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sketch of the history of that warlike people. These coins, however, though of Greek design both in regard to type and inscription, are grotesque and barbarous.
The instances of the publication by an Englishman of a descriptive catalogue of his own Greek coins are very rare: in fact, with the exception of the brief sketch by Lord Winchilsea, which has been already mentioned, we know of no published cabinet of Greek coins in our own country until this of Colonel Leake's. Admiral Smyth has published his Roman Imperial medals, and has put together his numismatic and historical observations so agreeably as to make his reader an archæologist malgré lui. The catalogue of an unrivalled collection of Oriental coins was published, in 1823, by the late William Marsden; it is an accurate and elaborate work, and cannot now be procured except at a very high price. The bulk of the Marsden collection was bought by Sir Robert Ainslie from an Armenian merchant at Bagdad, and was supposed to have belonged to the Abbé Beauchamp, who resided there in the joint capacity of Titular Bishop and Consul-general, and died of the plague about the year 1780. The rest of Sir Robert Ainslie's collection, comprising some Greek and Roman coins of surpassing excellence, fell into the hands of Lord Northwick and Mr. Payne Knight. Mr. Marsden's coins are now in the British Museum, having been presented by him in the year 1834. Lord Northwick's collection now deservedly ranks as one of the finest, if not the finest, private collection in this country; and near it may be ranked that of General Fox-a name not less dear to liberal pursuits than to liberal opinions including about 8000 coins, a descriptive catalogue of which is, we believe, now in preparation by their accomplished owner.
At the head of writers upon ancient numismatics in general, must be placed Eckhel, Rasche, and Mionnet. Eckhel's Doctrina Nummorum Veterum,' published at Vienna in 1792, comprises not merely a catalogue of coins, but, as the title would imply, a methodical exposition in the Latin language of the history and philosophy of ancient coinage; not, however, in that unostentatious form of incidental note and running commentary in which Colonel Leake has scattered the stores of his learning over the surface, where they may be picked up without trouble just at the time they are wanted, but in detached and formal dissertations. Eckhel had the command of an excellent library, and one of the richest of modern cabinets; and combining in himself the rare qualities of sagacity, scholarship, and patience, he produced an elementary work of permanent utility, and one which no scientific numismatist can neglect to study and to
appreciate. But Numismatics, like Geography, is a science slowly and continually progressive. So much has been done since the time of Eckhel, that many of his dissertations are upon questions which have been long since determined, while the numismatic catalogue of modern times contains many places which in his time were entirely unknown. In Eckhel's time it was doubtful whether any autonomous coins were extant of Corinth, Sicyon, or Elis, three of the greatest cities of European Greece, of which there is a greater number of extant coins than of almost any place except Athens. The rich series of the Corinthian colonies in Epirus and Acarnania, almost rivalling in number those of Corinth herself, were equally unattributed, and remained among the Incerta.' Eckhel's work is, moreover, totally defective in regard to the weights; one of the most important distinctions in the description of Hellenic money.
Eckhel's work was followed, in 1806, by the Description de 'Medailles' of M. Mionnet; being, as its name imports, a descriptive catalogue of a collection of 20,000 sulphur casts which he had himself taken from the original coins, comprising most of the known coins at the period of the publication. There is just enough to identify the coin, with a specification of its comparative rarity and value. This renders the work especially useful to the buyer and seller; and if the coin should be advertised as 'not in Mionnet,' it is manifestly expected to fetch a high price.
The veteran Pellerin's descriptive catalogue includes 32,500 coins, the greatest number perhaps ever collected by an individual. In one of the later of his ten volumes is a portrait of the venerable numismatist,—'animo maturus et ævo,' for his years amounted to very near a century. About six years before his death, he sold his collection to Louis XVI., who had recently succeeded to the throne, for the sum of 30,000 francs. The king, however, allowed him to enjoy the possession of them until his death. The geographical arrangement of coins, which, as improved by Eckhel, is now universally adopted, was introduced by Pellerin.
In 1781, Gabriel Lancelot Castello, better known as the
It was followed in more senses than one, and rather absurdly. Eckhel (vol. vi. p. 229.) gives an account of the wives of the emperor Caligula, and after mentioning Claudia, Livia Orestilla, and Lollia Paulina, he adds that the emperor, 'pulsâ Paulinâ Miloniam Cæso'niam duxit.' Out of this passage of Eckhel Mionnet conjures up a new empress, bearing the portentous name of 'Pulsa Paullina 'Milonia Cæsonia'!
Prince of Torre-muzza, published a handsome volume upon the coins of Sicily, including not merely his own collection, but all the Sicilian coins which he knew to exist. In a preface addressed to the coin-loving reader,-- lectori nummo-philo,'he expresses his gratitude to King Ferdinand of Sicily for bearing the expense of the work. Some of Castello's coins passed into the hands of Matthew Duane, and are now included in the Hunterian collection. A considerable number are in Lord Northwick's cabinet. The Abbate Sestini was a voluminous writer, and his writings, though somewhat desultory, are able and learned. Carelli's description of the coins of Italy deserves honourable mention. M. Cousinery, whose collection of Greek coins forms the basis of the royal cabinet at Munich, was resident for some time as Consul at Salonica: he published in 1825 an interesting treatise on the coins of the Achaian League. M. Cadalvene, in 1828, wrote a description of certain Greek inedited coins, which had been collected by himself and his friend Borrel in the Levant. M. Cadalvene's coins are now in the Bibliothèque Impériale. A descriptive catalogue of the cabinet of Greek coins of M. Allier de Hauteroche was published in 1829, by M. Dumersan, of the Bibliothèque.
In no instance are the beauty and advantages of Order more forcibly exemplified than in the classification of a cabinet of Greek coins. When they are viewed in one confused and heterogeneous mass, the mind labours under a sort of anxious bewilderment. One or two of the more conspicuous are taken up, torpidly examined, and quietly laid down again. But only let them be touched by that fairy wand which we used to read of in our childish days, and at once we contemplate a succession of scenes and groups forming one grand and continuous picture of the past. With its aid we may commence our imaginary travels over the world of the ancients, from city to city, from province to province, and from kingdom to kingdom; making acquaintance with the inhabitants of each, and picking up information respecting their commerce, their religious worship, their political connexions, and their history in general. The classification of Greek coins has arrived at its present convenient form by slow degrees. In the middle of the last century, Wise arranged his Nummi Bodleiani under the general heads of Reges' and 'Populi,' subdividing these classes according to the metal, and the metal again according to its size. The geographical arrangement, which, like many other useful discoveries, appears so simple and obvious that we wonder no one hit upon it sooner, did not make its appearance until the defects of the old system forced people to look out for another.
On its introduction by M. Pellerin, many enigmata in coins which had long wanted an Edipus, as Eckhel observes, were at once cleared up.
The great desideratum in a cabinet is facility of reference. The principal, or rather the only, defect in Col. Leake's book is the arrangement of his collection. Before the geographical system of arrangement became general, it was usual to divide a Greek collection into two parts, viz. the coins of the kings and the coins of the cities and peoples, and to arrange them alphabetically. This system was convenient for reference, but in point of scientific interest could bear no comparison with the classification begun by Pellerin, improved by Eckhel, and brought to perfection by Mionnet, and now universally adopted, by which we obtain at a glance the coins of each country and its dynasts, and are enabled to trace the gradual changes in the progress and decline of art from the period when its coins were first issued down to the time of its subjugation to Rome.
Colonel Leake has thought fit to adopt in his collection a different classification. He has divided his catalogue into seven sections, namely, Kings and Dynasts, Asiatic Greece, European Greece, I., European Greece, II. (or Italy), Islands, I. (of the Egean and Ionian seas), Islands, II. (Sicily and the adjacent islands), Africa. In each of these divisions the towns are arranged alphabetically. Now, although this arrangement has very much in it of a retrograde movement, no objection would have been made to it if by the help of a good index it had been easy to find any coin that we wished to look for; but Colonel Leake has unfortunately adopted a system of pagination which it is beyond the power of any index to remedy. This difficulty of reference is, however, far outweighed by the difficulty of quotation. Colonel Leake has not numbered his coins. In Mionnet's extensive list, the coins of every country are numbered throughout, so that it is merely necessary to quote the volume and number, and the coin is at once identified. In other respects, as we have already shown, this work is a most valuable contribution to Colonel Leake's favourite studies.
One of the advantages of this volume is what the author terms a Geographical Sketch,' presenting to the eye at one glance the wide extent of Greek colonisation, and enabling the student to discover the exact position of every city from which any coin in the collection has issued. For the accuracy of this map we need no better guarantee than the name of its author. A series of detached maps, such as those given in Mionnet's 'Atlas de Géographie Numismatique,' may possess certain facilities for consultation which are wanting in so comprehensive
a map as this of Colonel Leake's, but they fritter away the great historic fact, - a fact of which the numismatist brings visible and tangible evidence, namely, that the art which had its birth when commercial policy suggested the impress of the seatortoise upon rude lumps of silver at Egina, gained a footing and flourished in each one of those remote colonies with which the map is dotted over, from east to west and from north to southa proof, as Colonel Leake observes, that the Greeks never lost what may almost be termed the innate polity of their race, namely, the system of separate communities each managing its own internal concerns, whether as an independent state, or as a member of a federation under a dominant republic, or as a part of the dominions of a Macedonian king, or as included in the universal empire of Rome.
ART. VII.-1. Vermischte Schriften von Heinrich Heine. 3
Translated by the Hon. JULIAN
2. Poems by Heinrich Heine.
WHEN a man of letters has been well abused during his lifetime, the period immediately succeeding his death is usually favourable to his fame. And this is especially the case when the writer has had to bear all the misapprehensions and misrepresentations which will be the lot of a humourist, as long as the world is composed of persons to a large majority of whom the operations of his intellect and the principle of his actions must be mainly unintelligible. There is no need of supposing any determined hostility, or the existence of either envy or malignity, in the repulsion with which ordinary minds shrink from the humouristic character. If to studious men it seems shallow, if to severe men it seems indifferent, if to pious men it seems irreverent, these are the inevitable consequences of their mental vision being brought to bear on objects it is not fitted to contemplate. The contrasts, the inconsistencies, the incongruities, which provoke and exercise the faculty of humour, are really invisible to most persons, or, when perceived, arouse a totally distinct order of ideas and associations. It must seem to them at best a mischievous inclination to find a source of mirth in the sufferings, and struggles, and troubles of others; and when the humourist extends this practice to himself, and discovers a certain,