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CONFERENCE ON THE LIMITATION OF ARMAMENT
REPORT OF THE AMERICAN DELEGATION 1
February 9, 1922 TO THE PRESIDENT:
The undersigned, appointed by the President as Commissioners to represent the Government of the United States at the Conference on Limitation of Armament, have the honor to submit the following report of the Proceedings of the Conference.
On July 8, 1921, by direction of the President, the Department of State addressed an informal inquiry to the group of Powers known as the Principal Allied and Associated Powers-that is, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan—to ascertain whether it would be agreeable to them to take part in a conference on the subject of limitation of armament, to be held in Washington at a time to be mutually agreed upon. In making this inquiry, it was stated to be manifest that the question of limitation of armament had a close relation to Pacific and Far Eastern problems, and the President suggested that the Powers especially interested in these problems should undertake in connection with the Conference the consideration of all matters bearing upon their solution with a view to reaching a common understanding with respect to principles and policies in the Far East. The suggestion having been favorably received, formal invitations were issued to the Powers above mentioned to participate in a Conference on Limitation of Armament to be held in Washington on the eleventh day of November, 1921, and an invitation was also extended to Belgium, China, The Netherlands, and Portugal to participate in the discussion of Pacific and Far Eastern questions in connection with the Conference.
These invitations were formally accepted and the first session of the Conference was held at Continental Hall in the City of Washington on the twelfth day of November, 1921, the time of the first session being postponed in order to permit the Delegates to attend the ceremonies upon the burial of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington Cemetery on November eleventh.
The following Delegates attended the Conference:
Charles Evans Hughes.
Baron de Cartier, Belgian Ambassador to the United States. FOR THE BRITISH EMPIRE:
The Right Honorable A. J. Balfour, O. M., M. P., Lord President of
First Lord of the Admiralty.
The Right Honorable Sir Robert Borden, G. C. M. G., K. C.
Senator the Right Honorable G. F. Pearce, Australian
Minister for Defense.
The Honorable Sir John Salmond, Judge of the Supreme
Court of New Zealand.
The Right Honorable Srinivasa Sastri, member of the In
dian Council of State. FOR CHINA:
Mr. Sao-Ke Alfred Sze, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni
potentiary to United States of America. Mr. V. K. Wellington Koo, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni
potentiary to the Court of St. James. Mr. Chung-Hui Wang, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the
Republic of China. FOR FRANCE:
M. Aristide Briand, President of the Council, Minister for Foreign
M. Jules Jusserand, Ambassador of France to the United States. FOR ITALY:
Signor Carlo Schanzer, Senator.
Signor Luigi Albertini, Senator.
Baron Tomasaburo Kato, Minister of Navy.
FOR THE NETHERLANDS:
Jonkheer H. A. van Karnebeek, Minister for Foreign Affairs.
ister Plenipotentiary, Chief of the Political Division of the Minis
try for Foreign Affairs.
Jonkheer W. H. de Beaufort, Minister Plenipotentiary.
Viscount d'Alte, Portuguese Minister to the United States.
AMERICAN ADVISORY COMMITTEE
The President appointed an Advisory Committee of Twenty-One, with the following members: Honorable George Sutherland, Chairman; Mr. Charles S. Barrett; Mrs. Charles Sumner Bird; Mrs. Katherine Phillips Edson; Mrs. Eleanor Franklin Egan; Honorable Henry P. Fletcher, Under Secretary of State; Mr. Samuel Gompers; Honorable Herbert C. Hoover, Secretary of Commerce; Mr. John L. Lewis; Honorable John M. Parker, Governor of Louisiana; General John J. Pershing, U. S. A.; Honorable Stephen G. Porter, Member of Congress; Rear Admiral W. L. Rodgers, U. S. N.; Honorable Theodore Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy; Honorable Willard Saulsbury; Mr. Harold M. Sewall; Mr. Walter George Smith; Mr. Carmi A. Thompson; Mr. William Boyce Thompson; Honorable J. Mayhew Wainwright, Assistant Secretary of War; Mrs. Thomas G. Winter.
The Advisory Committee made careful studies of all the problems before the Conference, and their reports and advice were of the greatest value.
The Secretariat of the American Delegation was composed as follows: Mr. Basil Miles, Secretary of the Delegation; Mr. Irwin Laughlin, Counselor of Embassy, Secretary; Mr. J. Butler Wright, Counselor of Embassy, Secretary; Mr. Edward Bell, Counselor of Embassy, Secretary; Mr. Philip H. Patchin, Department of State, Secretary; Mr. Henry Suydam, Department of State, Secretary; Mr. F. L. Mayer, First Secretary of Embassy, Secretary; Mr. Tracy Lay, Consul, Secretary; Mr. W. L. Hurley, Department of State, Secretary; Mr. Stanley Washburn, Secretary; Mr. Laurence H. Green, Assistant Secretary; Mr. W. H. Beck, Assistant Secretary; Mr. T. L. Daniels, Third Secretary of Embassy, Assistant Secretary; Mr. Jefferson Patterson, Third Secretary of Embassy, Assistant Secretary; Mr. Stanley Hawks, Assistant Secretary; Mr. J. O. Denby, Third Secretary of Embassy, Assistant Secretary; Mr. John M. Vorys, Assistant Secretary.
Ceremonial, Protocol, Etc.—Honorable Robert Woods Bliss, Third Assistant Secretary of State; Mr. Warren D. Robbins, Counselor of Embassy; Mr. Charles Lee Cooke, Department of State; Mr. Richard Southgate, Second Secretary of Embassy; Mr. Hugh Millard, Third Secretary of Embassy.
Technical staff.-Limitation of Armament. For the Department of State: Honorable Henry P. Fletcher, Under Secretary of State; Mr. J. Reuben Clark, Special Counsel to the Department of State. For the War Department: Major General George 0. Squier, Radio and Electrical Communications generally; Major General C. C. Williams, Chief of Ordnance; Major General M. M. Patrick, Chief of Air Service; Brigadier General William Mitchell, Aviation; Brigadier General Amos A. Fries, Chemical Warfare; Colonel John A. McA. Palmer, Organization and General Military Subjects; Colonel B. H. Wells, Organization and General Military Subjects; Lieutenant Colonel Stuart Heintzelman, Military Intelligence and Organization of Foreign Armies; Dr. Louis Cohen, Civilian Radio Engineer, Signal Corps. For the Navy Department: Honorable Theodore Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy; Admiral Robert E. Coontz, Technical Expert-General; Rear Admiral William A. Moffett, Aeronautics; Rear Admiral William V. Pratt, Technical Expert-General; Captain Frank H. Schofield, Technical Expert-General; Captain Luke McNamee, Technical Expert-General; Captain Samuel W. Bryant, Communications; Commander C. Hooper, Radio; Mr. L. W. Austin, Radio, Chemical Warfare; Professor Edgar F. Smith, University of Pennsylvania.
Pacific and Far Eastern questions.- Mr. John Van A. MacMurray, Chief, Division of Far Eastern Affairs, Department of State; Mr. D. C. Poole, Chief, Division of Russian Affairs; Professor E. T. Williams, formerly Chief of Far Eastern Division, Department of State; Mr. Edward Bell, Counselor of Embassy; Mr. F. P. Lockhart, Department of State; Mr. J. S. Abbott, Department of Commerce; Mr. N. T. Johnson, Department of State; Mr. E. L. Neville, Department of State; Professor G. H. Blakeslee, Clark University; Mr. Stanley K. Hornbeck, Department of State; Mr. J. P. Jameson, Department of State; Mr. Robert F. Leonard, Department of State; Mr. F. L. Mayer, Department of State; Mr. J. O. Denby, Department of State; Mr. J. L. Donaldson, Department of State.
Legal questions.-Mr. F. K. Nielsen, Solicitor of the Department of State; Mr. Chandler P. Anderson, formerly Counselor, Department of State; Professor George G. Wilson; Dr. James Brown Scott.
Economic questions and merchant marine.—Dr. W. S. Culbertson, Commissioner, United States Tariff Commission; Daniel H. Cox, United States Shipping Board.
Communications. Mr. Leland Harrison, Counselor of Embassy; Mr. S. W. Stratton, Department of Commerce; Mr. J. H. Dellinger, Department of Commerce; Mr. Walter S. Rogers, Department of State; and Army and Navy officers.
The proceedings of the Conference were opened with prayer by Reverend William S. Abernethy, D. D., of the Calvary Baptist Church of Washington.
The President then delivered an address, expressing in these memorable words the spirit and purpose of the Government of the United States:
“Gentlemen of the Conference, the United States welcomes you with unselfish hands. We harbor no fears; we have no sordid ends to serve; we suspect no enemy; we contemplate or apprehend no conquest. Content with what we have, we seek nothing which is another's. We only wish to do with you that finer, nobler thing which no nation can do alone.
"We wish to sit with you at the table of international understanding and good will. In good conscience we are eager to meet you frankly, and invite and offer cooperation. The world demands a sober contemplation of the existing order and the realization that there can be no cure without sacrifice, not by one of us, but by all of us.
"I do not mean surrendered rights, or narrowed freedom, or denied aspirations, or ignored national necessities. Our Republic would no more ask for these than it would give. No pride need be humbled, no nationality submerged, but I would have a mergence of minds committing all of us to less preparation for war and more enjoyment of fortunate peace.
“The higher hopes come of the spirit of our coming together. It is but just to recognize varying needs and peculiar positions. Nothing can be accomplished in disregard of national apprehensions. Rather, we should act together to remove the causes of apprehensions. This is not to be done in intrigue. Greater assurance is found in the exchanges of simple honesty and directness, among men resolved to accomplish as becomes leaders among nations, when civilization itself has come to its crucial test.
"It is not to be challenged that government fails when the excess of its cost robs the people of the way to happiness and the opportunity to achieve. If the finer sentiments were not urging, the cold, hard facts of excessive cost and the eloquence of economics would urge us to reduce our armaments. If the concept of a better order does not appeal, then let us ponder the burden and the blight of continued competition.
“It is not to be denied that the world has swung along throughout the ages without heeding this call from the kindlier hearts of men. But the same world never before was so tragically brought to realization of the utter futility of passion's sway when reason and conscience and fellowship point a nobler way.
“I can speak officially only for our United States. Our hundred millions frankly want less of armament and none of war. Wholly free from guile, sure in our own minds that we harbor no unworthy designs, we accredit the world with the same good intent. So I welcome you, not alone in good will and high purpose, but with high faith.
“We are met for a service to mankind. In all simplicity, in all honesty and all honor, there may be written here the avowals of a world conscience refined by the consuming fires of war, and made more sensitive by the anxious aftermath. I hope for that understanding which will emphasize the guaranties of peace, and for commitments to less burdens and a better order which will tranquilize the world. In such an accomplishment there will be added glory to your flags and ours, and the rejoicing of mankind will make the transcending music of all succeeding time.'