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Northampton, Hatfield, and Deerfield are all pleasant, flourishing towns, fucceeding each other as you travel northerly on the west side of the river.
Conftitution.] The Conftitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, established in 1780, contains a declaration of rights and a frame of government. The declaration afferts the natural freedom and equality of men-Liberty of confcience-Freedom of the prefs-Trial by jury-Sovereignty and independence-that all power is derived from the people that hereditary honours and emoluments are inadmiffible-that every subject is entitled to protection of life, liberty, and property-and, in return, must obey the laws and pay his proportion of the common expence that he fhall not be obliged to accufe himself; but may be heard in his own defence that he may keep arms; but standing armies fhall not be maintained in time of peace-that no tax fhall be levied without the confent of the people by their reprefentatives-that no ex poft facto law fhall be made that the martial law fhall extend only to men in actual military fervice that the legislative, executive, and judiciary powers fhall be kept diftinct, &c. By the frame of government, the power of legislation is lodged in a general court, confifting of two branches, viz. a fenate and a house of representatives, each having a negative upon the other. They meet annually on the laft Tuesday in May. No act can be paffed without the approbation of the governor, unlefs two-thirds of both branches are in favour of it. Either branch, or the governor and council, may require the opinion of the juftices of the fupreme judicial court, upon important queftions. Senators are chofen by diftricts, of which there cannot be lefs than thirteen. The number of counsellors and fenators, for the whole commonwealth, is forty; the number of each diftrict is in proportion to their public taxes; but no diftrict shall be so large, as to have more than fix. Sixteen fenators make a quorum. The reprefentatives are chofen by the feveral towns, according to their numbers of rateable polls. For 150 polls one is elected; and for every addition of 225, an additional one. Their travelling expences to and from the general court, are defrayed by the public, but their wages for attendance are paid by their own towns. Impeachments, for mifconduct in office, are made by the reprefentatives, and tried by the fenate; but the judgment can go only to removal from office and future difqualification. Money bills originate in the houfe of reprefentatives, but may be altered by the fenate. Representatives are privileged from arrefts on mefne procefs. Sixty members make a quorum. The fupreme executive authority is vefted in a governor, who is elected annually by the people, and has a council confifting of the lieutenant-governor, and nine gentlemen chofen out of the forty, who are returned for counfellors and fenators. Five counsellors make a quorum. The governor is commander of all the military force of the commonwealth. He may convene the general court, may adjourn them, when the two branches difagree about the time, and in their recefs, may prorogue them from time to time, not exceeding ninety days-may pardon convicts, but the legiflature alone can grant pardons before conviction. He commiffions all officers, and, with advice of council, appoints all judicial officers. Military officers are thus appointed; the refpective companies choofe their captain and fubalterns, who choose their regimental officers, who choose
their brigadiers. The major-generals are appointed by the general court. Juftices of the peace are commiffioned for feven years; all other judicial, and all executive and military offices, continue during good behaviour, yet are removeable by the governor, upon addrefs of the legiflature. The falaries of governor and juftices of the fupreme court, cannot be diminifhed, although they may be enlarged. Official qualifications are as follows for a voter, twenty-one year's age, one year's refidence, a freehold of three pounds annual value, or fixty pounds of any other eftatefor a reprefentative, .100 freehold, or . 200 other eftate, and one year's refidence in the town-for a fenator, .300 freehold, or £.600 other estate in the commonwealth, and five years refidence in the diftrict-for governor, or lieutenant governor, .icoo freehold, and seven years refidence. Every governor, lieutenant-governor, counfellor, fenator, or reprefentative, mult declare that he believes the Chriftian religion, and has the legal qualifications. A governor, lieutenant-governor, or juftice of the fupreme court can hold no other office. No man fhall hold two of these offices, judge of probate, sheriff, regifter. No juices of the fupreme court, fecretary, attorney-general, treafurer, judge of probate, inftructor of Harvard College, clerk, regifter, fheriff, or cuftom-officer can have a feat in the legiflature. The privilege of Habeas Corpus cannot be sufpended more than a year at one time. In 1795, if two-thirds of the quaÎified voters defire it, a convention fhall be called to revife the constitution.
Bridges.] The principal bridge in this ftate, or in any of the United States, is that which was built over Charles river, between Bofton and Charleston, in 1786.
The following is an accurate defcription of this convenient and handfome ftructure:
The abutment at Charleston, from the old landing, is
36 Piers at an equal diftance, to draw,
Width of the draw,
39 Piers at equal distance,
75 The whole number of piers.
Spaces to the abutment at Boston,
Abutment at Bolton to the old landing,
Each pier is compofed of seven flicks of oak timber, united by a cappiece, ftrong braces and girts, and afterwards driven into the bed of the river, and firmly fecured by a fingle pile on each fide, driven obliquely to a folid bottom. The piers are connected to each other by large ftring pieces, which are covered with four-inch plank. The bridge is 43 feet in width, and on each fide is accommodated with a paffage fix feet wide, railed in for the fafety of people on foot. The bridge has a gradual rife from each end, fo as to be two feet higher in the middle than at the extre mities. Forty clegant lamps are erected at a fuitable distance from each
other, to illuminate it when neceffary. There are four ftrong ftone wharfs, connected with three piers each, funk in various parts of the river.
The draw is conftructed on the most approved plan; the machinery is very fimple; and it is defigned to require the ftrength of two men only in raifing it. The floor on the bridge at the highest tides, is four feet above the water, which generally rifes about twelve or fourteen feet.
This bridge was completed in thirteen months and while it exhibits the greateft effect of private enterprize within the United States, is a moft pleafing proof, how certainly objects of magnitude may be attained by fpirited exertions.
Another bridge, of a fimilar conftruction, has been erected over Myftic river at Malden; and another is now building at Beverly, which will connect that flourishing little town with Salem. Thefe are works of much enterprize, ingenuity and public fpirit; and ferve to fhew that architecture, in this ftate, has rifen to a high pitch of improvement. It is a confideration not unworthy of being here noticed, that while many other nations are wafting the brilliant efforts of genius in monuments of ingenious folly, to perpetuate their pride; the Americans, according to the true fpirit of republicanifm, are employed almoft entirely in works of public and private utility.
Trade, Manufactures and Agriculture.] In the year 1787, the exports from this ftate exceeded their imports; and it is more than probable that, from the rapid increase of manufactural and agricultural improvements, and the prevailing fpirit of induftry and economy, the balance in favour of the itate will be annually increafed. The exports from the port of Bofton, the year paft, (Auguft 1788) confifting of fith, oil, New England rum, lumber of various kinds, pot and pearl-afhes, flax feed, furs, pork, beef, corn, flour, butter, cheefe, beans, peas, bar-iron, hallow ware, bricks, whale-bone, tallow and fpermaceti candles, foap, loaf-fugar, woolcards, leather, fhoes, naval ftores, ginfeng, tobacco, bolts, duck, hemp, cordage, nails, &c. amount to upwards of £.345,000 lawful money. New England rum, pot-afh, lumber, fifh, and the produce of the fifhery, are the principal articles of export. No less than 4783 hogfheads of New England rum were diftilled and exported from this ftate lait year, befides the home confumption, which was not inconfiderable *.
*New England rum is diftilled from molaffes imported from the Weft Indies. may be a question worthy of confideration, whether the molaffes which is annually diftilled in New England, by being mixed with water, would not afford a drink cheaper, more palatable, and more nourishing, than that which is made from the rum diftilled from it, and treble in quanity? If fo, all the la bour and expence of diflillation might be spared, and converted to more ujeful, and perhaps to more lucrative manufaétural or agricultural purposes. New England rum is by no means a wholefome liquor. Dr. Douglass has afferted, That it has killed more Indians than their wars and fickneffes. It does not Spare white people, efpecially when made into flip, which is rum mixed with jmall beer and Mufervado jugar.'
New markets for the produce of this, and the other states, are continually increasing. The Cape of Good Hope, the Ifle of France, Surat, Batavia and Canton, have lately opened their ports to receive the articles of beef, pork, bacon, butter, cheese, timber, ginfeng, and feveral others. To Great-Britain are fent pot and pearl afhes, ftaves, flax-feed, bees-wax, &c. To the Weft-Indies, lumber, fish, pork, beef, flour, &c. The whale, cod, and mackarel fisheries, employ a great number of hands, and yield a handfome profit. The Negro trade is totally prohibited in Massachusetts, by an act paffed in the winter of 1788.
Annual improvements are made in agriculture, chiefly by gentlemen of fortune. The common husbandmen in the country, generally choofe to continue in the old track of their forefathers. The Academy of Arts and Sciences have a committee, by the name of the Agricultural Committee,' whose business it is to receive and communicate any ufeful information upon that fubject.
In this state are manufactured pot and pearl-afhes, linfeed oil, bar and caft iron, cannon, cordage, fpermaceti oil and candles, and many fmaller articles, fuch as linen, woollen and cotton cloth, hofiery, hats, fhoes, tools and inftruments of husbandry, wool-cards, fnuff, clocks, cutlery, muskets, cabinet-work, &c. The town of Lynn is particularly famous for the manufacture of womens filk and ftuff fhoes. It is computed that they make 170,000 pair of them annually. Thefe are exported to various parts of the union.
A cotton manufactory has lately been established at Beverly, which bids fair to be productive of advantages to the town.
An affociation of the tradefmen and manufacturers of the town of Bofton, has lately been formed, confifting of a representative from each branch. In this body the whole manufacturing intereft of that patriotic town is combined. By a circular letter of Auguft 20th, they have ftrongly recommended the fame procedure to their brethren in the feveral fea-ports in the union. This affociation will doubtlefs be productive of happy effects.
Ship-building, after a long ftagnation fince the peace, now begins to revive in various maritime parts of the state. Preparations are making for a glafs-houfe in Botton.
Mr. Jofeph Pope, of Bofton, has conftructed a large, complete and elegant Planetarium, fix feet in diameter. This is entirely a work of original genius and affiduous application, as Mr. Pope never faw any machine of the kind but his own. It exhibits a proof of great ftrength of mind, and really does him much honour.
Revenue and Taxis.] The principal fources of revenue are land and polltaxes, impofts, excifes, and the fales of new lands. Taxes are levied on all males between fixteen and fifty, except fuch as are exempted by law-alfo on the number of acres of improved and unimproved land-on dwellinghoufes and barns, warehoufes, ftores, &c. thefe are all valued, and upon this valuation taxes are laid, fo many pounds for every £.1000.
Mines and Minerals.] In Attleborough is a magnetic iron ore; it yields a red fhot iron, not good. In Attleborough Gore is fome copper ore, but fo intermixed with the iron rock ore, as to render both unprofitable.
Alum flate, or ftone, has been found in fome parts; alfo ruddle, or red earth, which ferves to mark fheep, and may be used as a ground colour for priming, inftead of Spanish brown. Several mines of black lead have been discovered in Brimfield, and the neighbouring places; and white pipe clay, and yellow and red ochre, at Martha's Vineyard. There is a valuable copper mine at Leverett, in the county of Hampshire, lately dif covered; and at Newbury are beds of lime-stone and asbestos.
Hiftory.] On the 19th of March, 1627, the Plymouth council fealed a patent to Sir Henry Rofwell, and five others, of all that part of New England, included between a line drawn three miles fouth of Charles river, and another three miles north of Merimak river, from the Atlantic to the South Sea *. This patent gave a good right to the foil, but no powers of government. A royal charter was neceflary. This paffed the feals March 4th, 1628. Until this year, a few fcattering fettlements only had been made in Maffachusetts Bay. In the fummer of 1627, Mr. Endicot, one of the original planters, with a fmall colony, was fent over to begin a plantation at Naumkeag, (now Salem.) The June following, about 200 perfons, furnished with four minifters +, came over and joined Mr. Endicot's colony; and the next year they formed themfelves into a regular church. This was the firft church gathered in Maffachusetts, and the fecond in New England. The church at Plymouth had been gathered eight years before. In 1629, a larger embarkation was projected by the company in England; and at the requeft of a number of refpectable gentlemen, moft of whom afterwards came over to New England, the general confent of the company was obtained, that the government and patent fhould be transferred and fettled in Massachusetts.
In 1630, feventeen fhips from different ports in England, arrived in Maffachusetts, with more than 1500 paffengers, among whom were many
*This tract of country was called MASSACHUSETTS BAY. Maffachusetts tribe of Indians lived around, and gave their name to the large bay at the bottom of this tract; hence the name Massachusetts Bay. The Indian word is Mais Tchufaeg, fignifying the country this fide the hills.
The following extract from the epifle dedicatory to a fermon preached at Plymouth, in 1620, will bew the ideas then entertained refpetting the fituation of the South Sea.
New England, so call'd, not only (to avoid novelties) because Captain Smith bath fo entituled it in his defcription, but because of the refemblance that is in it of England, the native foil of Englishmen: it being much what the fame for beat and cold in fummer and winter, it being champion ground, but not high mountains, fomewhat like the foil in Kent and Effex; full of dales, and meddow ground, full of rivers and sweet springs, as England is. But principally, fo far as we can yet find it is an ifland, and near about the quantity of England, being cut out from the maine land in America, as England is from the maine of Europe, by a great arm of the fea, which entreth in forty degrees, and runneth up north-west and by weft, and goeth out either into the South Sea, or elfe into the bay of Canada. + Meffrs. Higginson, Skelton, Bright and Smith.