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Colony, or Possession. Date of Settlement, de. of St. Paul's cathedral in 1821-2. The picture covers African Forts
about 1618 Anguilla. : Settlement
above 46,000 square feet, more than an acre of can
about 1666 Antigua
1633 T. Parris, who in 1845 repainted the whole. In Ascension
Occupied. Australia, South
1834 1848 a panorama of Paris was exhibited; succeeded, Australia, W. (Swan river). Settlement
1829 in 1850, by the lake of Thorn in Switzerland; in Bahama Island
Settlement 1629, et seq. 1851 the panorama of London was reproduced. In Barbadoes
1605 1848 the theatre with the panorama of Lisbon was Bengal
about 1652 added. In 1831, when Mr. Hornor failed, the estaBerbice
Sept. 1803 blishment was sold for 40,0001. to Messrs. Braham Bermudas
Settl.ments 1609, et seq. Bombay
1662 and Yates. In 1843 it was bought by Mr. D. MonBritish Burmah
1862 tague for 23,000 guineas. Timbs. After having British Columbia. .
been long closed, the building was opened to the Canada
Capitulation, Sept. 1759-60 public at Christmas, 1856, at one shilling: Under Cape Breton
1763 the charge of Dr. Bachhofi'ner, it continued open till Cape Coast Castle
By cession Cape of Good Hope Capitulation,
the spring of 1864, when it was again closed. The Ceylon
1815 sale of the site was announced 1870. It was announced Demerara and Essequibo . Capitulation Sept. 1803 in Dec. 1871, that a company was about to transform Dominica
Ceded by France Elmina and Dutch Guinea : By cession
1763 the building and grounds into club-chambers, baths,
a winter garden, &c. Falkland Islands
Sée Falkland Islands Gambia
1631 COLOSSUS OF RHODES, brass statue of Gibraltar
Capitulation Aug. 1704 Apollo, seventy cubits high, esteemed one of the Gold Coast
Settlement about 1618 wonders of the world, was erected at the port of Gozo
Capitulation, Sept. 1800
Rhodes in honour of the sun, by Chares of Lindus,
1763 Guiana, British
disciple of Lysippus, 290 or 288 B.C. It was thrown Heligoland .
1807 down by an earthquake about 224 B.C. The figure Honduras
By treaty, in
1670 is said traditionally to have stood upon two moles, Hong-Kong (Victoria) Ceded in
1841 a leg being extended on each side of the harbour, so Jamaica
1655 that a vessel in full sail could enter between. The Lagos.
1861 Labuan See Borneo
statue was in ruins for nearly nine centuries, and
See I nulia
had never been repaired; when the Saracens taking Malacca (under Bengal)
Rhodes, pulled it to pieces, and sold the metal, Malta
Capitulation Sept. 1800 weighing 720,900 lbs., to a Jew, who is said to have Mauritius
Capitulation Dec. 1810 loaded 900 camels in transporting it to Alexandria Montserrat
Settlement, in 1632 about 653. Dufresnoy. Natal
1823 Nevis Settlement, in
COLOUR is to light what pitch is to sound, New Brunswick.
Settlement, in 1622-1713 according to the undulatory theory of Huyghens Newfoundland
Settlement New South Wales
(about 1678), established by Dr. T. Young, and Settlement, in
1787 Nova Scotia
others. The shade varies according to the number Settlement, in
1622 New Zealand Settlement
of vibrations. The number of millions of millions
of vibrations in a second attributed to the red end of Port Philip See Victoria.
the spectrum is 458; to the violet, 727; see SpeePrince Edward's Island Capitulated in
1745 Prince of Wales' Island
trum. * (Penang) Settlement, in
COLUMBIA, a federal district round the city
1786 Queensland, N. S. Wales
1860 of Washington in Maryland; established 1800. In Sierra Leone
Settlement, in 1787 1862, slavery was abolished in it; see British [United with other settlements as West Africa, Feb. 1866.) Columbia. Singapore
Purchased, in . 1819
COLUMBIA MARKET, Bethnal Green, E.
1623 St. Helena
Capitulated, in 1600 London; erected by Mr. Darbishire, architect, in St. Lucia
Capitulation June, 1803 the pointed Gothic style, and inaugurated by Miss St. Vincent
Ceded by France 1763 (now lady) Burdett Coutts, the proprietor, 28 April, Swan River
See West Australia. Tobago
1869. It cost her 200,000l. It was opened as a Ceded by France. Tortola
1763 wholesale fish-market, 21 Feb. 1870, but was not Settlement, in
Capituation Feb, successful. On 3 Nov. 1871, lady Burdett Coutts
1797 Van Diemen's Land
Settlement, in. 1803 presented the market to the corporation of London, Vancouver's Island
and on 18 July, 1872, she received publicly the Victoria (Port Philip) Settlement, in. 1850 freedom of that city. Victoria
See Hong-Kong. Virgin Isles Settlement
COLUMBIUM, a metal discovered by C. 1666
Hatchett, in a mineral named columbite, in 1801. COLORADO, a territory of the United States It is identical with niobium, and not with tantalum, of North America, was organised 2 March, 1861;
as supposed by some chemists. Watts. made a state, May, 1866; capital, Golden City. COMBAT, SINGLE. Trial by this commenced COLOSSEUM, see Coliseum. The building in duced into England for accusations of treason, if
by the Lombards, 659. Baronius. It was introRegent's Park, London, was planned by Mr. Hornor, neither the accuser nor the accused could produce a land surveyor, and commenced in 1824, by Peto good evidence; see High Constable, and Appeal of and Grissell, from designs by Decimus Burton. The Battle. chief portion is a polygon of 16 faces, 126 feet in diameter externally: the walls are three feet thick
* Some persons (about 65 out of 1154) cannot distinguish at the ground: the height to the glazed dome 112
between colours, and are termed Colour blind. In 1859.
professor J. Clerk Maxwell invented spectacles to remedy feet. On the canvas walls of the dome was painted this defect, which is also called “Daltonism,” after John the panoramic view of London, completed in 1829 Dalton, the chemist, to whom scarlet appeared drahfrom sketches by Mr. Hornor taken from the summit coloured.
A battle by single combat was fought before the king, ful comet, moving with immense swiftness, was seen
Williain II., and the peers, between Geoffrey Bay. in London; its tail stretched across the heavens like nard and William earl of En, who was accused by a prodigious luminous arch, 36,000,000 miles in length. Baynard of high treason ; and Baynard having con- The computed length of that which appeared in 1811, and quered, Eu was deemed convicted, and blinded and which was so remarkably conspicuous, was, on 15 mutilated, 1096.
Oct. according to the late Dr. Herschel, upwards of A combat proposed between Henry of Bolingbroke, duke 100,000,000 miles, and its apparent greatest breadth, at
of Hereford (afterwaris Henry IV.), and Thomas, duke the same time, 15,000,000 miles. It was visible all the
of Norfolk, was forbidden by Richard II. Sept. 1398. autumn to the naked eye. Philos. Traus. Royal Soc. A trial was appointed between the prior of Kilmainham for 1812.
and the earl of Ormond, the former having impeached Another comet, Dec. 1823. the latter of high treason ; but the quarrel having been HALLEY'S COBET, 1682. Named after one of the greatest taken up by the king, was decided without fighting, astronomers of England. He first proved that many 1416.
of the appearances of comets were but the periodical A combat was proposed between lord Reay and David
returns of the same bodies, and he demonstrated that Ramsay, in 1631, but the king prevented it.
the comet of 1682 was the same with the comet of 1456, In a combat in Dublin castle, before the lords justices
1531, and 1607, deducing this fact from a minute obserand council, between Connor MacCormack O'Connor vation of the first-mentioned comet, and being struck and Teig Mac-Gilpatrick O'Connor, the former had his
by its wonderful resemblance to the comets described head cut off, and presented to the lords, 1553.
as having appeared in those years : Halley, therefore, COMBINATION. Laws were enacted from
first fixed the identity of comets, and predicted their
periodical returns. Vince's Astronomy. The revolution the time of Edward I. downwards, regulating the
of Halley's comet is performed in about 75 years ; it price of labour and the relations between masters appeared (as he had predicteri) in 1759, and came to its and workmen, and prohibiting the latter from com- perihelion on March 13 ; its last appearance was 1835; bining for their own protection. All these laws were
its next will be 1910. repealed, 6 Geo. IV. c. 129, in 1825, due protection
ENCKE'S COMET. First discovered by M. Pons, 26 Nov. being given to both parties. The act was amended
1818, but justly named by astronomers after professor in 1859 by 22 Vict. c. 34, when the subject was much
Encke, for his success in detecting its orbit, motions,
and perturbations; it is, like the preceding, one of the discussed, in consequence of the strike in the build
three comets which have appeared according to predicing trades, see Sheffield and Strikes.
tion, and its revolutions are made in 3 years and 15
weeks, Thirteenth return observed at Copenhagen by COMBS, found in Pompeii; Combmakers' com
M. d'Arrest, 20 July, 1863; observed in England, 14 pany incorporated, 1636 or 1650. COMBUSTION, see Spontaneous.
Biela's Comer has been an object of fear to many on
account of the nearness with which it has approached, COMEDY. Thalia is the muse of comedy and not the earth, but a point of the earth's path; it was lyric poetry. Susarion and Dolon, the inventors of first discovered by M. Biel, an Austrian officer, 28 Feb). theatrical exhibitions, 562 B.C., performed the first
1826. It is one of the three comets whose re-appearcomedy at Athens, on a waggon or moveable stage,
ance was predicted, its revolution being performeel in
6 years and 38 weeks. Its second appearance was in on four wheels, for which they were rewarded with
1832, when the time of its perihelion passage was 27 a basket of figs and a cask of wine; see Arundelian Nov. ; its third was in 1839 ; its fourth in 1845; anil Marbles, and Drama.
its fifth in 1852; it has since vanished. Coniedy degenerated into libel prohibited at Athens, 440
DONATI'S COMET, so called from its having been first obBC.
served by Dr. Donati, of Florence, 2 June, 1858, being Aristophanes called the prince of ancient comedy, 434
then calculated to be 228,000,000 miles from our earth. B.C., and Menander that of the new, 320 B.C.
It was very brilliant in England in the end of September Of Plautus, 20 comedies are extant; he tlourished 220 B.C. and October following, when the tail was said to be Statius Cæcilius wrote upwards of 30 comedies ; flourished 40,000,000 miles long. On the oth of October it was at Rome 180 B.C.
nearest to the earth; on the 18th it was near coming Comedies of Lælius and Terence first acted 154 B.C.
into collision with Venus. Opinions varied as to this First regular comedy performed in England about A.D. comet's brillianty compared with that of 1811. 1551.
THE GREAT COMET of 1861 was first seen by Mr. Tebbutt It was said of Sheridan that he wrote the best comedy at Sydney, in Australia, 13 May ; by M. Goldschmidt
(the School for Scandal), the best opera (the Duenna), and others in France and England on 29, 30 June. The and the best afterpiece the Critic), in the English lan- nucleus was about 400 miles in diameter, with a long guage (1775-1779)
bush-like tail, travelling at the rate of 10,000,000 miles
in 24 hours. On 30 June, it was suggested that we COMETS (Greek comē, a hair). It is recorded
were in the tail—there being “a phosphorescent auroral that more than 600 have been seen. Mr. Hind, in
glare.' his little work on comets, gives a chronological list. A tailless comet was discovered in the constellation Cas. The tirst discovered and described accurately was by siopoia, by M. Seeling, at Athens, on 2 July, and by Nicephorus, 1337. There are said to be 17,500,000
M. Teinpel, at Marseilles, 2 and 3 July, 1862. in the solar system.
A comet detected at Harvard by Mr. Tuttle, 18 July, and
by Rosa, at Rome, on 25 July, 1862. It was visible by At the birth of the great Mithridates two large comets the naked eye in August and September,
appeared, which were seen for seventy-two days to- Six telescopic comets were observed in 1863, and several gether, whose splendour eclipsed that of the mid-day in 1864. sun, and occupied the fourth part of the heavens, about A fine comet appeared in the southern hemisphere, and 135 B.C. Justin.
was visible in South America and Australia, in Jan.A grand comet seen, 1264. Its tail is said to have ex- Feb. 1865. tended 100 It is considered to have reappeared in
M. Babinet considered that comets had so little density 1556, with diminished splendour; and was expected to that the earth might pass through the tail of one with
appear again about Aug. 1858 or Aug. 1860. Hind. out our being aware of it, 4 May, 1857. A remarkable one seen in England, June, 1337. Stone. Schiaparelli, of Milan, discovered that the August meteors Tycho Brahe demonstrated that comets are extraneous
move round the sun in an orbit almost identical with to our atmosphere, about 1577.
the second comet of 1862-1866. A comet which terrified the people from its near approach One discovered at Carlsruhe by Dr. Winnecke, 13 June, to the earth was visible from 3 Nov. 1679 to 9 March,
1868 1680. It enabled Newton to demonstrate that comets, as well as planets, are subject to the law of gravitation, British army frequently vacant.
COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF, an office in the and most probably move in elliptic orbits, 1704.
When the duke A most brilliant comnet appeared in 1769, which passed of Wellington resigned the office, on becoming prime within two millions of miles of the earth. This beauti- minister, in 1828, his successor, lord Hill, became
commander of the forces, or general commanding- 1864, there were 250 commissionnaires in London ; in-chief.
in Nov. 1866, about 340; in June, 1868, 377; in CAPTAINS-GENERAL.
Oct. 1872, 500. In 17 June, 1865, capt. Walter Duke of Albemarle
resigned the superintendence, and a permanent Duke of Monmouth
1678 Duke of Marlborough
system of administration was formed." In 1865
1690 Schomberg, duke of Leinster
commissionnaires were first engaged as private
1091 Duke of Ormond
nigbt-watchmen. Duke of Marlborough, again Duke of Cumberland
COMMON COUNCIL OF LONDON. Its
• 1744 Duke of York
organisation began about 1208. The charter of COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEF.
Henry I. mentions the folk-mote, a Saxon appellaDuke of Monmouth
1674 tion for a court or assembly of the people. The Duke of Marlborough
1690 general place of meeting of the folk-mole was in Duke of Schomberg
1691 the open air at St. Paul's-cross, St. Paul's churchDuke of Ormond
1711 yard. It was not discontinued till after Henry III.'s Earl of Stair Field-Marshal Wade
• 1944 reign; when certain representatives were chosen
1745 Lord Ligonier
out of each ward, who, being added to the lord Marquis of Granby
1766 mayor and aldermen, constituted the court of comLord Amherst, general on the staff
mon council. At first only two were returned for Gen. Seymour Conway
1782 each ward; but the number was enlarged in 1347, Lord Amherst, again
1793 Frederick, duke of York :
and since. This council, which meets every Thurs
11. Feb. 1795 day, is elected annually 21 Dec., St. Thomas's-day. Sir David Dundas
25 March, 1809 Frederick, duke of York,
29 May, 181
A Common Hall is held occasionally. The common Duke of Wellington .
22 Jan. & 27 Aug. 1827 council supported the prince of Orange in 1688, and Lord Hill, general commanding-in-chief
25 Feb. 1828
queen Caroline in 1820. Duke of Wellington, again .
15 Aug: 1842 Viscount Hardinge (lied 24 Sept. 1856), general
COMMON LAW OF ENGLAND, an ancient commanding-in-chief .
28 Sept. 1852 collection of unwritten maxims and customs (leges Duke of Cambridge, ditto .
15 July, 1856 non scripta), of British, Saxon, and Danish origin, COMMENDAM, "a benefice or church which has subsisted immemorially in this kingdom; living, which being void, is commended to the and although somewhat impaired by the rude shoek charge of some sufficient clerk, to be supplied until
of the Norman conquest, has weathered the violence it may be conveniently supplied with a pastor.”
of the times. At the parliament of Merton, 1236, Blount. By 6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 77 (1836), future
" all the earls and barons,” says the parliament bishops were prohibited from holding in commendam roll, with one voice answered, that they would the livings they held when consecrated.
not change the laws of England, which have
hitherto been used and approved;" eminently the COMMERCE early flourished in Arabia, law of the land ; see Bastard. The process, prac-. Egypt, and among the Phoenicians, see the descrip- tice, and mode of pleading in the superior courts of tion of Tyre, 588 B.C., Ezek. xxvii. In later times
common law, were amended in 1852 and 1854. it was spread over Europe by a confederacy of maritime cities, 1241 (see Hanse Towns); by the COMMON PLEAS, COURT OF, IN ENGdiscoveries of Columbus ; and by the enterprises of LAND, in ancient times followed the king's person, the Dutch and Portuguese; 'see Erports, Im- and is distinct from that of the King's Bench; but ports, and the various articles connected with this on the confirmation of Magna Charta by king subject through the volume.
John, in 1215, it was fixed at Westminster, where The first trenty of commerce made by England with
it still continues. In 1833 the mode of procedure any foreign nation was entered into with the
in all the superior courts was made uniform. In Flemings, 1 Edw. I. 1272. The second was with England, no barrister under the degree of serjeant Portugal and Spain, 2 Edw. II. 1308. Anderson ; could plead in the court of common pleas; but in see Treatises. Hertslett's Collection, in 12 vols. 1846 the privilege was extended to barristers prac
8vo, published 1827-59, has a copious indlex. An important commercial treaty was concluded with
tising in the superior courts at Westminster. France (see French Treaty)
CHIEF JUSTICES. (England.) Chambers of Commerce originated at Marseilles in 1558. Sir Anthony Browne.
the 14th century, and similar chainbers were 1559. Sir James Dyer. instituted in all the chief cities in France, about 1700
1582. Sir Edmund Anderson. These chambers suppressed in 1791 ; restored by 1605. Sir Francis Gawdy. deerees
3 Sept. 1851
1606. Sir Edward Coke. The chamber of commerce at Glasgow was estab- 1613. Sir Henry Hobart. lished 1783; at Edinburgh, 1785; Manchester,
1626. Sir Thomas Richardson. 1820; Hull
1631. Sir Robert Heath. Twenty-seven of these chambers of commerce (not 1634. Sir John Finch.
including Liverpool, Manchester, and Glasgow) 1639. Sir Edward Lyttleton.
21 Feb. 1865 1648. Oliver St. John. Annual meetings held since ; 46 mei 18 Feb. 1873
1660. Sir Orlando Bridgman, afterwards lord keeper.
1668. Sir John Vaughan. COMMISSION, see High Commission, Court of. 1675. Sir Francis North, afterwards lord keeper Guildford. COMMISSIONNAIRES, street messengers
1683. Sir Francis Pemberton.
Sir Thomas Jones, in Paris. Those in London were originally pen- 1686. Sir Henry Bedingfield. sioned soldiers wounded either in the Crimea or
1687. Sir Robert Wright. India, first employed in the west-end. They were Sir Edward Herbert. appointed by a society, founded in Feb. 1859 by 1689. Sir Henry Pollexfen. capt. Edward Walter, which is now under the 1692. Sir George Treby. patronage of the queen and the commander-in
1701. Sir Thomas Trevor, afterwards lord Trevor. chief. The charges are regulated by a tariit. In
1714. Sir Peter King, afterwards lord chancellor King.
1725. Sir Robert Eyre. Jan. 1861 the society commenced the gratuitous 1736. Sir Thomas Reeve. issue of a Monthly Advertising Circular. In March, 1737. Sir John Willes.
1761. Sir Charles Pratt, afterwards lord chanclır. Camden. it in 1647. With a few changes the English Com1766. Sir John Eardley Wilmot. 1771. Sir William de Grey, afterwards lord Walsingham.
mon Prayer-book is used by the episcopal churches 1780. Alexander Wedderburne, afterwards lord chancel
in Scotland and North America. lor Longhborough.
The King's Primer published 1793. Sir James Eyre.
First book of Edward VI. printed 1799. Sir John Scott, afterwards lord chancellor Eldon.
Second book of Edward Vī. 180r. Sir Richard Pepper Arden (lord Alvanley) 22 May.
• 1552 1804. Sir James Mansfield, 21 April.
First book of Elizabeth (revised)
King James's book ditto 1814. Sir Vicary Gibbs, 24 Feb.
Scotch book of Charles I. 1818. Sir Robert Dallas, 5 Nov.
Charles II.'s book (Savoy Conference) now in uso 1662 1824. Sir Robert Gifford, 9 Jan. ; (lord Gifford); afterwards master of the Rolls,
The State services (which had never formed part of the Sir William Draper Best, afterwards lord Wynford, Prayer-book, but were annexed to it at the beginning of 15 April
every reigu) for 5 November (Gunpowder treason), 30 1829. Sir Nicolas C. Tindal, 9 June ; died July, 18.16.
Jan. (Charles I.'s execution), and 29 May (Charles II.'s re18.46. Sir Thomas Wilde, 11 July ; afterwards lord chan- storation), were ordered to be discontinued ; 17 Jan. 1859. cellor Truro.
Changes in the Lectionary or calendar of lessons 1850. Sir John Jervis, 16 July ; died 1 Nov. 1856.
were recommended in the third report of the 1856. Sir Alex. Cockburn, Nov. ; ch. j. Q. B. June, 1859.
Ritual Commission, 12 Jan. 1870.
A bill for 1859. Sir William Erle, June ; retired Nov. 1866.
sanctioning these changes passed the house of 1866. Sir William Bovill, 29 Nov.
lords, but was dropped in the house of commons CHIEF JUSTICES. (Ireland).
through want of time, Aug., passed 13 July, 1871 1691. Richard Pyne, 5 Jan.
[The old tables may be used till 1 Jan. 1879.) 1695. Sir John Hely, 10 May.
The fourth report of the Ritual Comunission dis1701. Sir Richard Cox, 4 May.
closed great difference of opinion amongst the 1703. Robert Doyne, 27 Dec.
Aug. 1870 1714. John Forster, 30 Sept.
Shortened services and other changes were autho1720. Sir Richard Levinge, 13 Oct.
rized by the New Uniformity Act, passed 18 July, 1872 1724. Thomas Wyndham, 27 Oct. 1926. William Whitshed, 23 Jan.
COMMONS, HOUSE OF, originated with 1727. James Reynolds, 8 Nov.
Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, who by the 1740. Henry Singleton, u May.
Provisions of Oxford ordered returns to be made of 1754. Sir William Yorke, 4 Sept.
two knights from every shire, and deputies from 1761. William Aston, 5 May.
certain boroughs, to meet such of the barons and 1765. Richard Clayton, 21 Feb. 1770. Marcus Patterson, 18 June.
clergy as were his friends, with a view thereby to 1787. Hugh Carleton, afterwards viscount Carleton, strengthen his own power in opposition to that of 30 April.
his sovereign Henry III., 1258. Stow; sec Parlia1800. John Toler, afterwards lord Norbury, 22 Oct. ment. In 1859 Mr. Newmarch estimated the con1827. Lord Plunket, 18 June.
stituency of England and Wales at 934,000. It was 1830. John Doherty, 23 Dec.
largely increased by the reform act of 1867:-—Regis1850. James Henry Monahan, 23 Sept.
tered parliamentary electors, 1872: England and COMMON PRAYER, BOOK OF, was ordered Wales, boroughs, 1,250,019; counties, 801,109, by parliament to be printed in the English language Scotland, boroughs, 49,025; counties, 79,919. Ireon i April, 1548. It was voted out of doors by parlia- land, boroughs, 171,912; counties, 175,439, Total, ment, and the Directory (which see) set up in its 2,526,423. The following is the past and present room in 1644, and a proclamation was issued against constitution :Old House. By the Reform Act of 1832. *
By the Acts of 1867 and 1863.
Members. 202 Cities or boroughs
286 40 Counties
171 2 Universities. i Isle of Wight.
i Isle of Wight
IRELAND 33 Cities or boroughs 32 Counties i University
In 1844 Sudbury, and in 1852 St. Alban's, were disfranchised for bribery and corruption ; each having previously returned two members : the aygegate number of the house then became 654. In 1861, the forfeited seats were thus distributed by act of parliament-two additional to the west riding of York, one additional to
South Lancashire, and one to a newly-created borough,
+ Disfranchised and replaced, 1867: Lancaster, Yarmouth, Totnes, and Reigate. - Disfranchised, 1870: Beverley and Bridgwater, each two members ; Cashel and Sligo, each one inember: present house, 652 members, 1873.
COMMONS. In 1685, of the 37,000,000 acres
COMORN, see Komorn. of land in England, about 18,000,000 were moorland, forest, and fen. In 1727, about 3,000,000
COMPANIES. Among the earliest comacres more had been brought into cultivation ; 'and mercial companies in England may be named the from that time to 1844, by means of 4000 private company was the merchants of St. Thomas à Becket,
Steel-yard society, established 1232. The second were enclosed. Since the Inclosure Act of 1845, in 1248. Stow. The third was the Merchant Advenwhich established commissioners, another 1,000,000 lowing are the city companies of London ; the first
gurers, incorporated by Elizabeth, 1564. The folacres have been enclosed. Act for the improvement, protection, and manage
twelve are the chief, and are styled “the Honourment of coinmons near the metropolis, passed
able.” Several companies are extinct, and many Any. 1866
dates are doubtful. In 1869 the gross income of the The Commons Preservation Society elected Wm.
endowed charities of the city companies was stated Cowper, president "Six Essays on Commons Preservation," were pub
Feb. 1867 to be above 99,000l.:lished
2. Grocers COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND the
1345 47. Suationers
1556 3. Drapers 1439 48. Broderers
1591 term applied to the interregnum between the death 4. Fishmongers (salt,
· 1027 of Charles I. and the restoration of Charles II. A
1433; stock, 1509); 50. Musicians
1604 republic was established at the execution of
1536 51. Turners Charles I., 30 Jan. 1649,-a new oath called the
1327 52. Basket-makers
6. Skinners Engagement” was framed, which the people
7. Merchant Taylors. 1416 54. Horners were obliged to take.* Salmón.
1638 Oliver Cromwell 8. Haberdashers
55. Farriers was made protector, 16 Dec. 1653; succeeded by his
1558 56. Paviors son Richard, 3 Sept. 1658. Monarchy was restored,
1488 and Charles II. entered London, 29 May, 1660.
12. Cloth-workers COMMUNALISTS, or COMMUNISTS, pro
1482 59. Shipwrights 1610
60. Spectacle-makers. 1630 pose to divide France into about a thousand small
1469 61. Clock-makers 1632 thoroughly independent states, with councils elected
1556 by all the population, Paris to be the ruling head.
• 1650 They declare that capital and its holders must be
1604 adapted to nobler u-es, or cease to exist. Their
17. Barber-Surgeons . 1308 65. Framework knit18. Cutlers
1417 creed is stated to be atheism and materialism.
1664 19. Bakers. 130766. Silk-throwsters
1629 They are intimately connected with the Interna 20. Wax-chandlers
· 1484 67. Silk-men
1608 tional Society of workmen (see Workmen), and
21. Tallow-chandlers. 1463 68. Pin-makers 1636 with the cominunists or socialists (1871-3).
22. Armourers and 69. Needle-makers 1656
1616 COMMUNES, in France, are territorial divi
1448 71. Soap-makers 1638 sions under a mayor. In the 17th century the 24. Butchers. 1604 72. Tinplate-workers. 1670 name was given to combinations of citizens, favoured
1280 73. Wheelwrights
26. Carpenters by the crown, against the exactions of the nobles.
27. Cordwainers In 1356 Stephen Marcel, during the English inva
1410| 75. Hatband-makers. 1638
28. Painter-stainers 1580 76. Patten-makers 1670 sion, vainly endeavoured to establish a confederation
1664 of sovereign cities, having Paris as the governing 30. Masons
1677 78. Tobacco - pipe head; and for six months it was really governed by
1663 a commune in 1588. After the insurrection of July,
1515 79. Coach and Har33. Founders
ness makers 1789, the revolutionary committee which replaced the
1677 34. Poulterers
· 1503 | 80. Gunmakers city council took the name of " commune of Paris,"
1638 35. Cooks
1481 81. Gold and Silver Péthion being mayor. It met at the Hôtel de
wire-drawers Ville, and was definitively constituted, 21 May,
37. Tilers and bricki
82. Bowstring-makers * 1791. It had great power under Robespierre, and
1568 83. Card-makers fell with him 17 July, 1794; being replaced by
38. Bowyers .
1620 84. Fan-makers
39. Fletchers twelve municipalities. The commune of Paris was
1536 85. Wood-mongers
1709 40. Blacksmiths
86. Starch-makers 1632 proclaimed 28 March, 1871, during the insurrection, 41. Joiners.
1564 87. Fishermen which began 18 March, and ended with the capture
1232 of the city by the government troops, 28 May follow
89. Carmen ing. For the events of the communal rule in Paris,
Porters see France, 1871.
1556 COMMUNION, a name given to the ordinance
COMPANIES ACT, passed 1862, was of the Lord's supper, 'Cor. x. 16. Communicating amended and continued, 20 Aug. 1867. under the form of bread alone is said to have had its rise in the west, under pope Urban II., 1096. The
COMPASS, MARINER’S, said to have cup was first denied to the laity by the council of brought to Europe by Marco Polo, a Venetian,
been early known to the Chinese, 1115 B.C., and Constance, 1414-18. The fourth Lateran council, 1215, decreed that every believer should receive the
1260. Flavio Gioja, of Amalfi, a navigator, of communion at least at Easter. The communion service of the church of England was set forth in 1549. designing persons.
+ Bubble companies have been formed, commonly by
Law's bubble, in 1720-1, was per. * By this oath they swore to be true and faithful to
haps the most extraordinary of its kind, and the South the Commonwealth, without king or house of lords.
Set Bubble, in the same year, was scarcely less meinorThe statues of Charles were next day demolished, par
able for its ruin of thousands of families. Many comticularly that at the Royal Exchange, and one at the
panies were established in these countries in 1824 and west end of St. Paul's; and in their room the following
1825, and turned out to be bubbles. Immense losses inscription was conspicuously set up:-“Exit Tyrunnus
were incurred by individuals, and the families of thouKerum ultimus, Anno Libertatis Angliæ Restitutie Primo,
sands of speculators were totally ruined. Many railway Anno Dom., 1648, Jan. 30."
enterprises (1844-5) were terined bubbles. See Law's