary, (2) that it was not customary at the first aphorism of the Novum Organum, and (ii.) that the whole time to acknowledge indebtedness to contemporary and recent atmosphere of that treatise is characteristic of the Essay. Bacon writers, and (3) that Newton's genius was so strongly matheis, therefore, regarded by many as the father of what is most matical (whereas Bacon's great weakness was in mathematics) characteristic in English psychological speculation. As he that he had no special reason to refer to Bacon's experimental himseli said, he "rang the bell which called the wits together." principles. In the sphere of ethics he is similarly regarded as a forerunner of If the foregoing examples are held sufficient to establish the the empirical method. The spirit of the De Augmentis (bk. vii.) influence of Bacon on the intellectual development of his imand the inductive method which is discussed in the Novum mediate successors, it follows that the whole trend of typically Organum are at the root of all theories which have constructed English thought, not only in natural science, but also in mental, a moral code by an inductive examination of human conscious moral and political philosophy, is the logical fulfilment of Dess and the results of actions. Among such theories utilitarian- Baconian principles. He argued against the tyranny of authison especially is the natural result of the application to the ority, the vagaries of unfettered imagination and the academic phenomenon of conduct of the Baconian experimental method. aims of unpractical dialectic; the vital energy and the reasoned In this connexion, however, it is important to notice that Hobbes, optimism of his language entirely outweigh the fact that his who had been Bacon's secretary, makes no mention of Baconian contributions to the stock of actual scientific knowledge were induction, nor does he in any of his works make any critical practically inconsiderable. It may be freely admitted that in reference to Bacon himself. It would, therefore, appear that the domain of logic there is nothing in the Organum that has not Bacon's influence was not immediate.
been more instructively analysed either by Aristotle himself or In the sphere of natural science, Bacon's importance is attested in modern works; at the same time, there is probably no work by references to his work in the writings of the principal scientists, which is a better and more stimulating introduction to logical not only English, but French, German and Italian. Fowler study. Its terse, epigrammatic phrases sink into the fibre of (op. cit.) has collected from Descartes, Gassendi, S. Sorbière, Jean the mind, and are a healthy warning against crude, immature Baptiste du Hamel, quotations which show how highly Bacon generalization. was regarded by the leaders of the new scientific movement. While, therefore, it is a profound mistake to regard Bacon as a Sorbière, who was by no means partial to things English, definitely great constructive philosopher, or even as a lonely pioneer of speaks of him as "celuy qui a le plus puissamment solicité les modern thought, it is quite unfair to speak of him as a trifler. interests de la physique, et excité le monde à faire des ex- His great work consists in the fact that he summed up the faults périences ” (Relation d'un voyage en Angleterre, Cologne, 1666, which the widening of knowledge had disclosed in medieval pp. 63-64). It was, however, Voltaire and the encyclopaedists thought, and in this sense he stands high among those who were who raised Bacon to the pinnacle of his fame in France, and in many parts of 16th-century Europe striving towards a new hailed him as “le père de la philosophie expérimentale” (Lettres intellectual activity. sur les Anglois). Condillac, in the same spirit, says of him,
BIBLIOGRAPHY. Editions. The classical edition is that of " personne n'a mieux connu que lui la cause de nos erreurs.'
R. L. Ellis, J. Spedding and D. D. Heath, ist ed., 1857; 2nd ed., the Excyclopédie, besides giving a eulogistic article “ Baconisme,"? | literary and professional works). B. Montagu's edition (17 vols.,
1870 (vols. i.-iii., philosophical writings; iv.-v., translations; vi.-vii., speaks of him (in d'Alembert's preliminary discourse) as “le 1825-1834) is full but unscholarly. An extremely useful reprint plus grand, le plus universel, et le plus éloquent des philosophes.” | (in one volume) of the philosophical works (with a few not strictly Among other writers, Leibnitz and Huygens give testimony philosophical), based on the first Ellis-Spedding edition, was pubwhich is the more valuable as being critical. Leibnitz speaks of introductions, it contains a useful summary by the editor of the
lished by J. M. Robertson (London, 1905); besides the original Bacon as “ divini ingenii vir," and, like several other German various problems of Bacon's life and thought. Numerous cheap authors, classes him with Campanella; Huygens refers to his editions have lately been published, c.g. in the World's Classics * bonnes méthodes.” If, however, we are to attach weight to
(1901), and "New Universal Library" series (1905); Sidney Lee, English writers of the latter half of the 17th century, we shall find English Works of Francis Bacon (London, 1905)
Of particular works there are numerous editions in all the chief that one of Bacon's greatest achievements was the impetus given languages. The foliowing are the most important:-T. Fowler, by his New Atlantis to the foundation of the Royal Society (9.0.). Novum Organum (Oxford, 1878; cd. 1889), with notes, full introDr Thomas Sprat (1635–1713), bishop of Rochester and first duction on Bacon's philosophy in all its relations, and a most valuable historian of the society, says that Bacon of all others had the bibliography. This superseded the edition of G. W. Kitchin (Oxford,
1855). The Essays have been cdited more than twenty times since true imagination of the whole extent" of the enterprise, and that 1870; the following cditions may be mentioned :- Archbishop in his works are to be found the best arguments for the experi- Whately (6th ed., 1864); W. Aldis Wright (Lond., 1862): F. Storr mental method of natural philosophy (Hist. of the Royal Society, and Gibson (Lond., 1886): E. A. Abbott (Lond., 1879):
John pp. 35-36, and Thomas Tenison's Baconiano, pp. 264-266). (Edinburgh, 1897). “A facsimile reprint of the ist edition was pub
Buchan (Lond., 1879); A. S. West (Cambridge, 1897); W. Evans In this connexion relcrence should be made also to Cowley's 'lished in New York (1904). Advancement of Learning:-W. Aldis
Wright (Camb., 1866; 5th ed., 1900); F. G. Selby (1892–1895); | and Bristol cathedral, give ample testimony to his powers.
and also vol. i. of R. Cecil's works, ed. J. Pratt (1811).' Biography.-J. Spedding, The Life and Lellers of Lord Baton
BACON, LEONARD (1802-1881), American Congregational (1861), Life and Times of Francis Bacon (1878); also Dr Rawley's Life in the Ellis-Spedding editions, and J. M. Robertson's reprint preacher and writer, was born in Detroit, Michigan, on the 19th (above); W. Hepworth Dixon, Personal History of Lord Bacon of February 1802, the son of David Bacon (1771-1817), missionary (Lond., 1861), and Story of Lord Bacon's Life (ib. 1862); John among the Indians in Michigan and founder of the town of ward. Early Life of Lord Bacon (1902): 1. Fowler, Francis Bacon Tallmadge, Ohio. The son prepared for college at the Hartford in “ English Philos." series (Lond., 1881); R. W. Church's Bacon, (Conn.) grammar school, graduated at Yale in 1820 and at the in " Men of Letters " series (1884).
Andover Theological Seminary in 1823, and from 1825 until his Philosophy.—Beside the introductions in the Ellis-Spedding death on the 24th of December 1881 was pastor of the First Kuno Fischer, Fr. Bacon (1856, 2nd ed., 1875, Eng. trans. by John Church (Congregational) in New Haven, Connecticut, occupying Oxenford, Lond., 1837): Ch. de Rémusat, Bacon, sa vie
a pulpit which was one of the most conspicuous in New England, influence (1857, ed. 1858 and 1877);
G. L. Craik, Lord Bacon, his and which had been rendered famous by his predecessors, Moses Writings and his Philosophy (3 vols., 1846-1847, ed. 1860); A. Dorner, Stuart and Nathaniel W. Taylor. In 1866, however, though De Baconis Philosophia (Berlin, 1867; London, 1886); J. y; Liebig, he was never dismissed by a council from his connexion with Über F. B. v. Verulam (Mannheim, 1863); Ad. Lasson, Uber B. v. Verulam's wissenschaftliche Principien (Berl., 1860); E. 'H. Böhmer, that church, he gave up the active pastorate. He was, from Uber F. B. v. Verulam (Erlangen, 1864); Ch. Adam, Philos. de 1826 to 1838, an editor of the Christian Speclator (New Haven); Francis Bacon (Paris, 1890); Barthéleiny St Hilaire, Étude sur was one of the founders (1843) of the New Englander (later the Francis Bacon (Paris, 1890); R. W. Church, op. cit.; H. Heussler,
Yale Review); founded in 1848 with Dr R. S. Storrs, Joshua F. Bacon und seine geschichtliche Stellung (Breslau, 1889); H. Hoffding, History, of Modern Philosophy (Eng. trans., 1900); J. M. Leavitt, Dr Joseph P. Thompson and Henry C. Bowen, primarily Robertson, Short Ilistory of Freethoughi (Lond., 1906); Sidney Lee, to combat slavery extension, the Independent, of which he was Great Englishmen of the 16th century (Lond., 1904). For the relations an editor until 1863; and was acting professor of didactic between Bacon and Ben Jonson see The Tale of the Shakespeare theology in the theological department of Yale University from Epitaphs by Francis Bacon (New York, 1888); for Bacon's poetical 1866 to 1871, and lecturer on church polity and American church gifts see an article in the Fortnightly Review (March 1905). For the Bacon-Shakespeare controversy see SHAKESPEARE. history from 1871 until his death. Gradually, after taking up
(R. AD.; J. M. M.) his pastorate, he gained greater and greater influence in his
denomination, until he came to be regarded as perhaps the most BACON, JOHN (1740-1799), British sculptor, was born. in prominent Congregationalist of his time, and was sometimes Southwark on the 24th of November 1740, the son of Thomas popularly referred to as “ The Congregational Pope of New Bacon, a cloth-worker, whose forefathers possessed a considerable England.” In all the heated theological controversies of the day, estate in Somersetshire. At the age of fourteen he was bound particularly the long and bitter one concerning the views put apprentice in Mr Crispe's manufactory of porcelain at Lambeth, forward by Dr Horace Bushnell, he was conspicuous, using his where he was at first employed in painting the small ornamental influence to bring about harmony, and in the councils of the pieces of china, but by his great skill in moulding he soon attained Congregational churches, over two of which, the Brooklyn the distinction of being modeller to the work. While engaged councils of 1874 and 1876, he presided as moderator, he manifested in the porcelain works his observation of the models executed great ability both as a debater and as a parliamentarian. In by different sculptors of eminence, which were sent to be burned his own theological views he was broad-minded and an advocate at an adjoining pottery, determined the direction of his genius; of liberal orthodoxy. In all matters concerning the welfare of he devoted himself to the imitation of them with so much success his community or the nation, moreover, he took a deep and that in 1758 a small figure of Peace sent by him to the Society constant interest, and was particularly identified with the for the Encouragement of Arts received a prize, and the highest temperance and anti-slavery movements, his services to the premiums given by that society were adjudged to him nine | latter constituting probably the most important work of his times between the years 1763 and 1776. During his apprentice- life. In this, as in most other controversies, he took a moderate ship he also improved the method of working statues in artificial course, condemning the apologists and defenders of slavery on stone, an art which he afterwards carried to perfection. Bacon the one hand and the Garrisonian extremists on the other. first attempted working in marble about the year 1763, and His Slavery Discussed in Occasional Essays from 1833 to 1846 during the course of his early efforts in this art was led to improve (1846) exercised considerable influence upon Abraham Lincoln, the method of transferring the form of the model to the marble and in this book appears the sentence, which, as rephrased by (technically “ getting out the points") by the invention of a Lincoln, was widely quoted: “Is that form of government, more perfect instrument for the purpose. This instrument pos- that system of social order is not wrong-if those laws of the sessed many advantages above those formerly employed; it was Southern States, by virtue of which slavery exists there, and is more exact, took a correct measurement in every direction, was what it is, are not wrong-nothing is wrong." He was early contained in a small compass, and could be used upon either attracted to the study of the ecclesiastical history of New England the model or the marble. In the year 1769 he was adjudged and was frequently called upon to deliver commemorative the first gold medal for sculpture given by the Royal Academy, addresses, some of which were published in book and pamphlet his work being a bas-reliei representing the escape of Aeneas form. Of these, his Thirtecn Historical Discourses (1839), dealing from Troy. In 1770 he exhibited a figure of Mars, which gained with the history of New Haven, and his Four Commemorative him the gold medal of the Society of Arts and his election as Discourses (1806) may be especially mentioned. The most imA.R.A. As a consequence of this success he was engaged to portant of his historical works, however, is his Genesis of the New execute a bust of George III., intended for Christ Church, Oxford. England Churches (1874). He published A Manual for Young He secured the king's favour and retained it throughout life. Church Members (1833); edited, with a biography, the Scled PracConsiderable jealousy was entertained against him by other lical Writings of Richard Baxter (1831); and was the author of a sculptors, and he was commonly charged with ignorance of classic number of hymns, the best-known of which is the one beginning, style. This charge he repelled by the execution of a noble head
"O God, beneath Thy guiding hand of Jupiter Tonans, and many of his emblematical figures are in
Our exiled fathers crossed the sea." perfect classical taste. He died on the 4th of August 1799 and There is no good biography, but there is much biographical was buried in Whitfield's Tabernacle. His various productions material in the commemorative volume issued by his congregation. which may be studied in St Paul's cathedral, London, Christ Haven, 1882), and there is a good sketch in Williston Walker's Church and Pembroke College, Oxford, the Abbey church, Bath, I Ten New England Leaders (New York, 1901).