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graceful; because he never thought of them- 11 of the jury in his sincerity, more than if he had the audience never considered his gestures—they gained the point in contention. At another time, were too intent upon his words. His power over while he was encountering before the jury, an arthe passions of his hearers was never exerted, un- gument advanced by the adverse council, he was 'til he arrived at the proper point; he in the first told by one of the judges, that it was unnecessaplace enchained all their attention; made them ry to dwell on that point, any longer. Dexter familiar with the subject, and carried them along | thus improved to his own purpose this equivocal by such easy and imperceptible stages, that they opinion, “Gentlemen of the jury (said he) I was would find all their sympathies enlisted in his combatting the argument of my brother B. upon cause, while they firmly believed, that nothing this point-the court say that there is nothing in but their reason had been consulted a great and it, and I will now proceed to the next, unless the commanding mind was operating like the princi- court will take the business out of my hands at ple of vegetation unseen.
once, and declare that all the arguments of the We can but express our regret for the loss of gentleman are equally unworthy of an answer.such a man; indeed he was no common charac- || Thus whether the opinion of the judge was adter. In private life he was beloved and respect- verse or propitious, Dexter was equally safe. His ed; a when he could condescend to familiar|| luniinous and compendions mode of explanation.is coloquy, he illuminated and adorned the sub- || evident from this circumstance; his confederate ject in debate. He was then deep and sagacious, counsel had occupied the court for nearly 2 hours or playful and sprightly, as the occasion demand- || in stating and enforcing the grounds of his motion. ed, turning and veering with the question under || The council on the other side declared, and with discussion. His literary taste was pure and se. apparent sincerity, that with the strictest atten verely chaste; his character presented nothing of tion,she was unable to comprehend the points those bold projections, calculated to excite mo- which he was called upon to answer. He was mentary admiration; it formed a permanent || proceeding in this rigmarole manner, when he whole. When literary embellishment would was interrupted by Dexter with these words, Why adorn or illustrate a dry question of law, it seem
we say that if the declaration contains ed formed for no other purpose: it was applied any thing not stated in the policy—that this objecwith so much facility, it appeared to be forgottention is fatal: We say, on the other hand, that if by the speaker at the very moment of utterance. the policy contains any thing not stated in the deWe are sensible that bon mots do not seem to be- claration, that that also is fatal. With such case come the gravity of the present subject, and if|| would he comprehend all the points of an arguthey were introduced for any other purpose than | ment, and so funiliarly place them in the full for the illustration of character, they should be view of his antagonist. After he had laboured avoided. He was once a candidate for congress, with all his strength to convince a jury in a very and lost his election. Another candidate, and a important cause, they returned an unfavourable member of his own party from another state, was verdict. Well, Mr. Dexter, what think you of equally unsuccessful. These two lawyers met be. this verdict? inquired a lawyer, who was sitting fore the circuit court, when the following conver- by his side. Blackstone may say what he pleases sation ensued. Brother 1). (said his compatriot || (replied Dexter, stretching himself leisurely, at in misfortune) I am not at all astonished at the full length) about the blessings of a jury: in my loss of my election : but how in the name of won- opinion (he continued) the old form, the wager of der came you to be dismissed from public confi- ' battle is the shortest and the best mode of deciddence! Brother B. (replied Dexter) the devilling the controversy! Being once engaged in an rides circuit-he has been in R—, and altercation with a gentleman of the bar, on apoint is now taking the tour of Massachusetts. After of law, this gentleman urged the decision of the a long and exhausting argument, to persuade the court of his natire State, as favourable to his concourt to reject a certain paper from passing in evi- || struction of the law. Do you produce that decidence to the jury, he found by a slight intimation sion (enquired Dexter) as a proof that you are from one of the judges, that the opinion was &- wrong, or that you are right? It is a decision gainst him; when as if suddenly recollecting him-|| in favour of my interpretation of the law: I self, he enquired if the paper contained such and have adopted one rule, by which I have been such expressions, repeating them. He was inform- able to anticipate the decision of your court of jus. ed that it did : then (said this subtle lawyer) 1 tice, and I have found it infallible: the rule is abandon the point at once; for I never will con- this ; from a fair impartial consideration of all the tend for a principle which I know is not law. By || parts and arguments of the case, I form my own this ingenious retreat, he increased the confidence ll opinion bow the decision ought to be; I then go directly contrary to that opinion and I have al- it wrought upon our senses. He displayed no unways hitherto been able to anticipate the judg- natural warmth; there was no rising above, or
falling below the subject ; no turbulent violence ment of a court of justice.
of manner. He enchained our reasoning faculties in the first instance and then, with those powerful
auxiliaries, he approached the heart that seemed The following elegant tribute to patriotism, || His language was remarkable for its elegant and
when so assaulted, to surrender at discretion.worth, and real talents as congregated in the late perspicuous simplicity, over which his slow and SAMUEL DEITER, appeared in the Federal Repub- deliberate enunciation gave him an absolute com
mand. lican and Baltimore Telegraph, and is, we pre
Whatever the subject was, he always had the sume, the production of Paul Allen, Esq. a gen. happy address to persuade his audience that they tleman of taste, sensibility and liberality. We were perfectly at home. We now recollect one say liberality, for it will be recollected, that Mr. anecdote that will serve to explain the peculiar Allen and Mr. Dexter' were political opponents; i council had persuaded the jury again and again
character of the orator's eloquence. The adverse and whilst the latter was on the political stage of|| to be upon their guard against the artful wiles of action, an apparent hostility existed, naturally his antagonist, and Mr. Dexter rose in reply under growing out of the zeal each felt in the cause he cited. He began by informing the jury that he
all the disadvantages which those suspicions exwas engaged to support, but as soon as the cor had 110 pretensions to eloquence. They would test was over, all the feelings of opposition vanish- || find him, he said, a plain man, incapable, even if ed, and their place was immediately supplied by he had the wish, to impose on their judgments, those of good will and respect. This is a mark of manner won the confidence of the jury. After
and the apparent sincerity and simplioity of his a good and liberal mind; and thus far, and no far this preparatory lodgement was made in their ther, we are disposed to believe, is the spirit of feelings, the wiley, orator poured all the strength political hostility carried in this country, (with few of his mind through that subtle channel, and the exceptions,) the opinion of foreigners to the con
arguments, the eloquence, and the case of his op
ponent were gone, before the jury were sensible trary notwithstanding.
of the change themselves. Every man of the ju. We received by the mail of yesterday, the me
ry rose from his seat with a firm conviction that lancholy intelligence of the death of the Hon. Dexter was not an orator, for he had the consum. SAMUEL Dexter, the democratic candidate for the mate art to persuade them that he was not, and office of governor of Massachusetts The sudden they discredited, utterly discredited, the evidence departure of a man who "filled so large a share of their own senses. in his country's eye," is calculated to admonish
He never snatched a verdict from the hands of us how comparatively trifling are the honors of the jury; it was tendered to his acceptance. Anthis world, when set in opposition to that awful other prominent point in his eloquence was, that change that awaits us in the midst of this turbu: he could either adopt a close, or wide range of lent career. He is now removed from the dusty | argument, as suited his purpose. If a precedent region of political contest, alike insensible to cen
was favourable to the cause of his client it pos. sure or to panegyric.
sessed a sort of sanctity not to be approached The eloquence of this eminent orator possessed and of right, and the jury were warned not to
without awe; it was the safe.guard of property a native, and to us an irresistable charm. It was an eloquence modelled on the subject which he touch the consecrated land-mark. If the prece bad undertaken to illustrate, explain or to en
dent was unfavorable; then the reason of the force.
thing came in play; general principles were urgWhere cool, dispassionate and luminous argu.
ed with all the force of his eloquence, to which ment was required, the orator was cool, dispassion this solitary precedent was hostile, this stain an ate and luminous. He arrested attention in the the escutcheon of justice which the jury were first place by his calm and collected manner, and implored to wipe away. The mind of Dexter having once taken us captive by his powerful
never flagged under a mass of unwieldly and cumspells, he led us through all the intricate mazes
brous metaphors'; if illustration was required, the of his argument, with so familiar a hand, that he metaphor arose, suddenly sparkled upon us and seemed rather to follow us, than to be the guide vanished. There was no exhibition of the bril. of our footsteps ; whenever pathos was required, || liant in different lights--the orator caught the our bosoms were taken by storm before we were
beam that flashed direct upon the subject; and apprized of the assault. Recovering from this while we gazed, the lustre was gone. His sarpowerful shock, we found ourselves accompany.
casms were full to the point, compendious and ing this enchanter on the plain even ground of terrible; the wound was reeking before we saw argument again, who seemed to be utterly uncon.
the glitter of the sword. scious of the might which he had so recently put forth, or more properly to persuade us that he The following remarks upon the importance of kimself had no agency in all this transaction. He regulating our foreign commerce and manufac. made his audience believe while he chained them turing our own supplies we extract from the Bos. to their seats, that he was no orator; that it was ton Chronicle. We are happy to see the public not the orator but the client who was telling a journals manifesting a zeal for our own country, "plain and an unvarnished tale.” While we saw by calling off our attention to foreign nations, and and felt, and breathed the atmosphere of his genius, directing it to home concerns. it is quite time we were insensible of it, but by the effects which I this nation, whose resources are equal to any in the
world, should begin to learn to depend upon her- | diate purposes, (in proportion to the trade we self. It will, no doubt, take some time to change have adopted) it is imposible the supply should the channel of our mercantile enterprize, while so be obtained from these sources. We will venture many foreign factors, and commercial agents are to say, that no commercial country has shipped amongst us; but, in the ordinary course of events, such large sums of solid coin to furnish a capital we think a change must take place, and the soon- for foreign trade, as the United States. We reer it is effected the better for this country. It relieved the exchequer of England from their hard quires no great sagacity to perceive a jealousy, money embarrassments, with a premium on our and deeprooted hostility, in manufacturing nations part from 15 to 20 per cent. We loaded our ves. abroad, to our improvements in machinery and sels with dollars, when the British ministry had domestic fabrics. Witness the circumstance of scarcely a guinea to pay their allies, or to subsi. Ralph Kinder of Liverpool, England, who has dize the powers whom they had hired to fight Jately been convicted of shipping on board the || their batiles. Can it be thought then a matter of Latona, for America, divers articles used in the surprize amidst such a variety of imprudencies, cotton and silk manufactories, and sentenced to that the currency of the country has become in pay a fine of 2001, equal to 8888, 88 and to be adequate to our present exigencies? Can hard imprisoned 12 months. If other proof be wanting inoney be had from sources which have been exof their hostility to our manufacturing improve- Bausted by previous gleanings? If millions have ments it may be found in many of their munici. already been shipped to England, and millions pal regulations. Their practice of prohibiting the to India, how can we expect that a channel should consumption of foreign manufactured articles | be opened to restore the equilibrium through the within the country, and the emigration of manu. course of trade split purstiert? We have goods-in facturers and artisans, and also the exportation of il superabundance to furnish all our wants, and possuch instruments as may aid our improvement, sibly an amount ten times greater than we have re. may be good national policy, but we think it nar-mitied for the payment. Anticipations at the row and illiberal, as it regards the buman race. Bank have probably been made by notes at market, With equal propriety miglit we esclude British and when the circumstances of the Bank call for an and all other agents from vending, in this country, immediate payment of at least 25 per cent. the any article of foreign growth or manufactures ; | difficulties which ensue are not to be wondered and in the present state of the world, we are not at. The Bank institutions have been thought raquite certain but it would be a salutary regulation.dical reliefs from such embarrassments—but they The duties established by the late tariff we operate quite the reverse from such expectahope will have a tendency to bring into fashion | tions. They serve rather as lures to entice us to articles of domestic growth. Our females, who try the experiment, and when they fail they behave evinced an enthusiastic zeal for our national come engines of distress and perplexity. liberty and independence, by furnishing articles What then is to be done. This is a question of comfort and elegance to our soldiers, during which involves in it the most important considerathe late war, wrought by their own hands, will, || tions. Can the exports of our solid coin to India, we believe, continue to exert their influence in furnish us with a supply of specie currency which support of our national independence, by ap- || is now so loudly called for? We have exchanged pearing in domestic garbs, the fruit of their own our money for ar icles which are not necessary to industry, which, we think, will add a brighter | our wants, either as a commercial, agricultural or lustre to their native charms than the finer but manufacturing nation. We have sent away that flimsy fabrics of Europe or Asia.
article which of all others is now most wanted,
We have millions of dollars in nominal value, of HARD MONEY, AND“ PUBLIC UTILITY.”
foreign goods, but a small proportion of this imThe recent pecuniary difficulties in which our mense sum to pay for them. We purchased mwimercantile affairs are involved, cannot but excite ufactures with vessels freighted with silver, and unpleasant feelings, as they will produce events, when they arrive, the specie sent to procure them, greatly disastrous to the individuals who may be is double the real value to the very merchant who within their destructive vortex. But reflecting imported them ! But admitting, that the indiviminds might long since have anticipated these || dual makes a large profit, yet the community at troubles, from the excessive zeal which urged large is suffering under the pressure which an exmany after the war to renew their commercial con- haustment of hard money brings pon every other nections in Europe and India. Caution and deli- class of citizens. The manufacturer is distressed; beration are the principal ingredients which com- the merchant is cut off from any temporary assist. pose a well regulated commerce. The circum- ance from the Bariks; and the farmer is unable to stances of the war have led many to make impor- || dispose of his produce, from a deficiency of currentations, vastly beyond what the real necessity of|cy which prevails in every commercial commection. the country required. Importations from Eng- The great object now to be pursued is, the encou. land have glutted our markets, and the importer ragement of DomesTIC MANUFACTURES. By pursul. has brought a burthen upon himself, which ouring this system, we may restore onr currency, and pecuniary situation cannot readily remove. The keep our money within ourselves. It cannot be state of the Banks is at present peculiarly derang-|| necessary to furnish articles from abroad, which ed, from an excess of exportation of currency, to we can more readily produce at home. Instead of India and elsewhere. It could not be expected sending our dollars on a long and hazardous voyage that the solid coin could have been restored, within to procure manufactures, we can employ them the short period since we shipped to England much better in our own country, and thereby gire millions of hard currency, and in addition to which, vigor and encouragement to our enterprizing and millions have been called for to furnish cargoes to || industrious citizens. Let a cargo of India Cottons India. The Banks have been exhausted, and l be opened at the “Long Rooms on India-Wharf," when discounts are to be made to answer imme. Il and exposed to sale ; at the same time exhibit the
manufactures of our own fabric, and the difference William Jones, Stephen Girard, Pierce Butler, of staple would convince every purchaser, and of the city of Philadelphir. more particularly every consumer, of the folly of James A. Buchanan, of the city of Baltimore. sending our solid coin to ubtain the former. We John Jacob Astor, of the city of New-York. are enriching India nabobs, while we are impoverish- The president has appointed the following naming our own citizens. Liverpool also is increasing | ed commissioners, to superintend the subscripin affluence, and the seaports of foreign nations are tions towards constituting the capital of the Bank thriving from our prodigality, while Boston and the of the U. States. mercantile cities of the u. States are famishing 1. At Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania.-William for vant of that pecuniary nourishment which we Jones, Stephen Girard, Thomas M. Willing, Tho. foolishly squander among those, who do not thank | mas Leiper, Cadwallader Evans, jun. us for our liberality, and “ who laugh at our calami. 2. Ai Portland, in Maine.-Thomas C. Thornty, and mock when our fear cometh.” This is the ton, Asa Clapp, Nathaniel Gilman.' more to be regretted, when we reflect, ihat we in. 3. At Portsmouth, in New Hampshire - John F. volve ourselves in pecuniary embarrassments for Parrot, Henry $. Langdon, George Washington numerous articles which neither our necessities or Prescot. convenience require. We inconsiderately deprive 4. .1 Boston, in Massachusetts.-William Gray, ourselves of that proportionate medium which is ab and John Parker, of Boston, and Nathaniel Sils. solutely required to facilitate our intercourse bebee, of Salem. tween each other ; our negociations and contracts 5. At Providence, in Rhode Islanıl.-Seth Wheae cuhjret to be frustrated by the difficulty of|ton, Ebcnczer II. Dexter, Jamca D'Wolf. procuring the means by which we had contem- 6. At Middletown, in Connecticut.-Joshua Stow, plated to fulfil them. Of what real "utility" are Isaac Spencer, Jun. Levi H. Clarke. a large proportion of cargoes from India, or from 7. At Burlington, in Vermont.-James Fisk, Her. Britain, when we exhaust almost every species of man Allen, Ozias Buel. hard money from circulation to procure them? 8. At New York, in the state of New York:-John The importer it is true can display bales, chests Jacob Astor, Peter H. Schenck, of New York, and and trunks, but the money which has been ship- | Isaac Dennison of Albany. ped to procure their contents, is left in foreign 9. A New Brunswick, in New Jersey.-Samuel ports, while our own manufacturers of more solid | Southard, of Hunterdon county, Silas Condict, of fabric, are suffering for want of that very patro- | Newark, Barney Smith, do. nage we so liberally bestow on others. One quar. 10. At Wilmington, in Delaware. Cæsar A. Rod. ter part of the hard money we yearly ship to In- | ney, George Milligan, Victor Du Pont. dia, if expended in promoting domestic manu- 11. At Baltimore, in Maryland, James A, Bufactures, would produce double the quantity of chanan, Robert Gilmor, James W. M'Culloh. valuable articles of cotton, and at the same time 12. At Richmond, in Virginia.—John Preston, would give a general circulation of bona fide cur- Francis Corbin, John Ambler, rency, which would invigorate every other branch 13. .lt Lexington, in Kentucky.-John W. Hunt, connected either with commerce or agriculture. and John Telford, of Lexington—Thomas PraWe complain of pecuniary embarrassments; that ther, of Louisville. Banks will not discount, and that money is scarce ; 14. At Cincinnati, in Ohio. Oliver M. Spencer, but if we glean every bank of solid coin, import of Cincinnati-Thomas James, of Chillicothe-Dafour times the quantity of goods wanted, and make | vid Chambers, of Zanesville, contracts which it was not probable could be ful. 15. At Raleigh, in North-Carolina.Robert filled at the time of making them, is it strange that Locke, of Rowan-Sherwood Haywgod, of Raleigh the evils should arise of which we now complain? -John Branch, of Halifas, We might as well be surprised, if our pumps should 16. At Nashville, in Tennessee.-J. Whiteside, not produce water, after the springs were dried up. John Rhea, James Trimble. There is nothing mysterious in, our embarrass. 17. At Charleston, in South Carolina.-Robert ments; for we at first originate the cause, and then Howard, Jamés llorůbeck, James Carson. stare about alarmed at the consequences. Let us 11. At Augusta, in Georgia.-Charles Harris, of restore our languid state by rad.cal reforms; at
Savamalt-James S. Walker and George Har. tend to our own domestic concerns, and give pecu- ll graves, of Augusta. niary aid to industrious citizens ; and instead of 19. At New Orleans, in Louisiana.-Dominic A. compassing earth and sea to find ports to which we Hall, Peter Derbigny, Wm. Flood, can ship our money, and thereby deprive ourselves
20. 1: Washington, in" Calumbia.-John Mason, of every substantial currency, let us confine our
f Georgetown-Thomas Swar, of Alexandria commerce within our ineans of paynient, and spurn | John P. Van Ness, of Washington, swindlers from our exchange. Let us do this, and The secretary of the treasury has addressed a every honest industrious man in the U. States, may circular letter of instructions to the bank commis-, "sil under his own vine and fig-tree, and have none sioners. The following is a copy of the letter adto make him afraid.”
dressed to the commissioners at Philadelphia :
Treasury Department, April 1816. PUBLIC DOCUMENTS,
GENTLEMEN—You will perceive by the enclosed
commission, that the President of the United UNITED STATES BANK,
States bas appointed you commissioners, for su.
perintending the subscriptions towards constitut. The president and senate have appointed the ing the capital of the bank of the United States, following named, directors of the bank of the U. | to be opened on the first day of July, next, at States, to serve until the end and expiration of Philadelphia, in the state of Pennsylvania. Seveflie first Monday of the month of January next. ral copies of the act of congress entitled "An act
to incorporate the subscribers to the bank of the 7. Having, in the case of a redundant subscripUnited States,” are now transmitted to your trust; || tion, reduced and apportioned the number of shares, and in the execution of your trust, I have the hon- you will, with all convenient dispatch, cause a list or to request particular attention to the following of the apportioned subscriptions to be made out, points :
for each place, and transmit it to the proper com1. The subscription books, being prepared in missioner. And thereupon you will return to the the form of the annexed schedule marked A, are subscribers at Philadelphia, lawfully entitled to be opened on the first day of July, and to con- | thereto, the surplus of the deposit of coin and tinue open every day, for the term of twenty days, funded debt, beyond what is necessary to comexclusively of Sundays, between the hours of ten | plete the payments for the number of shares apo'clock in the forenoon and four o'clock in the portioned to them respectively. afternoon.
8. In case the aggregate amount of the subscrip2. Any individual. company, corporation, or tion, at all the designated places, shall not amount state, may subscribe for any number of shares not to 28,000,000 of dollars, the subscriptions to comexceeding three thousand; and at the time of plete that sumare to remain open at Philadelphia, Subscribing there must be paid upon each share under your superintendence; and the subscripfive dollars in gold and silver coin of the United | tions may then be made by any individual, comStates, or of foreign coins, and twenty-five dollars pany, or corporation, for any number of shares not more in like coin, or in funded debt. The value exceeding the deficient amount at which the foreign coins, and, also, at which the • 9. As soon as the sum of 8,400,000 dollars in funded debt, strati te recetved, are specified in coin and fimded debt, shall have bcon actually rethe third section of the act.
ceived on account of the subscription to the capi. 3. Each subscriber must deliver to the commis. || tal of the bank (exclusively of the subscription of sioners, at the time of subscribing, the certificates the United States) you will give notice thereof in of funded debt, to the amount of the first insta). at least two newspapers, printed in each of the ment of the funded debt, together with a power places designated for receiving subscriptions; and of attorney, in the form of the annexed schedule you will at the same time, and in like manner, no. marked B. And the commissioners will there- || tify a time and place within the city of Philadel. upon give a receipt in the form of the annexed phia, at the distance of at least thirty days from schedule marked C.
the time of such notification, for proceeding to the 4. The commissioners will inclose each súbo | election of twenty directors, who are to be chosen scriber's deposit of coin and funded debt in a se- the stockholders ; at which time and place the parate envelope, to be sealed, and to be labelled election shall be made, in the manner prescribed with the name of the subscriber. They will place || by the act of Congress : that is to say, the whole amount of deposits of coin and funded
RULE I. debt, in a secure chest, having at least two locks (1.) The number of votes shall be in a specified of different construction ; the keys whereof to be proportion to the number of shares lield by separately kept by different commissioners. And the voter, but no voter is entitled to a greater they will lodge the chest in the vault of some bank, number than 30 votes. or in some other place of secure and safe keeping,
RULE XVI. so that the same and its contents shall be speci- (2.) No stockholder, unless he be a citizen of ficially delivered and transferred, as they were the United States, can vote in the choice of received, to the president, directors and company
directors. of the bank of the United States, or their order.
RULE I. 5. As soon as the subscription is closed, or at (3.) Stockholders actually resident in the Unit. least seven days after it is closed, the commis. ed States, and none other, may vote by proxy. sioners in the several states, other than Pennsyl
RULE II. vania, will make two transcripts, or copies, of (4.) None but a stockholder, a resident citizen the subscription books; they will retain one of the United States, can be a director. copy themselves; they will send the other to the I have the honor to inclose a copy of the circu. Secretary of the Treasury at Washington, in the lar, which has been addressed to the other comDistrict of Columbia ; and they will send the ori- || missioners, for your information. ginal subscription book (certifying the same to I am, very respectfully, gentlemen, your most be genuine) to the commissioners at Philadelphia. obedient servant, 6. On the receipt of the subscription books from
A. J. DALLAS, Sec'y. of the Treasury. the commissioners of the several states, you will To Messrs. Wiliam Jones, Stephen Girard, Thomas immediately convene ; and if, upon taking an ac- M. Willing, Thos. Leiper, Cadwallader Evans, jr. count of all the subscriptions, it appear that more The Schedules referred to in the preceding letthan the sum of 28,000,000 of dollars has been sub
ters are in the following form : scribed, you will proceed to reduce the amount in the manner directed by the act; that is to say,
SCHEDULE A. (1.) The amount of the excess to be deducted
Form of a subscription book. from the largest subscriptions in such manner, as that no subscription shall be reduced in Date of Names of
What coin What fil.
of amount, while any one remains larger.
paid,& the debt, & the (2.) If the Subscription, at any of the places | ing.
amount. amount. designated for receiving them, does not exceed 3,000 shares, the annount is not to be reduced
at such place.
places, exceed 3,000 shares, it may be re-