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Leonard Bacon's sister DELIA BACON (1811-1859), born in | Browne, who had again asserted the rights of the house of Suffolk Tallmadge, Ohio, on the 2nd of February 1811, was a teacher to which Lady Catherine belonged. He thoroughly distrusted in schools in Connecticut, New Jersey and New York, and then, Mary queen of Scots; objected to the proposal to marry her to until about 1852, conducted in various eastern cities, by methods the duke of Norfolk; and warned Elizabeth that serious condevised by herself, classes for women in history and literature. sequences for England would follow her restoration. He seems She wrote Tales of the Purilans (1831), The Bride of Fort Edward to have disliked the proposed marriage between the English queen (1839), based on the story of Jane M'Crea, partly in blank and Francis, duke of Anjou, and his distrust of the Roman verse, and The Philosophy of the Plays of Shakespeare Unfolded Catholics and the French was increased by the massacre of St (1857), for which alone she is remembered. This book, in the Bartholomew. As a loyal English churchman he was ceaselessly preparation of which she spent several years in study in England, interested in ecclesiastical matters, and made suggestions for xhere she was befriended by Thomas Carlyle and especially the better observation of doctrine and discipline in the church. by Nathaniel Hawthorne, was intended to prove that the plays He died in London on the 20th of February 1579 and was buried attributed to Shakespeare were written by a coterie of men, in St Paul's cathedral, his death calling for many tributes to including Francis Bacon, Sir Walter Raleigh and Edmund his memory. He was an eloquent speaker, a learned lawyer, a Spenser, for the purpose of inculcating a philosophic system, generous friend; and his interest in education led him to make for which they felt that they themselves could not afford to several gists and bequests for educational purposes, including the assume the responsibility. This system she professed to disa foundation of a free grammar school at Redgrave. His figure cover beneath the superficial text of the plays. Her devotion was very corpulent and ungainly. Elizabeth visited him several to this one idea, as Hawthorne says, "had thrown her off times at Gorhambury, and had previously visited him at Redgrave. her balance," and while she was in England she lost her mind He was twice married and by his first wife, Jane, had three sons entirely. She died in Hartford, Connecticut, on the end of and three daughters. His second wife was Anne (d. 1610), September 1859.

daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, by whom he had two sons. There is a biography by her nephew, Theodore Bacon, Delia Bacon's cldest son, Nicholas (c. 1540-1624), was member of Bacon: A Sketch (Boston, 1888), and an appreciative chapter, parliament for the county of Suffolk and in 1611 was created * Recollections of a Gifted Woman," in Nathaniel Hawthorne's premier baronet of England. This baronetcy is still held by his Our Old Home (Boston, 1863).

descendants. His second and third sons, Nathaniel (c. 1550-1622 Leonard Bacon's son LEONARD WOOLSEY BACON (1830-1907), and Edward (c. 1550–1618), also took some part in public life, graduated at Yale in 1850, was pastor of various Congregational and through his daughter, Anne, Nathaniel was an ancestor of and Presbyterian churches, and published Church Papers (1876); the marquesses Townshend. His sons by his second wife were A Life Worth Living: Life of Emily Bliss Gould (1878); Irenics Anthony (1558-1601), a diplomatist of some repute, and the and Polemics and Sundry Essays in Church History (1895); illustrious Francis Bacon (9.0.). Histery of American Christianity (1898); and The Congrega- See G. Whetstone, “Remembraunce of the life of Sir N. Bacon," tionalists (1904).

(W. WR.) in the Frondes Caducae (London, 1816); J. A. Froude, History of BACON, SIR NICHOLAS (1509–1579), lord keeper of the great England, passim (London, 1881 f.). seal of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was the BACON, ROGER (c. 1214-C. 1294), English philosopher and second son of Robert Bacon of Drinkstone, Suffolk, and was man of science, was born near Ilchester in Somerset. His family born at Chislehurst. He was educated at Corpus Christi College, appears to have been in good circumstances, but in the stormy Cambridge, graduating B.A. in 1527, and afterwards spent some of Henry III. their property was despoiled and several time in Paris. Having returned to England and entered Gray's members of the family were driven into exile. Roger completed Inn, he was called to the bar in 1533, and four years later began his studies at Oxford, though not, as current traditions assert, at his public life as solicitor of the court of augmentations. Quickly Merton or at Brasenose, neither of which had then been founded. becoming a person of importance he obtained a number of estates, His abilities were speedily recognized by his contemporaries, and principally in the eastern counties, after the dissolution of the he enjoyed the friendship of such eminent men as Adam de monasteries, and in 1545 became member of parliament for Marisco and Robert Grosseteste, bishop of Lincoln. Dartmouth. In 1546 he was made attorney of the court of wards Very little is known of Bacon's life at Oxford; it is said he took and liverics, an office of both honour and profit; in 1550 became orders in 1233, and this is not improbable. In the following year, a bencher and in 1552 treasurer of Gray's Inn. Although his or perhaps later, he crossed over to France and studied at the sympathies were with the Protestants, he retained his office in university of Paris, then the centre of intellectual life in Europe. the court of wards during Mary's reign, but an order was issued The two great orders, Franciscans and Dominicans, were in the to prevent him from leaving England. The important period in vigour of youth, and had already begun to take the lead in Bacon's life began with the accession of Elizabeth in 1558. theological discussion. Alexander of Hales was the oracle of the Owing largely to his long and close friendship with Sir William Franciscans, while the rival order rejoiced in Albertus Magnus Cecil, afterwards Lord Burghley, his brother-in-law, he was and Thomas Aquinas. appointed lord keeper of the great seal in December of this year, The scientific training which Bacon had received, mainly from and was soon aíterwards made a privy councillor and a knight. the study of the Arab writers, showed him the manifold defects He was instrumental in securing the archbishopric of Canterbury in the systems reared by these doctors. Aristotle was known but for his friend Matthew Parker, and in his official capacity pre in part, and that part was rendered well-nigh unintelligible sided over the House of Lords when Elizabeth opened her first through the vileness of the translations; yet not one of those parliament. In opposition to Cecil

, he objected to the policy of professors would learn Greek. The Scriptures read, if at all, in making war on France in the interests of the enemies of Mary the erroncous versions were being deserted for the Sentences of queen of Scots, on the ground of the poverty of England; but Peter Lombard. Physical science, if there was anything deserv. afterwards favoured a closer union with foreign Protestants, and ing that name, was cultivated, not by experiment in the Aristoseemed quite alive to the danger to his country from the allied | telian way, but by arguments deduced from premises resting on and aggressive religious policy of France and Scotland. In 1559 authority or custom. Everywhere there was a show of knowbe was authorized to exercise the full jurisdiction of lord chan-ledge concealing fundamental ignorancc. Bacon, accordingly, cellor. In 1564 he fell temporarily into the royal disfavour and withdrew from the scholastic routine and devoted himself to was dismissed from court, because Elizabeth suspected he was languages and experimental research. The only teacher whom concerned in the publication of a pamphlet,“ A Declaration of the he respected was a certain Petrus de Maharncuria Picardus, or Succession of the Crowne Imperiall of Ingland," written by John of Picardy, probably identical with a certain mathematician, Hales (9.5.), and favouring the claim of Lady Catherine Grey to Petrus Peregrinus of Picardy, who is perhaps the author of a MS. the English throne. Bacon's innocence having been admitted he treatise, De Magnete, contained in the Bibliothèque Impériale was restored to favour, and replied to a writing by Sir Anthony | at Paris. The contrast between the obscurity of such a man and the fame enjoyed by the fluent young doctors roused Bacon's | not all have yet been discovered. Many are transcripts of works indignation. In the Opus Minus and Opus Tertium he pours or portions of works already published and, therefore, require forth a violent tirade against Alexander of Hales, and another no notice. professor, not mentioned by name, but spoken of as alive, and The works hitherto printed (neglecting reprints) are the blamed even more severely than Alexander. This anonymous following:-(1) Speculum Alchimiae (1541)-translated into writer,' he says, acquired his learning by teaching others, and English (1597); French, A Poisson (1890); (2) De Mirabili adopted a dogmatic tone, which has caused him to be received Potestale Artis el Naturae (1542)—English translation (1650); at Paris with applause as the equal of Aristotle, Avicenna, or (3) Libellus de Retardandis Senectutis Accidentibus (1590) Averroes.

translated as the “Cure of Old Age," by Richard Brown (London, Bacon, during his stay in Paris, acquired considerable renown. 1683); (4) Sanioris Medicinae Magistri D. Rogeri Baconis He took the degree of doctor of theology, and seems to have Anglici de Arte Chymiae Scripla (Frankfort, 1603)-a collection received the complimentary title of doctor mirabilis. In 1250 he of small tracts containing Excerpla de Libro Avicennae de Anima, was again at Oxford, and probably about this time entered the Breve. Breviarium, Verbum Abbreviatum, Secretum Secretorum, Franciscan order. His fame spread at Oxford, though it was Tractatus Trium Verborum, and Speculum Secrelorum; (5) mingled with suspicions of his dealings in the black arts and Perspectiva (1614), which is the fifth part of the Opus Majus; with some doubts of his orthodoxy. About 1257, Bonaventura, (6) Specula Mathematica, which is the fourth part of the same; general of the order, interdicted his lectures at Oxford, and (7) Opus Majus ad Clementem IV., edited by S. Jebb (1733) and commanded him to place himself under the superintendence J. H. Bridges (London, 1897); (8) Opere hactenus Inedila, by of the body at Paris. Here for ten years he remained under J. S. Brewer (1859), containing the Opus Tertium, Opus Minus, supervision, suffering great privations and strictly prohibited Compendium Studii Philosophiae and the De Secretis Operibus from writing anything for publication. But his fame had Naturae; (9) De Morali Philosophia (Dublin, 1860, see below); reached the ears of the papal lcgate in England. Guy de Foulques, (10) The Greek Grammar of R. Bacon and a Fragment of his who in 1265 became pope as Clement IV. In the following year Hebrew Grammar, edited with introduction and notes by E. S. he wrote to Bacon, ordering him notwithstanding any injunctions Nolan and S. A. Hirsch (1902); (11) Metaphysica Fratris from his superiors, to write out and send to him a treatise on the Rogeri, edited by R. Steele, with a preface (1905); (12) Opera sciences which he had already asked of him when papal legate. hactenus inedita, by Robert Steele (1905). Bacon, whose previous writings had been mostly scattered How these works stand related to one another can only be tracts, capitula quaedam, took fresh courage from this command determined by internal evidence. The smaller works, chiefly on of the pope. He set at naught the jealousy of his superiors alchemy, are unimportant, and the dates of their composition and brother friars, and despite the want of funds, instruments, cannot be ascertained. It is known that before the Opus Majus materials for copying and skilled copyists, completed in about Bacon had already written some tracts, among which an eighteen months three large treatises, the Opus Majus, Opus unpublished work, Compulus Naturalium, on chronology, belongs Minus and Opus Tertium, which, with some other tracts, were probably to the year 1263; while, if the dedication of the De despatched to the pope. We do not know what opinion Clement Secretis Operibus be authentic, that short treatise must have formed of them, but before his death he seems to have bestirred been composed before 1249. himself on Bacon's behall, for in 1268 the latter was permitted It is, however, with the Opus Majus that Bacon's real activity to return to Oxford. Here he continued his labours in experi- begins. It has been called by Whewell at once the Encyclopaedia mental science and also in the composition of complete treatises. and the Organum of the 13th century. The works sent to Clement he regarded as preliminaries, laying Part I. (pp. 1-22), which is sometimes designated De Ulilitate down principles which were afterwards to be applied to the Scientiarum, treats of the four offendicula, or causes of error. sciences. The first part of an encyclopaedic work probably remains These are, authority, custom, the opinion of the unskilled many, to us in the Compendium Studii Philosophiae (1271). In this work and the concealment of real ignorance with pretence of knowledge. Bacon makes a vehement attack upon the ignorance and vices The last error is the most dangerous, and is, in a sense, the cause of the clergy and monks, and generally upon the insufficiency of of all the others. The offendicula have sometimes been looked the existing studies. In 1278 his books were condemned by upon as an anticipation of Francis Bacon's Idola, but the two Jerome de Ascoli, general of the Franciscans, afterwards Pope classifications have little in common. In the summary of this Nicholas IV., and he himself was thrown into prison for fourteen part, contained in the Opus Terlium, Bacon shows very clearly his years. During this time, it is said, he wrote the small tract perception of the unity of science and the necessity of encycloDe Retardundis Senectutis Accidentibus, but this is merely a paedic treatment. tradition. In 1292, as appears from what is probably his latest Part II. (pp. 23-43) treats of the relation between philosophy composition, the Compendium Studii Theologiae, he was again and theology. All true wisdom is contained in the Scriptures, at liberty. The exact time of his death cannot be determined; at least implicitly; and the true end of philosophy is to rise 1294 is probably as accurate a date as can be fixed upon. from the imperfect knowledge of created things to a knowledge

Works end Editions.-Leland said that it is easier to collect of the Creator. Ancient philosophers, who had not the Scriptures, the leaves of the Sibyl than the titles of the works written by received direct illumination from God, and only thus can the Roger Bacon; and though the labour has been somewhat brilliant results attained by them be accounted for. lightened by the publications of Brewer and Charles, referred Part III. (pp. 44-57) treats of the utility of grammar, and the to below, it is no easy matter even now to form an accurate necessity of a true linguistic science for the adequate comidea of his actual productions. An enormous number of MSS. prehension either of the Scriptures or of books on philosophy. are known to exist in British and French libraries, and probably

* The more important MSS. are:-(1) The extensive work on 1 Brewer thinks this unknown professor is Richard of Cornwall, the fundamental notions of physics, called Communia Naturalis, but the little we know of Richard is not in harmony with the terms which is found in the Mazarin library at Paris, in the British in which he is elsewhere spoken of by Bacon. Erdmann conjectures Museum, and in the Bodleian and University College libraries at Thomas Aquinas, which is extremely improbable, as Thomas was Oxford; (2) on the fundamental notions of mathematics, De Com. unquestionably not the first of his order to study, philosophy: munibus Mathematicae, part of which is in the Sloane collection, Cousin and Charles think that Albertus Magnus is aimed at, and part in the Bodleian; (3) Baconis Physica, contained among the certainly much of what is said applies with peculiar force to him. additional MSS. in the British Museum; (4) the fragment called But some things do not at all cohere with what is otherwise known Quinta Pars Compendii Theologiae, in the British Museum; (5) the of Albert. It is worth pointing out that Brewer, in transcribing the Compendium Studii Theologiae, in the British Museum; (6) the passage bearing on this (Op: Ined. p. 327), has the words fratrum logical fragments, such as the Summulae Dialectices, in the Bodlcian, puerulus, which in his marginal note he interprets as applying to and the glosses upon Aristotle's physics and metaphysics in the The Franciscan order. In this case, of course, Albert could not be library at Amiens. See Little, The Grey Friars in Oxford (1892). the person referred to, as he was a Dominican. But Charles, in his 3 At the close of the Verb. Abbrev. is a curious note, concluding transcription, entirely omits the important word fratrum.

with the words, " ipse Rogerus fuit discipulus fratris Alberti/"

The necessity of accurate acquaintance with any foreign language | the nature and cause of the rainbow, which is really a very fine and of obtaining good texts, is a subject Bacon is never weary specimen of inductive research. of descanting upon. A translator should know thoroughly the The seventh part of the Opus Majus (De Morali Philosophia), Language he is translating from, the language into which he is not given in Jebb's edition, is noticed at considerable length in translating, and the subject of which the book treats.

the Opus Terlium (cap. xiv.). Extracts from it are given by Part IV. (pp. 57-255) contains an elaborate treatise on mathe- Charles (pp. 339-348). matics, "the alphabet of philosophy,” maintaining that all the As has been seen, Bacon had no sooner finished this elaborate sciences rest ultimately on mathematics, and progress only when work than he began to prepare a summary to be sent along with their facts can be subsumed under mathematical principles. it. Of this summary, or Opus Minus, part has come down and This fruitful thought he illustrates by showing how geometry is is published in Brewer's Op. Ined. (313-389), from what appears applied to the action of natural bodies, and demonstrating by to be the only MS. The work was intended to contain an abstract geometrical figures certain laws of physical forces. He also of the Opus Majus, an account of the principal vices of theology, shows how his method may be used to determine some curious and treatises on speculative and practical alchemy. At the same and long-discussed problems, such as the light of the stars, the time, or immediately after, Bacon began a third work as a preebb and flow of the tide, the motion of the balance. He then amble to the other two, giving their general scope and aim, but proceeds to adduce elaborate and sometimes slightly grotesque supplementing them in many points. The part of this work, reasons tending to prove that mathematical knowledge is generally called Opus Tertium, is printed by Brewer (pp. 1-310), Essential in theology, and closes this section of his work with two who considers it to be a complete treatise. Charles, however, comprehensive sketches of geography and astronomy. That on has given good grounds for supposing that it is merely a preface, geography is particularly good, and is interesting as having been and that the work went on to discuss grammar, logic (which read by Columbus, who lighted on it in Petrus de Alliaco's Imago Bacon thought of little service, as reasoning was innate), mathe. Mundi, and was strongly influenced by its reasoning.

matics, general physics, metaphysics and moral philosophy. Part V. (pp. 256-357) treats of perspective. This was the part He founds his argument mainly on passages in the Communia of his work on which Bacon most prided himself, and in it, we Naturalium, which indeed prove distinctly that it was sent to may add, he seems to owe most to the Arab writers Kindi and Clement, and cannot, therefore, form part of the Compendium, Alhazen. The treatise opens with an able sketch of psychology, as Brewer seems to think. It must be confessed, however, that founded upon, but in some important respects varying from, nothing can well be more consusing than the references in Bacon's Aristotle's De Anima. The anatomy of the eye is next described; works, and it seems well-nigh hopeless to attempt a complete this is done well and evidently at first hand, though the functions arrangement of them until the texts have been collated and of the parts are not given with complete accuracy. Many other carefully printed. points of physiological optics are touched on, in general errone- AU these large works Bacon appears to have looked on as ously. Bacon then discusses vision in a right line, the laws of preliminaries, introductions, leading to a great work which reflection and refraction, and the construction of mirrors and should embrace the principles of all the sciences. This great lenses. In this part of the work, as in the preceding, his reasoning work, which is perhaps the frequently-referred-to Liber Sex depends essentially upon his peculiar view of natural agents and Scientiarum, he began, and a few fragments still indicate its their activities. His fundamental physical maxims are matter outline. First appears to have come the treatise now called and force; the latter he calls virtus, species, imago agentis, and Compendium Studii Philosophiae (Brewer pp. 393-519), conby numberless other names. Change, or any natural phenomenon, taining an account of the causes of error, and then entering is produced by the impression of a virtus or species on matter- at length upon grammar. After that, apparently, logic was to the result being the thing known. Physical action is, therefore, be treated; then, possibly, mathematics and physics; then impression, or transmission of force in lines, and must accordingly speculative alchemy and experimental science. It is, however, be explained geometrically. This view of nature Bacon con- very difficult, in the present state of our knowledge of the MSS., sidered fundamental, and it lies, indeed, at the root of his whole to hazard even conjectures as to the contents and nature of this philosophy. To the short notices of it given in the 4th and 5th last and most comprehensive work. parts of the Opus Majus, he subjoined two, or perhaps three, Bacon's fame in popular estimation has always rested on his extended accounts of it. We possess at least one of these in the mechanical discoveries. Careful research has shown that very tract De Multiplicatione Specierum, printed as part of the Opus little can with accuracy be ascribed to him. He certainly Mojus by Jebb (pp. 358-444). We cannot do more than refer describes a method of constructing a telescope, but not so as to to Charles for discussions as to how this theory of nature is lead one to conclude that he was in possession of that instruconnected with the metaphysical problems of force and matter, ment. Burning-glasses were in common use, and spectacles it with the logical doctrine of universals, and in general with Bacon's does not appear he made, although he was probably acquainted theory of knowledge.

with the principle of their construction. His wonderful prePart VI. (pp. 445-477) treats of experimental science, domina dictions (in the De Secretis) must be taken cum grano salis; he ennium scientiarum. There are two methods of knowledge: believed in astrology, in the doctrine of signatures, and in the the one by argument, the other by experience. Mere argument philosopher's stone, and knew that the circle had been squared. is never sufficient; it may decide a question, but gives no For his work in connexion with gunpowder, the invention of satisíaction or certainty to the mind, which can only be convinced which has been claimed for him on the ground of a passage in by immediate inspection or intuition. Now this is what ex- his De mirabili potestate artis et naturae, sec GUNPOWDER. perience gives. But experience is of two sorts, external and Summary.-The 13th century, an age peculiarly rich in great internal; the first is that usually called experiment, but it can men, produced few, if any, who can take higher rank than Roger give no complete knowledge even of corporeal things, much less Bacon. He is in every way worthy to be placed beside Albertus of spiritual. On the other hand, in inner experience the mind Magnus, Bonaventura, and Thomas Aquinas. These had an is illuminated by the divine truth, and of this supernatural infinitely wider renown in their day, but modern criticism has enlightenment there are seven grades.

restored the balance in his favour, and is even in danger of Experimental science, which in the Opus Tertium (p. 46) is erring in the opposite direction. Bacon, it is now said, was distinguished from the speculative sciences and the operative not appreciated by his age because he was in advance of it; he arts in a way that forcibly reminds us of Francis Bacon, is said is no schoolman, but a modern thinker, whose conceptions of to have three great prerogatives over all other sciences:-(1) It science are more just and clear than are even those of his more verifies their conclusions by direct experiment; (2) It discovers celebrated namesake. In this view there is certainly some truth, truths which they could never reach; (3) It investigates the but it is much exaggerated. As a general rule, no man can Secrets of nature, and opens to us a knowledge of past and future. be completely dissevered from his national antecedents and As an instance of his method, Bacon gives an investigation into 1 See Dühring, Kritische Ges. d. Phil. 192, 249-251.

surroundings, and Bacon is not an exception. Those who take After the fall of Napoleon he was given up to the Austrians, up such an extreme position regarding his merits have known too who allowed him to reside at Linz, on condition of never leaving little of the state of contemporary science, and have limited that town. He published a collection of poems at Pest, 1837 their comparison to the works of the scholastic theologians. (2nd ed. Buda, 1835), and also edited the poetical works of Anyos We never find in Bacon himself any consciousness of originality; and Faludi. He died at Linz on the 12th of May 1845. he is rather a keen and systematic thinker, working in a well- BACTERIOLOGY. The minute organisms which are combcaten track, from which his contemporaries were being drawn monly called " bacteria "l are also known popularly under other by theology and metaphysics.

designations, e.g.

microbes,” “

micro-organisms," "microBIBLIOGRAPHY.-The best work on Roger Bacon is perhaps that phytes," " bacilli,” “micrococci.” All these terms, including of E. Charles, Roger Bacon, sa vie, ses ouvrages, ses doctrines d'après the usual one of bacteria, are unsatisfactory; for “ bacterium," des textes inédits (1861). Against the somewhat enthusiastic estimate and modern interpretation given in this work, are Schneider in his

· bacillus ” and “micrococcus ” have narrow technical meanRoger Bacon, Eine Monographie (Augsburg, 1873); K. Werner, ings, and the other terms are too vague to be scientific. The Die Psychol. ..des Roger Bacon and Die kosmologie des Roger most satisfactory designation is that proposed by Nägeli in 1857, Bacon (Vienna, 1879); Š. A. Hirsch, Early English Hebraists (1899); namely “schizomycetes," and it is by this term that they are Book of Essays (London, 1905), deals with Bacon as a The new matter contained in the publications of Charles and Brewer usually known among botanists; the less exact term, however, is was summarized by H. Siebert, Roger Bacon: Inaugural Disserta- also used and is retained in this article since the science is com. lion (Marburg, 1861). Cf. also J. K. Ingram, On the Opus Majus monly known as “ bacteriology.” The first part of this article of Bacon (Dublin, 1858); Cousin, “Fragments phil. du moyen deals with the general scientific aspects of the subject, while a âge" (reprinted from Journal des savans, 1848); E. Saisset, " Précurseurs et disciples de Descartes," pp. 1-58 (reprinted from Revue second part is concerned with the medical aspects. de deux mondes, 1861); K. Prantl, Gesch. der Logik, iii. 120-129 (a severe criticism of Bacon's logical doctrines); Held, Roger Bacon's

I. THE STUDY OF BACTERIA praktische Philosophie (Jena, 1881); Karl Pohl, Das Verhältniss d. The general advances which have been made of late years Philos. zur Theol. bei Roger Bacon (Neustrelitz, 1893); articles in in the study of bacteria are clearly brought to mind when we Westminster Review, lxxxi. 1 and 512; A. Parrot, Roger, Bacon et ses contemporains (1894); E. Fluegel, Roger Bacons Stellung in d. reflect that in the middle of the 19th century these organisms Gesch. d. Philos. (1902); S. Vogl, Die Physik Roger Bacos (1906). were only known to a few experts and in a few forms as curiosities For the popular legend see Famous Historie of Fryer Bacon (London, of the microscope, chiefly interesting for their minuteness and Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay (1587 or 1588), and in motility. They were then known under the name of “animalpublication of the Percy Society, vol. xv. 1844, A Piece of Friar culae," and were confounded with all kinds of other small Bacon's Brazen Heade's Prophesie (1604). For Bacon as a classical organisms. At that time nothing was known of their life-history, scholar see J. E. Sandys, Hist. of Class. Schol. (2nd ed., 1906), and no one dreamed of their being of importance to man and Cxxxi.

(R. AD.; X.)

other living beings, or of their capacity to produce the profound BACON (through the 0. Fr. bacon, Low Lat. baco, from a

chemical changes with which we are now so familiar. At the Teutonic word cognate with“ back,"e.g. O. H. Ger. pacho, M. H. Ger. backe, buttock, fitch of bacon), the flesh of the sides and present day, however, not only have hundreds of forms or species back of the pig, cured by salting, drying, pickling and smoking. tended that we have entire laboratories equipped for their study,

been described, but our knowledge of their biology has so exBACONTHORPE [Bacon, Baco, BACCONIUS), JOHN (d. 1346), and large libraries devoted solely to this subject. Furthermore, known as the Resolute Doctor,” a learned Carmelite monk, this branch of science has become so complex that the bacteriowas born at Baconthorpe in Norfolk. He seems to have been logical departments of medicine, of agriculture, of sewage, &c., the grandnephew of Roger Bacon (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 19. 116). have become more or less separate studies. Brought up in the Carmelite monastery of Blakeney, near

The schizomycetes or bacteria are minute vegetable organisms Walsingham, he studied at Oxford and Paris, where he was known as “ Princeps ” of the Averroists. Renan; however, says that They consist of single cells, which may be spherical,

devoid of chlorophyll and multiplying by repeated bipartitions. he merely tried to justify Averroism against the charge of hetero- oblong or cylindrical in shape, or of filamenious or doxy. In 1329 he was chosen twelfth provincial of the English other aggregates of cells. They are characterized by the Carmelites. He appears to have anticipated Wycliffe in advocat

absence of ordinary sexual reproduction and by the absence ing the subordination of the clergy to the king. In 1333 he was

of an ordinary nucleus. In the two last-mentioned characters sent for to Rome, where, we are told, he first maintained the

and in their manner of division the bacteria resemble Schizopope's authority in cases of divorce; but this opinion he retracted. He died in London in 1346. His chief work, Doctoris resoluti phyceae (Cyanophyceae or blue-green algae), and the two groups Joannis Bacconis Anglici Carmelitae radiantissimi opus super class Schizophyta, to indicate the generally received view that

of Schizophyceae and Schizomycetes are usually united in the qualtuor sententiarum libris (published 1510), has passed through most of the typical bacteria have been derived from the Cyanoseveral editions. Nearly three centuries later, it was still studied phyceae. Some forms, however, such as “ Sarcina," have their at Padua, the last home of Averroism, and Lucilio Vanini speaks algal analogues in Palmellaceae among the green algae, while of him with great vencration. See Brucker, Hist. Crit

. iii
. 865: Stöckl, Phil. d. Milte!, ii: 1044 with the Myxomycetes. The existence of ciliated micrococci

Thaxter's group of Myxobacteriaceae suggests a relationship For information as to his life, not found otherwise and of doubtful together with the formation of endospores--structures not known accuracy, sec J. B. de Lezana's Annales Sacri, iv.

in the Cyanophyceae-reminds us of the flagellate Protozoa, c.ß. BACSANYI, JANOS (1763-1845), Hungarian poet, was born Monas, Chromuina. Resemblances also exist between the endoat Tapolcza on the 11th of May 1763. In 1785 he published his spores and the spore-formations in thc Saccharomycetes, and if first work, a patriotic poem, The Valour of the Magyars. In the Bacillus inflatus, B. ventriculus, &c., really form more than one same year he obtained a situation as clerk in the treasury at spore in the cell, these analogies are strengthened. Schizomycetes Kaschau, and there, in conjunction with other two Hungarian such as Clostridium, Plectridium, &c., where the sporiferous cells patriots, edited the Magyar Museum, which was suppressed by enlarge, bear out the same argument, and we must not forget that the government in 1792. In the following year he was deprived there are extremely minute " yeasts," easily mistaken for Microof his clerkship; and in 1794, haying taken part in the conspiracy cocci, and that yeasts occasionally form only one spore in the cell. of Bishop Martinovich, he was thrown into the state prison Nor must we overlook the possibility that the endosporethe Spielberg, near Brünn, where he remained for two years. | formation in non-motile bacteria more than merely resembles After his release he took a considerable share in the Magyar the development of azygospores in the Conjugatae, and some Minerva, a literary review, and then proceeded to Vienna, where Ulothricaceae, if reduced in size, would resemble them. Meyer he obtained a post in the bank, and married. In 1809 he trans- regards them as chlamydospores, and Klebs as carpospores lated Napoleon's proclamation to the Magyars, and, in con- or possibly chlamydospores similar to the endospores of yeast. sequence of this anti-Austrian act, had to take refuge in Paris.

1 Gr. Barthplox, Lat. bacillus, little rod or stick.

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The former also looks on the ordinary disjointing bacterial cell | liquid (blood, urine, milk, beer, &c.) containing organic matter, as an oidium, and it must be admitted that since Brefeld's dis- or any solid food-stuff (meat preserves, vegetables, &c.), allowed covery of the frequency of minute oidia and chlamydospores to stand exposed to the air soon swarms with bacteria, among the fungi, the probability that some so-called bacteria- if moisture is present and the temperature not ab

Distribus and this applies especially to the branching forms accepted by normal. Though they occur all the world over in the some bacteriologists-aré merely reduced fungi is increased. air and on the surface of exposed bodies, it is not to be Even the curious one-sided growth of certain species which form supposed that they are by any means equally distributed, and sheaths and stalks-e.g. Bacterium vermiforme, B. pediculatum it is questionable whether the bacteria suspended in the air --can be matched by Algae such as Oocardium, Hydrurus, and ever exist in such enormous quantities as was once belicved. some Diatoms. It is clear then that the bacteria are very possibly The evidence to hand shows that on heights and in open a heterogeneous group, and in the present state of our knowledge country, especially in the north, there may be few or even no their phylogeny must be considered as very doubtful.

Schizomycetes detected in the air, and even in towns their Nearly all bacteria, owing to the absence of chlorophyll, are distribution varies greatly; sometimes they appear to exist in saprophytic or parasitic forms. Most of them are colourless, but minute clouds, as it were, with interspaces devoid of any, but

in laboratories and closed spaces where their cultivation has been promoted the air may be considerably laden with them Of course the distribution of bodies so light and small is easily influenced by movements, rain, wind, changes of temperature, &c. As parasites, certain Schizomycetes inhabit and prey upon the organs of man and animals in varying degrees, and the

conditions for their growth and distribution are then very comс

plex. Plants appear to be less subject to their attacks-possibly, as has been suggested, because the acid fluids of the higher vegetable organisms are less suited for the development of Schizomycetes; nevertheless some are known to be parasitic on plants. Schizomycetes exist in every part of the alimentary canal of animals, except, perhaps, where acid secretions prevail; these are by no means necessarily harmful, though, by destroying the teeth for instance, certain forms may incidentally be the forerunners of damage which they do not directly cause.

Little was known about these extremely minute organisms before 1860. A. van Leeuwenhoek figured bacteria as far back as the 17th century, and O. F. Müller knew several

History. important forms in 1773, while Ehrenberg in 1830 had advanced to the commencement of a scientific separation and grouping of them, and in 1838 had proposed at least sixteen species, distributing them into four genera. Our modern more accurate though still fragmentary knowledge of the forms of Schizomycetes, however, dates from F. J. Cohn's brilliant researches, the chief results of which were published at various periods between 1853 and 1872; Cohn's classification of the

bacteria, published in 1872 and extended in 1875, has in fact M

dominated the study of these organisms almost ever since. He к

proceeded in the main on the assumption that the forms of bacteria as met with and described by him are practically

constant, at any rate within limits which are not wide: observFIG. I.-- Preparations showing various forms of bacteria and the ing that a minute spherical micrococcus or a rod-like bacillus various types of cilia and their arrangement.

regularly produced similar micrococci and bacilli respectively, A Bacillus subtilis, Cohn, and F. Bacillus typhi, Gaffky. he based his classification on what may be considered the

Spirilluem undula, Ehrenb. G. B. vulgaris (Hauser), Migula. constancy of forms which he called species and genera. As to B. Planococcus cilreus (Mengę)H. Microspira Comma (Koch), the constancy of form, however, Cohn maintained certain

Migula. (sard), Migula. Schroeter. C. Pseudomonas pyo nea (Ges- J, K. Spirillum rubrum, Es- reservations which have been ignored by some of his followers. D. P. macraselmis, Migula.

marsch.

The fact that Schizomycetes produce spores appears to have E. P. syncyanca (Ehrenb.), ‘L,M.S. undula(Müller), Ehrenb. been discovered by Cohn in 1857, though it was expressed Migula.

(All after Migula.)

dubiously in 1872; these spores had no doubt been observed a few secrete colouring matters other than chlorophyll. In size previously. In 1876, however, Cohn bad seen the spores germitheir cells are commonly about 0.001 mm. (1 micromillimetre or nate, and Koch, Brefeld, Pratzmowski, van Tieghem, de Bary 1 p) in diameter, and from two to five times that length, but and others confirmed the discovery in various species. smaller ones and a few larger ones are known. Some of the shapes The supposed constancy of forms in Cohn's species and genera assumed by the cells are shown in fig. 1.

received a shock when Lankester in 1873 pointed out that his That bacteria have existed from very early periods is clear from Bacterium rubescens (since named Beggiatoa roseo-persicina, Zopf) their presence in fossils; and although we cannot accept all the passes through conditions which would have been described by

conclusions drawn from the imperfect records of the most observers influenced by the current doctrine as so many Distriburocks, and may dismiss as absurd the statements that separate species

genera,”-that in fact forms geologically immured forms have been found still living, known as Bacterium, Micrococcus, Bacillus, Leplothrix, &c.,

the researches of Renault and van Tieghem have shown occur as phases in one life-history. Lister put forth similar pretty clearly that large numbers of bacteria existed in Carbon- ideas about the same time; and Billroth came forward in 1874 iferous and Devonian times, and probably carlier.

with the extravagant view that the various bacteria are only Schizomycetes are ubiquitous as saprophytes in still ponds and different states of one and the same organism which he called ditches, in running streams and rivers, and in the sea, and especi- Cocco-bacteria seplica. From that time the question of the ally in drains, bogs, refuse heaps, and in the soil, and wherever pleomorphism (mutability of shape) of the bacteria has been organic infusions are allowed to stand for a short time. Any "hotly discussed; but it is now generally agreed that, while a

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