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Shere Ali agrees to new boundaries, and receives an

gen. Hills to be mil tary governor, with Gholam Hus. other Britist: subsidy, Oct.; nominates his youngest

sein Khan...

14 Oct. 1879 son, Abdoola Jan, his successor, to the great dissatis- Great explosions (supposed treacherous) in the Bala Hisfaction of his older son Yakoob.

... Dec. 1873

sar; destruction of much arms and ammunition; capt. Yakoob Khan imprisoned by his father....... about Dec. 1874 Shafto and about 20 others missing.

16 Oct. Shere Ali refusing to allow a British resident, the sub- Abdication of Yakoob Khan announced. ....19 Oct.

sidy withheld; he raises an army, and is said to pro- 5 prisoners (mollahs and others) hanged as murderers mote disaffection to the British.. .1877-8 of major Cavagnari and others...

. 20-24 Oct. Death of the heir Abdoola Jan..

17 Aug. 1878 Sahib Jan, a freebooter, with a strong force of Taraki Stolietoff, a Russian envoy, favorably received at Cabul, Ghilzais, defeated and killed by gen. Hughes at Shahjui, June; a treaty signed; Russia to be the guardian of

near Candahar..

... 24 Oct. the ameer.

.Aug

Proclamation of gen. Roberts announcing British occu. The nawab Gholam Hussein Khan sent is envoy to the

pation of Cabul, etc...

.30 Oct. ameer with letters from the viceroy (16 and 24 Aug.), Junction of columns of gens. Macpherson and Bright at 30 Aug ; dismissed with presents; intercourse with

Katasang..

.6 Nov. the British declined...

Sept. 163 Afghan mutineers, etc., tried; 87 executed as mur. A mission with military escort under sir Neville B.Cham

derers; 76 released

Oct., Nov. berlain, commander of the Madras army, starts from Combination of tribes under Mahomed Jan Wardak, Peshawur. ..21 Sept.

Dec. At Ali Masjid, a fort in the Khyber pass, major Cava- Continued severe fighting, with heavy loss on both sides, gnari and an advance party are threatened with attack

11-14 Dec. if they proceed, 22 Sept.; they retire to Peshawur, 23, Gen. Roberts concentrates his forces in the Sherpur can. 24 Sept. ; Gholam Hussein sent with an ultimatum (an

tonments.

.14 Dec swer required before 20 Nov.)...

....28 Oct.

Musa Khan, son of Yakoob, said to be proclaimed ameer British army formed in three divisions : at Quettah,

about 17 Dec, Peshawur, and Kuram (34,730 natives, 12,740 Euro- Gen. Gough at Jagdalak attacked; retreats into the fort, peans)...

.... about 16 Nov.
16 Dec. ; indecisive conflicts.

.18, 19 Dec. Despatch from lord Cranbrook supporting the viceroy, The Afghans (25,000) defeated with great loss near Sher

18 Nov.

pur cantonments, by gens. Roberts and Gough. 23 Dec. No answer received from the ameer; the army advances, Cabul left by the enemy, 24 Dec.; the city and Bala His

21 Nov.
sar reoccupied by the British.

..26 Dec. Ali Musjid shelled and occupied by the British; 21 guns The enemy dispersed..

.28 Dec. taken; major Birch and lieut. Fitzgerald and about 35 Attack of Afghan chiefs on col. Norman repulsed at Jag. men killed...

.22 Nov.
dalak...

....29 Dec. The viceroy's proclamation to the Afghans issued. 23 Nov. Ghazni seized and held for Musa Khan, as the new ameer, Occupation of Dakka and Pisheen, 23 Nov.; of Kuram

by Mohammed Jan.....

......about 10 Jan. 1880 fort. ....

.. 25 Nov. Gen. Roberts proclaims an amnesty with few exceptions; Kuddum burned to punish marauding hillmen....1 Dec. the bill tribes generally subdued. ......about 6 Jan. Gen. Roberts victorious at l'eiwar pass (which see). 2 Dec. Mohmands and other tribes defeated in an attack near Evasive reply of the amoer, dated 19 Nov., received

Dakka....

15 Jan 3 Dec. Correspondence with Russia; papers found in Cabul ito The British occupy Jellalabad.

20 Dec.
be kept secret)...

.6 Feb. Shere Ali flees from Cabul to Balkh, 13 Dec. ; Yakoob Musa Khan and chiefs at Ghazni submit......21 March,

Khan assumes command; the Russian mission with- Mahomed Jan defeated and killed, fighting with Hadraws...

..Dec.
zaris.

about 3 April, Gen. Roberts proclaims annexation of Kuram district, A camp at Duwai attacked by Pathans; garrison killed etc... ..26 Dec.

16 April, He enters the Khoost territory, 3 Jan.; defeats the Man- Shero Ali, cousin of the late ameer, made wali or gov. gals near Matoon..

...7 Jan. 1879 ernor of Candabar by the British (see Candahar). April, Candahar abandoned 6 Jan.; entered by general Stewart Gen. sir Donald Stewart defeats a furious attack of Ghil. unopposed...

.7 Jan.

zais at Ahmad Khel, 19 April ; again near Ghazni, Wali Manomed, a relative of Shere Ali, joins the British,

23 April, Jan. Col. Jenkins, at Char-asiab, attacked by 4000 Logaris; reThe Alizais defeated in an attack.

..16 Feb.

sists till reinforced by gen. Macpherson; totally de. Death of Shere Ali, the ameer (announced)......20 Feb.

feats them.

.25 April, About 46 of the 10th hussars drowned by current while Sir D. Stewart takes chief command at Cabul.....2 May, crossing the Cabul river, 10 p.m..

.31 March, Alleged defeats of Safis and Ghazis near Jellalabad, Gen. Gough, with the 10th hussars and others, defeats

19, 22 May, about 5000 Khugianis near Futtehabad; gallant major Gen. Burrows (with about 2400 men) sent from Bombay Wigram Batty killed. . ...2 April, • towards Candabar.....

....1 July, Yakoob Khan, son of the late anieer, arrives at Ganda. The troops of the inefficient wali of Candahar, Shere Ali,

mak to negotiate, 8 May; recognized as ameer.. 9 May, revolt and join Ayoob Khan, about.. ...14 July, Treaty of peace signed at Gandamak (the British to oc- Gen. Burrows at Maiwand, near Kusck-i-Nakhud (which cupy Khyber pass, and the Kuram and Pisheen val

see).

.17 July, leys; to have a resi lent at Cabul; and to pay an an- Abdul Rahman, or Abdur-Rahman (see above, 1863 et nual subsidy of (0,001. to the ameer), 26 May; ratified seq.), recognized as ameer at Cabul by the British, and 30 May; the British troops retire.. .8 June, proclaimed.

22 July, Sir Louis Cavagnari and escort honorably received in Ayoob Khan (son of the late ameer, Shere Ali), governor Cabul...

..24 July, “ of Herat, marches upon Candabar with about 12,000 Thanks of the house of lords voted to the viceroy, officers,

men and 20 guns; defeats the attack of gen. Burrows and men..

4 Aug

after severe conflicts; heavy loss on both sides; many Several regiments of Afghan soldiers arrive in Cabul officers of 66th regiment killed....

27 July, from Herat; abont 13 Aug, aided by the populace, they Candahar citadel held by British with about 4000 men, besiege the British residents, who, after a brave resist

28 July, ance, are massacred (including sir L. Cavagnari, Mr. Ayoob encamped at Kokaran...

..9 Aug. Jenkyns, his secretary, lieut. Hamilton, and Dr. Am- Gen. sir F. Roberts with about 10,000 men, etc., marches brose Kelly), with about 26 native cavalry and 50 in

from Cabul to relieve Candahar....

.9 Aug. fantry; a few natives escape...

.3, 4 Sept. Sir D. Stewart, with all the troops, after an interview Gen. Roberts marches towards Cabul......6 Sept. et seq.

with the ameer Abdur-Rahman, withdraws from Cabul Mutiny at Herat; military and civil governors killed,

11 Aug. 5 Sept.

Attack of Pathans (hill-tribes) on the post at Kaeh AmaRepulse of an attack on Baker's entrenchments at Shutar. dan firmly beaten off by sepoys; 80 Pathans killed, gardan..... 19 Sept.

16 Aug. British convoy attacked by Mongols, near Shutargar. Ineffectual sortie from Candahar, under gen. Primrose, dan; 8 sepoys and 15 muleteers killed; mules taken, against Deh Kwajee village, with beavy loss on both

22 Sept.

sides; gen. Brooke, col. Newport, majors Vandaleur and Gen. Baker reaches Kushi 24 Sept. ; receives the ameer French, capt. Cruickshank, lieut. Marsh, and rev. Mr. Yakoob and his son, his general Daoud, and suite,

Gordon, and 180 men killed....

...16 Aug. 27 Sept.

Ayoob Khan's army (strengthened by Ghilzais) about Gen. Roberts arrives at Cabul, 28 Sept. ; occupies Dakka, 20,000 about 25 Aug.; he retires from Candahar 29 Sept.

about 30 Aug. Attack on British camp at Shutargardan repulsed. 2 Oct. Gen. Roberts arrives at Candahar, 31 Aug? ; declines Battle of Charasiab; severe conflict with Afghans before Ayoob's terms; defeats and disperses his army at

Cabul; capt. Young, Dr. Duncan, lieut. Fergusson, and Mazra near the Argandab; and captures his camp at about 70 killed and wounded.

6 Oct.

Baba Wali Kotal (see Mazra)....... ....1 Sept. The enemy decamps ; about 98 guns abandoned ; pur. Ayoob Khan arrives in Herat; reported ......... 10 Oct.

sued by cavalry; small pirties only overtaken.8-9 Oct. Tranquillity at Cabul announced Gon. Roberts visits the abandoned Bala Hissar, 11 Oct.; Shere Ali, wali of Candahar, resigus and retires to India, enters Cabul, 12 Oct. ; Jellalabad occupied by Gough,

Dec. 14 Oct. Alleged expenses of the war, 1878-80, 16,605,0001... .Jan. 1881 Gen. Roberts's proclamation; heavy fine; martial law; Russian correspondence with the ameer Shere Ali in

66

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1878 published; explained by Russia as relating to Livingstone left Zanzibar to continue his search for the probable war in the East..

.9, 10 Feb. 1881 sources of the Nile, March, 1866. Thanks of parliament voted to gen. Roberts and the

[See his narrative below.) army in both houses...

......5 May, Reports of the murder of Livingstone near Lake Nyassa, in Prospect of war between Ayoob Khan of Herat and Ab

Sept. 1866–March, 1867; doubted July, 1867. dur-Rahman of Cabul.

May, June, Expedition of E. D. Young in search of Livingstone, sailed 9 Conflicts between partisans of the ameer and Ayoob July, 1867, returned and reported to the Royal Geographical Khan; the latter defeated...

..3, 11 June, Society his conviction that Livingstone was alive, 27 Jan. Ayoob Khan defeats the ameer's army under Gholam

1868. Hyder at Karez-i-atta, 26 July; enters Candahar

Letter from Dr. Livingstone dated Bembo, 2 March, 1867; 30 July,

heard of down to Dec. 1867.

His despatch to lord Clarendon dated 7 July, 1868; read to the Africa, called Libya by the Greeks, one of the three Letter dated 30 May, 1869, published Dec. 1869.

Royal Geographical Society, 8 Nov. 1869. parts of the ancient world, and the greatest peninsula of Uncredited reports of his murder by negroes, Jan. ; his probthe globe; said to have been first peopled by Ham. For able safety reported by Dr. Kirk, 22 June; said to be at Moits history, see Egypt, Cape, Carthage, Cyrene, Abyssinia, Expedition of sir Samuel Baker to put down slave-trade on Algiers, Morocco, A shantee, South Africa, etc.

the Upper Nile (see Egypt), Jan. 1870.

Expedition in search of Livingstone, under lieut. Dawson, or. Carthage subdued by the Romans, 146 B.C.; other provinces ganized by the Royal Geographical Society; started 9 Feb. gained by Pompey, 82.

1872. Revolts subdued by Diocletian, A.D. 296; by Theodosius, 373. [It returned on hearing that Stanley had found LivingN. Africa conquered by the Vandals under Genseric, 429-35; stone.) reconquered by Belisarius, 533-55.

Dutch Guinea settlements purchased and transferred (see ElThe Saracens subdue the north of Africa, 639-709.

mina) 6 April, 1872. Cape of Good Hope discovered by Diaz, 1487.

Reports current that Livingstone is alive, May, June, 1872. Vasco de Gama doubles the Cape and explores the coast, 19 Expedition sent in search of Livingstone by Mr. James GorNov. 1497

don Bennett, proprietor of the New York Herald, at a cost Portuguese settlements begun, 1450.

of about 80007. : English merchants visit Guinea in 1550; and Elizabeth Mr. Henry M. Stanley, chief of the expedition, left Zanzibar, granted a patent to an African company in 1588.

and, after much opposition from the native chiefs, accidenDutch colony at the Cape founded, 1650.

tally fell in with Livingstone at Ujiji, near Unyanyembe, 10 Capt. Stubbs sailed up the Gambia, 1723.

Nov. 1871, and remained with him till 14 March, 1872, when Bruce commenced his travels in 1768.

he brought away his diary and other documents. Mr. StanSierra Leone settled by the English, 1787.

ley reported that Livingstone had arrived at t'jiji in bad Mungo Park made his first voyage to Africa, 22 May, 1795; his condition, having been robbed and deserted by his attendants. second, 30 Jan. 1804, and never returned; see Park.

Much controversy ensued between Mr. Stanley, the members Africa visited by Salt, 1805 and 1809; Burckhardt, 1812 ; of lieut. Dawson's expedition, Dr. Livingstone, Dr. Kirk, the Campbell, 1813; Hornemann, 1816; Denham and Clapper: Royal Geographical Society, and others, Aug.-Oct. 1872. ton, 1822; Laing, 1826; the brothers Lander, 1830.

Letter from Dr. Livingstone, at Ujiji, dated Nov. 1871, to Mr. The great Niger expedition to start a colony in Central Africa Bennett (printed in New York Herald 26 July, and reprint

(for which parliament voted 60,0001.), consisting of the Al- ed in the Times 27 July, 1872). He describes his explora. bert, Wilberforce, and Soudan steamships, commenced the tions and his painful journey to Ujiji; his meeting with Mr. ascent of the Niger, 20 Aug. 1841; when they reached Id- Stanley; and he speaks of the Nile springs being about 600 dah, sever broke out among the crews, and they were suc- miles south of the most southerly part of lake Victoria Vy. cessively obliged to return, the Albert having ascended the anza; and also of about 700 miles of water-shed in central river to Egga, 320 miles from the sea, 28 Sept. The expedi- Africa, of which he had explored about 600; and of the con. tion was relinquished owing to disease, heat, and hardships, vergence of the water-shed first into four, and then into two, and all the vessels had cast anchor at Clarence Cove, Fer. mighty rivers in the great Nile valley (?) between 10° and nando Po, 17 Oct. 1841.

120 s. lat. Second letter (dated Feb. 1872) describes the hor. James Richardson explored the great Sahara in 1845–6, and in rore of the slave-trade in E. Africa, printed in the Times

1849 (by direction of the Foreign Office) he left England to 29 July, 1872. explore central Africa, accompanied by Drs. Barth and Livingstone's despatches, dated 1 and 15 Nov. 1871, received Overweg. Richardson died 4 March, 1851; and Overweg by the Foreign Office, 1 Aug.; letter dated 1 July received died 27 Sept. 1852.

2 Oct. 1872. Dr. Vögel sent out with reinforcements to Dr. Barth, 20 Feb. Mr. Stanley described his discovery of Livingstone to the Brit. 1853; in April, 1857, said to have been assassinated.

ish Association at Brighton in presence of the ex emperor Dr. Barth returned to England, and received the Royal Geo- and empress of the French, 16 Aug., and received a gold

graphical Society's medal, 16 May, 1856. His travels were snuff box from the queen about 30 Aug. 1872. published in 5 vols. in 1858.

Livingstone died of dysentery in Ilala, central Africa; his pu. Dr. David Livingstone, a missionary traveller, returned to pil Jacob Wainwright, a young negro missionary, present,

England in Dec. 1856, after an absence of 16 years, during 1 May, 1873; bis remains interred in Westminster Abbey, which he traversed a large part of the heart of S. Africa, and 18 April; his last journals published Dec. 1874. walked about 11.000 miles, principally over country hitherto New Expedition, under sir Bartle Frere, to Zanzibar, to sup. unexplored. His book was published in Nov. 1857. In press the E. African slave - trade; lieut. Verney Lovett Feb. 1858, he was appointed British consul for the Portu- Cameron's offer to aid in the furtherance of Livingstone's

guese possessions in Africa, and left England shortly after. expedition was accepted; sailed 20 Nov. 1872; see ZanDu Chaillu's travels in central Africa, 1856-9, created much zibar. controversy, 1861.

Expedition to explore the upper part of the Congo (Mr. Young, Second expedition of Dr. Livingstone, March, 1858.

of Kelly, to subscribe 20001. Royal Geographical Society to Casts. Speke and Grant announce the discovery of a source of supplement it), proposed Nov. 1872. the Nile in lake Victoria Nyanza, 23 Feb. 1863.

Lieut. Verney Cameron, after the finding of Livingstone, con(Capt. Speke was accidentally shot by his own gun while tinued his explorations, 1872-3. alone near Bath, 15 Sept. 1864.)

Leaving t'jiji, 14 May, 1874, he followed Livingstone's route; Some Dutch ladies unsuccessfully explore the White Nile, explored 1200 miles of fertile country; arriving at Portu

and undergo many privations, July, 1863-4. (One Miss guese settlements, 4 Nov. 1875.

Tinne said to have been killed; reported 5 Sept. 1869.) He was received by Royal Geographical Society, and gave ac. The “Universities Mission to E. central Africa,” consisting count of his journey, 11 April, 1876.

of Charles F. Mackenzie, bishop of central Africa, and six Expedition of Mr. H. M. Stanley (supported by Daily Telegraph clergymen and others, started Dec. 1860, and arrived at the and New York Herald); he surveyed lake Victoria Nyan. Zambesi, in Feb. 1861.' All died from privations and disease za (230 miles by 180), 1875, well and successful; last letter except two, who returned in 1864. The bishop died 31 Jan. dated 24 April, 1876. 1862; succeeded by Dr. Tozer.

Stanley reports survey of lake Tanganyika; and states that he Du Chaillu starts on a fresh expedition, 6 Aug. 1863; after be- left ('jiji and crossed Africa from east to west, and identified

ing robbed, and undergoing many privations, returned to the Lualaba with the Congo river, which has an uninterLondon near the end of 1865. He gave an account of his rupted course of over 1400 miles, 24 Aug. 1876-6 Aug. 1877. journey at a meeting of the Royal Geographical Society, 8 Arrives at Cape Town, 21 Oct. 1877; in London 22 Jan.; pubJan. 1866.

lished “Through the Dark Continent,” May, 1878. Dr. Livingstone returns 23 July, 1864.

Italian expedition under marchese Antinori well received by Death of Dr. W. B. Baikie, at Sierra Leone, 30 Nov. 1864. (He king of Scida; announced 2 Dec. 1876; his death reported,

was sent as special enroy to the negro tribes near the Niger Nov. 1877. by the Foreign Office, about 1854. He opened commercial Portuguese government grant 20,0001. for expedition into the relations with central Africa. )

interior, announced Dec. 1876. Mr. (afterwards sir) Samuel Baker discovered a lake, supposed Dr. Güssfeld, a German, after his exploration into S. W. Cen.

to be another source of the Nile, which he named Lake Ny- tral Africa, 1873, declared the difficulties insuperable, 1875. aliza Albert, 14 March, 1864.

Mr. H. M. Stanley, with an international Belgian exped tion, Dr. Livingstone appointed British consul for inner Africa, 24 explored the Congo, 1879-80. March, 1865.

ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY's successful expedition into Narrative of Livingstone's Zambesi expedition, 1858-64, pub. E. Africa, under Mr. A. Keith Johnston, leaves England 14 lished 1866.

Nov. 1878, starts from Zanzibar about 14 May, 1879. Mr.

Johnston dies 28 June; succeeded by Joseph Thomson, who Age. In Greece and Rome twenty-five was full age returns to England Aug. 1880. Alleged massacre of col. Flatters's party (American) by Toua. for both sexes, but a greater age was requisite for the regs, 16 Feb. 1881.

holding certain offices: e.g. thirty for tribunes, fortyAFRICAN Association, for promoting the exploration of central three for consuls. In England the minority of a male Africa, was formed in June, 1788, principally by sir Joseph terminates at twenty-one, and of a female in some cases, Banks; and under its auspices many additions were made to African geography by Ledyard, Park, Burckhardt, Horne- as that of a queen, at eighteen. In 1547, the majority mann, etc. It merged into the Royal Geographical Society, of Edward VI. was, by the will of his father, fixed at July, 1831. AFRICAN Church. In 1866 Robert Gray, bishop of Capetown father, Henry VIII., had assumed the reins of govern:

eighteen years; previously to completing which age, his Church of England), established synods of the “Church of ment, in 1509.—A male of twelve may take the oath of South Africa,

allegiance, at fourteen he may consent to a marriage or AFRICAN COMPANY (merchants trading to Africa) arose out of choose a guardian, at seventeen he may be an executor,

an association in London formed in 1588. granted to a joint-stock company in 1618; a second com- and at twenty-one he is of age; but according to the pany was created in 1631; a third corporation in 1662; an- statute of wills, 7 Will. IV. and 1 Vict. c. 26, 1837, no other was formed by letters-patent in 1672; remodelled in will made by any person under the age of twenty-one

1695. In 1821 the company was abolished. AFRICAN EXPLORATION FUND, founded by Royal Geographical years shall be valid. A female at twelve may consent Society, May, 1877.

to a marriage, at fourteen she may choose a guardian, AFRICAN INSTITUTION, founded in London in 1807, for the abo and at twenty-one she is of age. In the United States

lition of the slave - trade and the civilization of Africa. Many schools have been established with success, particu- the legal age of majority is twenty-one years, but in larly at Sierra Leone.

some of the states eighteen is the legal age for women. African Confederation, see South African Con

Men of eighteen and women of sixteen may devise propfederation.

erty by will, and at fourteen and twelve, respectively,

they may contract marriage. The president and viceAgapæ (áyárin, Greek for love, charity), “ feasts of president of the United States must be thirty-five years charity,” referred to Jude 12, and described by Tertullian, of age, senators thirty, and members of the House of of which the first Christians of all rayks as one family Representatives twenty-five. partook, as Christ did with his disciples. Disorders creeping in, these feasts were forbidden to be celebrated

Aged Pilgrims' Friend Society, founded in churches by the councils of Laodicea (366) and Car- 1807; asylums, 1826 and 1871. thage (390). They are still recognized by the Greek Agincourt, or AZINCOUR (N. France), a village church, and are held in their original form weekly by where Henry V. of England, with about 9000 men, dethe Glasites or Sandemanians, and in some degree by the feated about 60,000 French on St. Crispin's day, 25 Oct. Moravians, Wesleyans, and others.

1415. Of the French, there were, according to some acAgapemone (Greek, the abode of love), an es- counts, 10,000 killed, including the dukes of Alençon, tablishment at Charlinch, near Bridgewater, Somerset- Brabant, and Bar, the archbishop of Sens, one marshal, shire, founded in 1845, where Henry James Prince * thirteen earls, ninety-two barons, and 1500 knights; and and his deluded followers, formerly persons of property, 14,000 prisoners, among whom were the dukes of Orlived in common, professing to devote themselves to in- leans and Bourbon, and 7000 barons, knights, and gentlenocent recreation and to maintain spiritual marriage. men.. The English lost the duke of York, the earl of The Agapemone is described by Mr. Hepworth Dixon Suffolk, and about 20 others. St. Rémy asserts, with in his “ Spiritual Wives,” published in Jan, 1868. Meet- more probability, that the English lost 1600 men. Henings of the sect were held at Hamp, near Bridgewater, ry V. soon after obtained the kingdom of France. Dec. 1872.

Agincourt iron-clad, see Navy, 1871.
Agar-town, the name given to a district in St.
Pancras parish, N. London. It consisted of hovels erect-

Agitators (or Adjutators), officers appointed by the ed on the site of the grounds of councillor Agar, after Parliamentary army in 1647 to take care of its interests : 1841, which, from their filthy and uncivilized condition, cach troop or company had two. The general, Cromwell, were termed by Charles Dickens, in 1851, the English At a review he seized the ringleaders of a mutiny, shot

was eventually obliged to repress their seditious power, Connemara. The entire district was cleared by the Midland Railway Company.

one instantly, in the presence of his companions and the

forces on the ground, and thus restored discipline.Age. Chronologers have divided the time between Mume. Daniel O'Connell, the agitator of Ireland, was the creation and the birth of Christ into ages. Hesiod born in 1775. He began to agitate at the elections (about 850 B.C.) described the Golden, Silver, Brazen, in 1826; was elected for Clare, 5 July, 1828; the election and Iron ages; see Dark Ages.

being declared void, he was re-elected 30 July, 1829. AfFirst AGE (from the Creation to the Deluge).. 4001-2349

ter the passing of the Catholic Emancipation bill, he agiSECOND AGE (to the coming of Abraham into Ca

tated in vain for the repeal of the union, 1834 to 1843. naan).

2348–1922 He died 15 May, 1847.- Richard Cohden and John THIRD AGE (to the Exodus from Egypt)...

1921-1491 FOURTI AGE (to the founding of Solomon's Tem

Bright were the chief Anti-corn-law agitators, 1841-5. ple)..

1490-1014 Mr. Bright became a Reform agitator in 1866. Fifth AGE (to the capture of Jerusalem).

1014-588 Sixtu AGE (to the birth of Christ)..

588

Agnadello (N.E. Italy). Here Louis XII. of SEVENTH AGE, to the present time.

France gained a great victory over the Venetians, some

of whose troops were accused of cowardice and treach* Prince was born in 1811; educated for the medical pro- ery; 14 May, 1509. The conflict is also termed the batfession and licensed to practise, 1832; gave it up for the tle of the Rivolta. church and entered St. David's college, Lampeter, and there commenced ultra-revivalist movements in 1836; and finally

Agnoitæ (from äyvoia, Greek, ignorance). I. A claimed to be an incarnation of the Deity, with corresponding sect founded by Theophronius of Cappadocia about 370; authority over his followers. On 22 May, 1850, Thomas Rob. said to have doubted the omniscience of God. II. The inson sought to recover the possession of his child from the care of its mother (from whom he had separated); the appli- followers of Themistius of Alexandria, about 530, who cation was refused by the vice-chancellor, to "save the child held peculiar views as to the body of Christ, and doubted from the pollution of the parent's teaching."-On 21 Aug. his divinity. 1858, Miss Louisa Jane Nottidge died, having transferred her property to Mr. H. J. Prince. Her brother, Mr. Nottidge, by Agnostics, name given to philosophers who assert an action, recovered from Prince 57281., as having been fraud that we have no knowledge but what we acquire by ulently obtained. Extraordinary disclosures were made during the trial, 25 July, 1860. In the autumn of 1860, the Rev.

means of our senses, about 1876. Mr. Herbert Spencer Mr. Price, after several vain attempts, succeeded in rescuing and Mr. John Fiske are eminent agnostics. his wifo from the Agapemone. They had both been early supporters of it.

Agonistici (from ayov, Greek, a conflict), also

B.C.

4

ton.

ton.

termed circutores, a branch of the Donatists (which see) ciety (1749) gave a stimulus to agriculture in Ireland; its

origin is attributed to Mr. Prior of Rathdowney, Queen's in the fourth century. They preached with great bold

County, in 1731. The Bath and West of England Society ness, and incurred severe persecution.

established 1777; and the Highland Society of Scotland,

1793. County Agricultural Societies are now numerous. Agra (N.W. India), founded by Akbar in 1566, was London Board of Agriculture established by act of parliament, the capital of the Great Mogul; see Mausoleums. In 1793. 1658 Aurungzebe removed to Delhi.The fortress of Francis, duke of Bedford, a great promoter of agriculture,

died 2 March, 1802. Agra, “the key of Hindostan,” in the war with the American Institute of Agriculture, New York, incorporated Mahrattas surrendered to the British forces, under gen. 1829. Lake, 17 Oct. 1803, after one day's siege: 162 pieces of Royal Agricultural Society of England established in 1838 by ordnance and 240,0001. were captured.-In June, 1857,

noblemen and gentlemen, the chief landed proprietors in

the kingdom, and incorporated by royal charter, 26 March, the city was abandoned to the mutineers by the Euro

1840. it holds two meetings annually-one in London, the peans, who took refuge in the fort, from which they were other in the country. It awards prizes, and publishes a rescued by major Montgomery and colonel Greathed. valuable journal. Visit of the prince of Wales, 25 Jan. 1876.-Allahabad 1839. Oxford. 1854. Lincoln. 1868. Leicester. was made capital of the N.W. provinces of India, instead 1840. Cambridge. 1855. Carlisle. 1869. Manchester.

1841. Liverpool. 1856. Chelmsford. 1870. Oxford. of Agra, in 1861.

1842. Bristol. 1857. Salisbury. 1871. Wolverhamp

1843. Derby. 1858. Chester. Agram (formerly Zagrab), a city of Croatia, Hun

1844. Southamp- 1859. Warwick. 1872. Cardifr. gary, residence of the ban; suffered much by earth

1860. Canterbury. 1873. Hull. quakes, 9-12 Nov. 1880.

1845. Shrewsbury. 1861. Leeds. 1874. Bedford.

1846. Newcastle. 1862. Battersea. 1875. Taunton. Agrarian Law (Agraria lex) decreed an eqnal 1847. Northampton. 1863. Worcester. 1876. Birming

1848. York.
1864. Newcastle-

ham. division among the Roman people of all the lands ac

1849. Norwich.

on-Tyne. 1877. Liverpool. quired by conquest, limiting the acres which each per- 1850. Exeter. 1865. Plymouth. 1878. Bristol. son should enjoy. It was first proposed by the consul 1851. Windsor. 1866. Bury St. Ed. 1879. London.

munds. 1880. Carlisle. Spurius Cassius, 486 B.C., and occasioned his judicial 1852. Lewes.

1853. Gloucester. 1867. No meeting. 1881. Derby. murder when he went out of office in 485.-An agrarian law was passed by the tribune Licinius Stolo, 376; and International Agricultural Exhibition, promoted by the Socifor proposing further amendments Tiberius Gracchus in

ety, and held at Kilburn, London, N. W. Occupied 106 acres.

It was opened by the prince of Wales 30 June, visited by 133, and his brother Cornelius in 121, were murdered. the queen in July, and closed finally 10 July, 1879. Livius Drusus, a tribune, was murdered for the same Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland, instituted 1841. cause, 91. Julius Cæsar propitiated the plebeians by Chambers of Agriculturewere established in France in

1851. passing an agrarian law in 59.-In modern times the

In Great Britain, 1868, they had increased from 36 to

70. A journal commenced early in 1868. term has been misinterpreted to signify a division of the lands of the rich among the poor, frequently proposed by Royair agricultural College at Cirencester, organized 1842; demagogues, such as Gracchus Babeuf, editor of the Tri- Suffolk Agricultural College at Bury St. Edmunds opened bun du Peuple, in 1794. In 1796 he conspired against

1874. Other colleges opened. the Directory with the view of obtaining a division of British Dairy Farmers' Association.-Inaugurated; first show property, was condemned, and killed himself, 27 May,

opened at Agricultural Hall, London, 24-28 Oct. 1876. 1797.

Royal Agricultural Benevolent Institution.-It relieves farm

ers and their widows and orphans; founded chiefly by Mr. Agricola's Wall, see Roman Walls.

Mechi, 1860.

The Associated Agriculturists of Great Britain, a limited comAgricultural Children Act prohibits employ

pany, proposed April, 1881. ment of children under eight years of age, and provides AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. -Sir Humphry Davy delivered for the education of older children, 5 Aug. 1873.

lectures on this subject (afterwards published), at the in.

stance of the Board of Agriculture, in 1812; but it excited Agricultural Holdings Act, passed 13 Aug.

little attention till the publication of Liebig's work in 1840,

which made a powerful impression. Boussingault's "Éco1875, relates to compensations of landlords and tenants, nomie Rurale,'' an equally important work, appeared in 1844. for improvements, etc.

The immoderate expectations from this study having been

somewhat disappointed, a partial reaction took place. LieAgriculture. “Abel was a keeper of sheep, but

big's “ Letters on Agriculture" appeared in 1859. Cain was a tiller of the ground," Gen. iv. 2. The Athe- AGRICULTURAL GANGS. - In the spring of 1867, most painful nians asserted that the art of sowing corn began with exposures were made of the prevalence of much cruelty and them; and the Cretans, Sicilians, and Egyptians made

immorality in the gang system (in which boys and girls are

employed) in several of the eastern and midland counties; the same claim.

and, in consequence, an act was passed 20 Aug. for regu.

lating these gangs, licensing gang-masters, etc. Cato the Censor (died 149 B.C.) and Varro (died 28 B.C.) were eminent Roman writers on agriculture.

A Union of Agricultural Laborers, managed chiefly by Joseph Virgil's Georgics, 30 B.C. Agriculture in England improred by

Arch, formerly a laborer, afterwards a Methodist preacher, the Romans after A.D. 44.

was inaugurated at Leamington, Warwickshire, 29 March, Fitzherbert's "Book of Husbandry," printed 1524.

1872. The movement spread, being countenanced by AuTusser's “Five Hundred Points of Husbandry," 1562.

beron Herbert, M.P., and others. The Union met in Lon. Blythe's “Improver,'' 1649.

don, Arch re-elected president, 16, 17 May, 1877. Hartlib's “Legacy,” 1650.

Lock-out of agricultural laborers belonging to the Union (lastJethro Tull's "Horse-hoeing Husbandry," 1701.

ed 18 weeks, costing the Union much money), began at AlAbout the end of the eighteenth century, fallowing was grad. Dispute between Lincolnshire farmers and laborers settled,

derton, Suffolk, March, 1872. ually superseded by turnips and green crops. In Aug. 1855, a committee presented a report on the best mode

18-20 May; Suffolk and Norfolk farmers refuse compromise of obtaining accurate agricultural statistics. There were,

about 25 May; the Union ceased to support the locked-out in 1831, 1,055,982 agricultural laborers in Great Britain, and

laborers, leaving them to emigration, or to seek employ. in Ireland 1,131,715.

ment, 27 July, 1872. Acreage of crops, and number of cattle, sheep, and pigs in The agitation subsided; the laborers were employed autumn, Great Britain and Ireland, beginning with 1866, published

1875; agricultural return for Great Britain, 1873; reported in the annual “Statistical Abstract," since 1869.

steady increase in prosperity, 1875. It was reckoned by the Agricultural Committee that the cul. A partial strike and lock-out of laborers in Kent and Sussex, tivation of waste lands would yield above 20,000,0001. a

Oct.-Dec. 1878. year. It was calculated in 1854 that there were in England The delegates of the National Agricultural Laborers' Union 32,160,000 acres in cultivation, of the annual value of 37,

met 26 Oct. 1875. 412,0001. Since that time, much land has been brought into Very great agricultural depression through bad seasons, and

foreign importations; many landlords remit large part of “History of Ágriculture and Prices in England (1259–1400),” Royal Commission of Inquiry appointed 4 July, 1879.

by prof. James T. Rogers, published June, 1866. AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. — The earliest mentioned in the The following table, drawn up by Mr. William Couling, C.E. British Isles was the Society of Improvers of Agriculture

in 1827, is extracted from the Third Report of the Emigra in Scotland, instituted in 1723. A Dublin Agricultural So.

tion Committee :

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etc.

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Wastes Ca

Number of
Products.

Number of

Value. Countries. Cultivated. pable of Iin - Unprofitable. Total.

Bushels, etc. Acres.
provement,

Indian corn, bushels. 1,717,434,543 62,317,842 $679,714,499
Wheat,

498,549,868 37,986, 717 474, 201,850 England.. 25,632,000 3,454,000 3,256, 400 32,342,400 Rye,

24,540,829 1,767,619 18,564,560 Wales 3,117,000 530,000 1,105,000 4,752,000 Oats,

417,855,380 16,187,977 150,243,565 Scotland. 5,265,000 5,950,000 8,523,930 19, 738,930 Barley,

45,165,346 1,843,329 30,090,742 Ireland... 12,125, 280 4,900,000 2,416,664 19,441,944 Buckwheat,

14,617,535 822,802 8,682,488 British Isles.. 383,690

166,000
569, 469 1,119, 159
Potatoes,

167, 659,570 1,842,510 81,062,214

Tobacco, pounds.. 446,296,889 602,516 36,414,615 Totals.... 46,522,970 15,000,000 15,871, 463 77,394,433 Hay, tons.

31,925,233 25,863,955 371,811,084 Cotton, bales.

6,343, 269 15,475,300 280, 266, 242

Grand total.. At that period it was computed that the soil of the United

164,710,567 $2,131,051,859 Kingdom was annually cropped in the following propor. In addition to these are the grass crop, market gardening, tions:

fruit products, sugar-cane, rice, and several minor crops.

The dairy industry is a manufacturo founded on and mainly Wheat.

7,000,000 included in grass and grain production. Meat products are Barley and rye...

1.950,000 also secondary, giving increased value to the primary prod. Potatoes, oats, and beans..

6,500,000 ucts from which they are made. An exact estimate of all Turnips, cabbages, and other vegetables..

1,150,000 farm production has never been made and is difficult to calClover, rye-grass, etc..

1,750,000 culate with close precision, but it is probable that the fig. Fallow

2,800,000 ures given above are about two-thirds of the real value of Hop-grounds.

60,000 the primary products of American agriculture. Nursery.grounds..

20,000 Enclosed fruit, flower, kitchen, and other gardens. 110,000

Agricultural Hall, Islington, N. London, chiefly Pleasure-grounds.

100,000 for the meetings of the Smithfield Club. . The foundaLand depastured by cattle.

21,000,000 tion-stone was laid by the president, lord Berners, 5 Nov. Hedge-rows, copses, and woods.

2,000,000

1861. The hall has been much used for industrial exWays, water, etc...

2,100,000

hibitions, public meetings, equestrian and pedestrian perCultivated land........ 46,540,000 formances, concerts, etc.

It was opened for an exhibition of dogs, 24 June, 1862; horses CROPS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND:

and donkeys exhibited, July, 1864, and annually since.

First Smithfield annual cattle show here, 6 Dec. 1862.
Corn
Green
Grasses,

A great reform demonstration was made here, 30 July, 1866.
Crops. Crops.

Grand ball to the Belgian visitors, volunteers, and garde

civique; prince of Wales present, 18 July, 1867. ACRES.

Excellent horse-shows held here, May, 1868 et seq. 1866. Great Britain.. 9,252,784 3,562, 434 15,964,553

Theatrical bull-fights here stopped, on account of cruelty, 28 Ireland. 2,174,033 1,481,525 12,006,191

March, 1870. 1870. Great Britain. 9,548,041 3,586,730 16,577,740 Workmen's International Exhibition opened by the prince of Ireland. 2,173, 109 1,498, 719

Wales, 16 July, 1870. 1876. Great Britain. 9,194,669 3,571,874 18,056,217 National Exhibition of machinery, appliances, manufactures, Ireland.. 1,848, 487 1,363, 224

and produce, opened 29 Sept. 1879. 1879. Great Britain. 8,985, 234 3,554,318 18,740,097

Exhibition by the building trades, opened 12 April, 1880. Ireland. 1,761,800 1,294.636

International food exhibition, opened 13 Oct. 1880.

Milling exhibition (under direction of National Association of AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES. ---Cattle first carried to

British and Irish Millers), 10-18 May, 1881. America by Columbus in his second voyage, 1493.

Agrigentum (now Girgenti), a city of Sicily, Swine brought into the present territory of the United States built about 582 B.C. It was governed by tyrants from

by De Soto, 1538.
First slave labor within present territory of the United States 566 to 470; among these were-

e-Phalaris (see Brazen at the founding of St. Augustine, 1565.

Bull); Alcamanes; Theron, who, with his stepfather Tobacco carried to England from America by Raleigh, Gelon, defeated the Carthaginians at Himera, 480 ; and

1586. First cattle and swine brought to Massachusetts, 1624.

Thrasydæns, his son, expelled in 470, when a republic Hops first brought to present territory of the United States, was established. It was taken by the Carthaginians in 1628.

405 B.C., and held, except during short intervals, till First horses in Massachusetts, 1629-30. First apples picked in present territory of the t'nited States | 1086 it was held by the Saracens.

gained by the Romans in 262 B.C. From A.D. 825 till in Boston, 1639. Sugar-cane brought into Louisiana, 1751.

Ahmednuggur (W. India), once capital of a state First improved cattle brought into the United States, 1783. South Carolina and Philadelphia Agricultural Societies found founded by Ahmed Shah, about 1493.

After having ed, 1784.

fallen into the hands of the Moguls and the Mahrattas, it (Most of the other states now have them.)

was taken from the latter by Arthur Wellesley, 12 Aug. First cotton (8 bales) sent from the United States to England, 1803, and restored to the British dominions, June, 1817.

and seized by custom-house on the ground that the United
States cannot have produced so much, 1784.

Aid, see Ayde.
First recorded United States thresher patent, 1791.
Thence to 1810 were granted in the United States 30 patents

Aid to the Sick and Wounded, NATIONAL for reapers; from 1810 to 1835, 240 more; and many have SOCIETY FOR. On 4 Aug. 1870, soon after the breakingbeen granted since.

out of the Franco-German war, a meeting was held in Whitney's cotton.gin invented, 1793. First cast-iron plough patent issued to Newbold of New Jersey, London, which established this society under the rules 1797.

of the Geneva Convention (which see). Jefferson investigates scientifically the Jould Ward question, The queen, patron; the prince of Wales, president; col. 1798.

Loyd-Lindsay, chairman of committees; active supFirst Agricultural Exhibition in the United States at George- porters, duke of Manchester, earl of Shaftesbury, lords town, D.C., May 10, 1810.

Overstone and Bury, sir Harry Verney, gen. sir John First useful mowing machine (Manning's) patented in the Burgoyne, surgeon-gen. Longmore, and capt. Douglas United States, 1831.

Galton. The operations were chiefly directed by capt. First useful reaper patents in the United States, Schnebley's Henry Brackenbury at the seat of war, and by Mr.John and Hussey's, both of Maryland, granted, 1833.

Furley and gen. sir Vincent Eyre. Guano begins to come into use about 1840.

A fruitless meeting to promote the incorporation of the Yale College Agricultural Department established, 1852.

society. It was then reported that 296, 2981. had been World's Fair, New York, promotes use of agricultural ma- received, together with stores valued at 45,000L. 1 Aug. 1871 chinery, 1853.

Col. Loyd Lindsay conveyed to Versailles and Paris Great trial of threshing, reaping, and mowing machines in from the society 40,0001., equally divided between

France -- the American machines gaining a complete vic- the Germans and French (gratefully acknowledged) tory, 1855.

about 11 Oct. 1870 The United States Government Agricultural Department cs- The crown-prince of Prussia wrote to col. Loyd Lindsay: tablished by an act of Congress, May 15, 1862.

“In this, as on other occasions of distress, the help of First great cotton fair held at Atlanta, Ga., 1881.

the English public has been poured out with a liberal The following table, furnished by the Department of Agricult- and an impartial hand. The gifts which have been

ure at Washington, shows the acreage, quantity, and money offered in a truly Christian spirit have excited a feelvalue of the principal crops of the United States for the ing of heart-felt gratitude among those on whose be. year 1880.

half I speak.".

.......2 Nov.

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