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816.00 Revolutions/3: Telegram

The Minister in El Salvador (Curtis) to the Secretary of State

SAN SALVADOR, December 3, 1931–4 p. m.

[Received 7:07 p. m.] 100. Gomez Zarate and Enrique Cordova were at revolutionary headquarters this morning. General Claramount was arrested last night by the police but the latter 8 surrendered this morning. President Araujo refuses the demands of the revolutionists, of which the only important one is his resignation. The plan of the revolutionists is to put the Vice President in but no doubt he will be forced out as quickly as possible, but he probably does not have much desire for the office anyhow. President promised his truce until 10 a. m. tomorrow, and I believe the revolutionists will accept it for they have more to gain by delay than he has. [Paraphrase.] Those named were very probably back of the revolution, and I think that the last named was one of the leaders.* [End paraphrase.]

CURTIS

816.00 Revolutions/6: Telegram

The Minister in Guatemala (Whitehouse) to the Secretary of State

GUATEMALA, December 3, 1931–5 p. m.

[Received 8:40 p. m.] 63 bis. Minister of Foreign Affairs has just called to inform me that the Guatemalan Government had received a telegram from the military junta of Salvador stating that the Assembly had been convoked to take cognizance of the resignation of ex-President Araujo and to elect his successor.

The Minister added that the Guatemalan Government would adhere strictly to the terms of the treaty of 1923 5 and in no case would take any action except in agreement with the United States.

WHITEHOUSE

' i. e., the police.

See telegram No. 105, December 4, 1 p. m., p. 172, and pars. 4 and 5 of despatch No. 26, December 15, from the Minister in El Salvador, p. 197.

General Treaty of Peace and Amity, signed February 7, 1923, Conference on Central American Affairs, Washington, December 4, 1922-February 1923 (Wash. ington, Government Printing Office, 1923), p. 287.

816.00 Revolutions/10: Telegram The Secretary of State to the Minister in El Salvador (Curtis)

WASHINGTON, December 3, 1931–7 p. m. 55. Your December 3, 7 a. m. Who is leading revolution ?

Please keep the Department promptly informed of, all important developments by telegraph.

STIMSON

816.00 Revolutions/4 : Telegram

The Minister in El Salvador (Curtis) to the Secretary of State

SAN SALVADOR, December 3, 1931—7 p. m.

[Received 9:24 p. in.] 101. President left Santa Tecla for Santa Ana this afternoon apparently under the false impression that the latter was in the hands of his adherents. His closest friends expect him to leave the country entering Guatemala sometime tomorrow. It appears almost certain that there will be no serious fighting. Minister of Finance Espinosa was among those killed last night.

CURTIS

816.00 Revolutions/5 : Telegram

The Minister in El Salvador (Curtis) to the Secretary of State

SAN SALVADOR, December 3, 1931-9 a. m. [p. m.]

[Received 11:26 p. m.] 102. My 101, December 3, 7 p. m. President reached Santa Ana at 7:30 and the Army Commander gave him command of the town. I believe nevertheless his chances are hopeless.

CURTIS

816.00 Revolutions/13: Telegram

The Minister in Guatemala (Whitehouse) to the Secretary of State

GUATEMALA, December 4, 1931–11 a. m.

[Received 4:06 p. m.] 64. President Araujo sent a delegation from Santa Ana last night to see President Ubico. It is headed by Contreras, Under Secretary of Gobernacion, and its purpose is to ask for material aid. Minister of Foreign Affairs tells me the Salvadoran Minister came to see him early this morning to ask for the loan of airplanes to bomb the barracks in Salvador and the delegation will probably ask for arms and ammunition also as it appears that Santa Ana had only arms for 900.

Minister of Foreign Affairs is relying on article 4 of the 1923 treaty to refuse all such requests.

The Minister of Salvador has also been to see me to sound out my feelings about, war material and I referred him to the treaty. He claims that Araujo has 5,000 men at Santa Ana but needs arms: that the revolutionary movement lacks popular support and cites their hesitancy in advancing on Santa Ana as a proof and alleges that while the capital is quiet it is because forces are evenly balanced and the American Minister has arranged an armistice. He also requested our moral support for Araujo as the duly recognized President and that I communicate this to you as intercourse between Curtis and Araujo was interrupted. Repeated to Salvador.

WHITEHOUSE

816.00 Revolutions/11 : Telegram The Secretary of State to the Minister in El Salvador (Curtis)

WASHINGTON, December 4, 1931—noon. 56. Department assumes that you have made it amply clear to leaders of the revolution that the policy of this Government is to be guided by the provisions of the 1923 treaty regarding the non-recognition of governments coming into power through revolution.

For your information, the Government of Guatemala has already advised our Legation there that it will adhere strictly to the terms of the 1923 treaty, and the Department assumes that the other Central American governments will follow a similar course, as was done in the case of the revolution in Guatemala a year ago. Keep Department fully informed.

STIMSON

816.00 Revolutions/14 : Telegram The Minister in El Salvador (Curtis) to the Secretary of State

SAN SALVADOR, December 4, 1931—1 p. m.

[Received 3:55 p. m.] 105. [Paraphrase.] Gomez Zarate informed an American that yesterday afternoon he and Cordova were invited to the revolutionary headquarters, that they knew nothing in advance concerning the revolution, and that they were utterly opposed to such a military govern

• See Foreign Relations, 1930, vol. III, pp. 172 ff.

ment although they felt it necessary to declare their adhesion to it. [End paraphrase.] More and more it appears that the revolution was organized and carried through by a lot of young Army officers dissatisfied because of delays in paying the Army and was merely countenanced by the higher officers; the Directorate now consists of two colonels, a captain and four lieutenants, the active leaders being the two colonels, Joaquín Valdes and Osmin Aguirre, but Generals Martínez and Calderon [Claramount P] ? and other higher officers are assisting actively.

CURTIS

816.001 Araujo, Arturo/40 : Telegram The Minister in Guatemala (Whitehouse) to the Secretary of State

GUATEMALA, December 4, 1931–4 p. m.

[Received 8:16 p. m.] 65. Minister of Foreign Affairs informs me that President Araujo this morning transferred his Presidential powers to the Third Designate Doctor Maximiliano Olano and crossed the Guatemalan border at 2 this afternoon. He is expected to arrive here about midnight. Repeated to Salvador.

WHITEHOUSE

816.01/3a: Telegram The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Honduras (Higgins) 8

WASHINGTON, December 4, 1931–5 p. m. 88. The Department has today advised the Legation at San Salvador that it is the policy of this Government to be guided by the provisions of the 1923 treaty regarding the non-recognition of Governments coming into power through revolution. While the question of recognition has of course not yet been raised in Salvador, nevertheless the Department believes it would be helpful for you to make known its position in conversation with Government officials and other political leaders of the country to which you are accredited.

For your information, the Government of Guatemala has already advised our Legation there that it will adhere strictly to the terms of the 1923 treaty, and the Department assumes that the other Central American Governments will follow a similar course, as was done in the case of the revolution in Guatemala a year ago. Repeat to Managua as Dept's 213 and San José as Dept's 40.

STIMSON

'See par. 5 of despatch No. 26, December 15, from the Minister in El Salvador,

p. 197.

"See last paragraph for instructions to repeat to Nicaragua and Costa Rica.

591381-46-VOL. II-19

816.01/3b : Telegram The Secretary of State to the Minister in Guatemala (Whitehouse)

WASHINGTON, December 4, 1931–6 p. m. 32. The Department has today advised the Legation at San Salvador that it is the policy of this Government to be guided by the provisions of the 1923 treaty regarding the non-recognition of Governments coming into power through revolution. While the question of recognition has of course not yet been raised in Salvador, nevertheless the Department believes it would be helpful for you to make known its position in conversation with Government officials and other political leaders in the country to which you are accredited.

Reference your 64 [63 bis], December 3, 5 p. m., and [64,) December 4, 11 a. m., second paragraph of both telegrams. The Department is gratified to know this and you may so inform the Minister. The Department assumes that the other Central American Governments will follow a similar course in adhering strictly to the terms of the treaty of 1923, as was done in the case of the revolution in Guatemala a year ago.

STIMSON

816.01/5: Telegram

The Chargé in Honduras (Higgins) to the Secretary of State

TEGUCIGALPA, December 5, 1931–11 a. m.

[Received 2:10 p. m.] 187. Department's telegram No. 88, December 4, 5 p. m. I have informed the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Department's position. He replied that his Government was awaiting the action of the United States Government before making a decision with regard to recognition. He added that he personally regarded the recent coup d'état as an abominable treason and thought his Government should cer tainly not recognize the Martínez regime but that he could not decide what action his Government would take until after a meeting of the Council of Ministers.

HIGGINS

816.00 Revolutions/24 : Telegram The Minister in El Salvador (Curtis) to the Secretary of State

SAN SALVADOR, December 5, 1931—noon.

[Received 4:33 p. m.] 106. Arrieta Rossi and Colonel Valdes have just brought me the text of a decree by General Martínez as constitutional Vice President of which the following is a summary.

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