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ELPHIN. St. Patrick founded a cathedral near this place,“ by a river issuing from
two fountains," in the fifth century, and placed over it St. Asicus, whom he created bishop, and who soon after filled it with monks. After many centuries, and a little before the arrival of the English, this see was enriched with large estates, upon the translation of Roscommon to it. Ardcarn, Drumclive, and others of less note, were also annexed to Elphin ; and by these unions, it became, at length, one of the richest in all Ireland. It is valued in the king's books, by an extent returned 28
Elizabeth, at 1031. 18s. sterling. ELY. A church was built here by Etheldra, queen of Egfrida, king of Northumberland,
who founded also a religious house, and planted it with virgins, and became first abbess herself. The Danes ruined the latter ; but the monastery was rebuilt and filled with monks, on whom king Edgar and many succeeding monarchs bestowed great privileges, and made grants of land ; so that, in process of time, the abbey of Ely became the richest in England. Richard, the eleventh abbot, wishing to free himself from the bishop of Lincoln, within whose diocese the monastery was situated, made great interest with Henry I. to get Ely erected into a bishopric. His successor
was the first prelate, A.D. 1109. It is valued in the king's books at 21311. 18s. 5d. EMBALMING. The ancient Egyptians believed that their souls, after many thousand
years, would come to reinhabit their bodies, in case these latter were preserved entire. Hence arose their practice of embalming the dead. The Egyptian manner of preserving the dead has been the admiration and wonder of modern times. They rendered the body not only incorruptible, but it retained its full proportion of size, symmetry of features, and personal likeness. They called the embalmed bodies mummies, some of which, buried 3000 years ago, are perfect to this day. The art of such embalming is now lost. When Nicodemus came, with Joseph of Arimathea, to pay the last duties to our Saviour after his crucifixion, he brought a mixture of
myrrh and aloes to embalm his body.—John xix. 38. EMBARGO. This power is vested in the crown, but is rarely exercised except in
extreme cases, and sometimes as a prelude to war. The most memorable instances of embargo were those for the prevention of corn going out of the kingdom in 1766 ; and for the detention of all Russian, Danish, and Swedish ships in the several ports
of the kingdom, owing to the armed neutrality, Jan. 14, 1801.-See Armed Neutrality. EMBER WEEKS. Observed in the Christian church in the third century, to implore
the blessing of God on the produce of the earth by prayer and fasting. EMBER Days, three of which fall in these weeks, and in which penitents sprinkle the ashes (embers) of humiliation on their heads. Four times in each year were appointed for these acts of devotion, so as to answer to the four seasons, spring, summer, autumn,
and winter. EMBROIDERY. Its invention is usually ascribed to the Phrygians; but we learn
from Homer, and other ancient authors, that the Sidonians particularly excelled in this decorative species of needle-work. Of this art very early mention is made in the Scriptures.Exodus xxxv. 35, and xxxviii. 23. An ancient existing specimen of beautiful embroidery is the Bayeux tapestry, worked by Matilda, the queen of
William 1. of England.-See Bayeux Tapestry. EMERALD. The precious stone of a green colour is found in the East and in Peru ;
inferior ones in other places. It has been alleged that there were no true emeralds in Europe before the conquest of Peru ; but there is a genuine emerald in the Paris Museum, taken from the mitre of Pope Julius II. who died in 1513, and Peru was not conquered till 1545; hence it is inferred that this emerald was brought from
Africa, or the East. EMIGRATION. Of late years emigrations from Britain have been considerable. In
the ten years ending 1830, the emigrations to our North American colonies, West Indies, Cape of Good Hope, New South Wales, Swan River, Van Diemen's Land, &c. were, according to official returns, 154,291. In the decennial period to 1840, the emigrations advanced to 277,696, exclusively of the vast numbers that preferred
settling in the United States of America. EMINENCE. A spiritual dignity in the Roman states, conferred upon cardinals by a
decree of pope Urban VIII., dated January 10, 1630, previously to which time they had the title of Illustrissimi.--Ashe. The grand-master of Malta also obtained this title.- Pardon.
EMIR. A title of dignity among the Turks and Persians, first given to caliphs. This
rank was first awarded to the descendants of Mahomet, by his daughter Fatima, about A.D. 650.-Ricaut. To the emirs only was originally given the privilege of wearing
the green turban. It is also given to high officers (another title being joined). EMLY. An ancient Irish see, supposed to have been founded by St. Patrick, and
formerly endowed with large possessions. Emly was called Imelaca-Ibair ; and St. Ailbe was the first bishop in 448 : ancient historians mention it as having been, about this time, a great and flourishing city ; but Emly is now an inconsiderable
village. In 1568, the see was united to the archiepiscopal see of Cashel. EMPALEMENT. This barbarous and dreadful mode of putting criminals to death is
mentioned by Juvenal, and was often inflicted in Rome, particularly by the monster Nero. The victim doomed to empalement is spitted through the body on a stake fixed upright; and this punishment is still used in Turkey and Arabia. The dead bodies of murderers were sometimes staked in this manner, previously to being buried, in England. --Southern. Williams (who committed suicide) the murderer of the Marr family, in Ratcliffe Highway, London, Dec. 8, 1811, was staked in his
ignominious grave. This practice has been since abolished with us.-See Burying Alive. EMPEROR. Originally a title of honour at Rome, conferred on victorious generals,
who were first saluted by the soldiers by that name. Augustus Cæsar was the first Roman emperor, 27 B.C. Valens was the first emperor of the Eastern empire, A.D. 364. Charlemagne was the first emperor of Germany, crowned by Leo III. A.D. 800. Ottoman I., founder of the Turkish empire, was the first emperor of Turkey, 1296. The Czar of Russia was the first emperor of that country, 1722. Don Pedro IV. of
Portugal was the first emperor of Brazil, in 1825. EMPIRICS. They were a set of early physicians who contended that all hypothetical
reasoning respecting the operations of the animal economy was useless, and that experience and observation alone were the foundation of the art of medicine. The
sect of Empirics was instituted by Acron of Agrigentum, about 473 B.C. ENAMELLING. The origin of the art of enamelling is doubtful. It was practised
by the Egyptians and other early nations; and was known in England in the time of the Saxons. At Oxford is an enamelled jewel which belonged to Alfred, and
which, as appears by the inscription, was made by his order, in his reign, about A.D. 887. ENCAUSTIC PAINTING, known to the ancients. This very beautiful art, after
having been lost, was restored by Count Caylus and M. Bachelier, A.D. 1749. ENCYCLOPÆDIA. The first work to which this designation was expressly given,
was that of Abulfaraius, an Arabian writer, in the thirteenth century. Many were published as early as the fifteenth century, but none alphabetically. Chambers' Dictionary was the first of the circle of arts and sciences, in England, first pub
lished in 1728.-See Cyclopædia. ENGHIEN, BATTLE OF, fought by the British under William III. and the French
under Marshal Luxemburg, who were victorious, August 3, 1692. William bad put himself at the head of the confederated army in the Netherlands, and leagued himself with the Protestant powers upon the Continent against the ambition of Louis XIV. and in the end he triumphed. A victory obtained here by the great Condé, first gave the ducal title to a prince of the house of Bourbon Condé. The duke D'Enghien was shot by torch-light, immediately after condemnation by a military
court, at Vincennes, March 20, 1804. The body was exhumed, March 20, 1816. ENGINEERS. This name is of modern date, as engineers were formerly called
Trench-masters. Sir William Pelham officiated as trench-master in 1622. The chief engineer was called carp-master-general in 1634. Captain Thomas Rudd had the rank of chief engineer to the king, about 1650. The corps of engineers was formerly a civil corps, but was made a military force, and directed to rank with the artillery, April 25, 1787. It has a colonel-in-chief, and a second, and five colonelcommandants, and twenty colonels. The Association of Civil Engineers was estab
lished in 1828. ENGLAND. See Britain. So named by order of Egbert, first king of England, in a
general council held at Winchester, A.D. 829. This appellative had been used as far back as A.D. 688, but had never been, until then, ratified by any assembly of the nation. It came from Angles, a tribe of Saxons, and lond, the Saxon for country.
First hostile appearance of the Danes The principality of Wales united to upon the coast. (See Danes). A.D. 783 England by Edward I.
A.D. 1283 They enter the Thames with a fleet of Death of Roger Bacon 350 sail, and destroy Canterbury and
Murder of Edward II. at Berkeley London by fire 851 castle, (which see)
1327 Second series of invasions
867 Art of weaving brought to England. Reign of Alfred, who defeats the in
1331 vaders in 56 pitched battles
871 Edward III. takes Calais, after a year's (The University of Oxford is said to have siege. (See Calais)
1317 been founded about this time.)
Order of the Garter instituted
1350 Alfred's body of laws framed
890 Edward the Black Prince takes the His general survey made, and the rolls French king prisoner, at the battle of deposited at Winchester 896 Poitiers (which see).
1356 He divides England into counties 900 Law pleadings in English University of Cambridge founded. (See Death of Wickliffe
915 Murder of Richard II. at Pomfret castle,
1399 Sweyn, king of Denmark, arrives in The line of Lancaster
1399 England, and avenges the death of his Order of the Bath instituted by Henry countrymen. Ethelred II. flies to Nor
IV. (See Bath)
1399 mandy for protection
. 1003 Henry IV. marries Joan of Navarre 1403 Ethelred recalled from exile
1014 France conquered by Henry V., who is The Danes again ravage England and made regent of the kingdom complete its conquest 1017 Marries Catherine of France
1420 The Saxon line restored .
1042 Henry VI. crowned at Paris , Dec. 1430 Era of the conquest. The Norman line He marries Margaret of Anjou
1445 begins in William I.
1066 Henry is deposed by Edward. Line of Justices of peace first appointed 1076 York. (See Towton)
1461 New survey of England ; Domesday. Margaret and her son made prisoners at book commenced, 1080-completed. Tewkesbury
May 4, 1471 (See Doomsday Book)
1086 The prince killed in cool blood, May 21, 1471 The empress Maud, daughter of Henry Henry murdered .
June 20, 1471 I., claims the succession on the death The civil wars between the houses of of her father
1135 York and Lancaster terminate by the
Sept. 1139 death of Richard III. at Bosworth,
1485 Is defeated ; retires to France . . . 1147 Henry VII. marries Elizabeth, daughter Returns, and concludes a peace, through of Edward IV.
1486 her son, with Stephen
. 1153 Court of Star-chamber instituted. (See
1487 Murder of Becket at the altar. (See Yeomen of the Guard, being the first Becket's murder)
appearance of a standing army in
1492 English laws digested by Glanville . 1181 Gardening introduced into England geRichard L joins the crusaders. (See ar- nerally, from the Netherlands. 1500 ticle Crusaders)
1191 Death of prince Arthur He is made prisoner by Henry VI. of
Shillings first coined. (See shillings)
Dec. 1192 Henry VIII, marries Catherine of Is ransomed by his subjects for the sum Spain, widow of his brother Arthur 1509 of 400,0001.
1194 Interview with Francis I. at Ardres, Pas Dieu et mon droit made the motto of de Calais. (See Field of the Cloth of England by Richard I (See Dieu et Gold)
May 31, 1520 mon droit)
. 1198 First geographical map of England Normandy is lost to England in the drawn. (See article Maps)
1520 reign of John
. 1204 Henry VIII, receives the title of “ DeEngland put under an interdict by the fender of the Faith," (which see)
1521 pope, and king John excommunicated 1208 Is styled “ Head of the Church" Magna Charta, or the great Charter of He divorces Catherine
English Liberty, obtained by the ba- The Pope's authority in England is rons. (See Mag. Ch.)
1533 Gold first coined in England. (See Coin Era of the reformation
1534 and Gold)
1257 Sir Thomas More beheaded The Commons of England summoned to Anna Boleyn beheaded
1536 parliament. (See Parliament). 1266 Queen Jane Seymour dies
* The various occurrences of a remarkable character relating to England, not noticed in this place, will be found under their respective heads through the volumo.
• 1714 . 1714
A.D. 1539 The Habeas Corpus Act, for protecting Cromwell, lord Essex, beheaded
English subjects against false arrest Anne of Cleves divorced
and imprisonment, passed
1678 Queen Catharine Howard and lady Lord Russell and Algernon Sydney put Rochford beheaded
to the English sovereigns by act of Abdication of James II.
1543 Era of the Revolution, styled by Voltaire Henry marries Catherine Parr, widow the era of English liberty; William of lord Latinier
1694 Edward VI. promotes the Reformation Death of the queen regnant Mary, conduring his short reign 1546 sort of William
Dec. 28, 1694 Interest fixed at 10 per cent.
1547 Death of James II. in exile . Aug. 6, 1701 Somerset deprived of power .
1549' Union of the two kingdoms, by act, unAnd is beheaded 1552 der the title of Great Britain
1552 Interest at 5 per cent.
1715 Execution of lady Jane Grey, and of her Death of Marlborough
1722 husband, father, and friends 1554 Death of Newton
1727 Mary marries Philip of Spain . 1554 Death of Wilhelmina, queen of Geo. II. . 1737 Bishops Ridley, Latimer, and Cranmer Second Scots' rebellion
1746 burnt. See Cranmer. 1555 and. 1536 Lords Lovat, Balmerino, and KilmarCalais retaken by the French
1746 Reign of Elizabeth; Papacy abolished, Death of prince Frederick Louis, son of and the Church of England established George II., and father of George III. .
1751 nearly as it now exists
1558 New style introduced into England. (See Execution of Mary, queen of Scots
Sept. 3, 1752 The Spanish Armada. (See Armada) 1588 Conquest of India under colonel, afterDevereux, earl of Essex, beheaded 1601 wards lord Clive. (See India). 1757 Union of the two Crowns
1603 Death of Gen. Wolfe. (See Quebec) James I. is styled the first “ King of Accession of George III. Oct, 25, 1760 Great Britain "
. 1604 His nuptials with Charlotte Sophia of The Gunpowder plot (which sech
1603 Mecklenburgh Strelitz . Sept. 8, 1761 The present translation of the Bible . 1611 They are crowned
Sept. 22, 1761 Baronets first created. (See Baronets) · 1611 George, prince of Wales, born. Aug. 12, 1762 Shakspeare dies .
. 1616 Isle of Man, (which see,) annexed to the Raleigh beheaded
sovereignty of Great Britain .
1765 Anne of Denmark, queen of James, dies 1619 Death of the Old Pretender, the “ChevaCamden, the historian, dies .
lier de St. George
Dec. 30, 1765 Charles I. marries Henrietta of France. 1625 Commencement of the war with AmeDeath of lord Bacon
rica. (See America) Buckingham assassinated
1628 Death of Chatham
Apr. 8, 1778 Hampden's trial
1637 Separation of America from Great BriLord Strafford beheaded
Nov. 30, 1782 The civil war against Charles breaks out. Margaret Nicholson's attempt on the (See Battles) 1642 life of George III.
Aug. 3, 1786 Archbishop Laud beheaded
Death of Charles Edward, the Young
1788 Execution of Charles I.; the form of George III. becomes deranged, Oct. 12, 1783
government changed . Jan. 30, 1649 He recovers, and goes to St. Paul's to Oliver Cromwell made Protector of the make thanksgiving
Apr. 23, 1789 Commonwealth
1653 First coalition against France. (See Death of Cromwell ,
June 26, 1792
Apr. 22, 1659 (See Habeas Corpus). Monarchy re-established in the “Resto- Marriage of the prince of Wales with the ration " of Charles II.
1660 princess Caroline of Brunswick. Apr.8, 1795 He marries Catherine, the infanta of Cash payments suspended Feb. 25, 1797 Portugal
May 21, 1662 Death of Edmund Burke July 8, 1797 A great plague ravages London, carrying Habeas Corpus again suspended. Aug, 29, 1793
off 68,000 persons. (See Plaque) . 1665 Hatfield's attempt on the life of Geo. III. Great fire of London. (See Fires)
May 11, 1800
* The various occurrences of a remarkable character relating to England, not noticed in this place, will be found under their respective heads through the volume.
The legislative union with Ireland. See Manchester reform meeting, which see ;
Jan. I, 1801 its disastrous termination Aug. 16, 1819
Jan. 23, 1820 [The English sovereigns relinquish the
Death of George III.
Jan. 29, 1820
The trial of Queen Caroline. (See Queen
Caroline's Trial) empire now called the “ United
Aug. 19, 1820 Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire
Coronation of George IV. July 19, 1821 land.")
Queen Caroline expires at Hammer
smith, near London August 7, 1821 The Habeas Corpus act is again sus. Lord Byron dies
April 19, 1824 pended April 19, 1801 Duke of York dies
Jan. 22, 1827 Peace of Amiens, which see March 27, 1801 Mr. Canning, first lord of the treasury. Despard's treason. (See Despard) Jan. 16, 1803 (See Administrations) April 10, 1827 War against Buonaparte April 29, 1803 His death
Aug. 8, 1827 Death of Nelson
Oct. 21, 1805 The portals of the constitution thrown Death of Mr. Pitt
Jan. 23, 1806 open to the Roman Catholics. (See Lord Melville impeached, (see Trials),
April 13, 1829
June 26, 1830
Sept. 15, 1830 Ballle on
Jan, 16, 1809 The cholera morbus makes great ravages Duke of York impeached by colonel in England. (See Cholera) . Oct. 26, 1831 Wardle
Jan. 26, 1809 Parliamentary reform ; act passed. (See The jubilee, (which
Oct. 25, 1809 Reform in Parliament June 7, 1832 Sir Francis Burdett's arrest, and subse- Sir Walter Scott dies
Sept. 21, 1832 quent riots
April 6, 1810
Assault on William IV. by a discharged
June 19, 1832
July 25, 1834 regent
Feb. 5, 1811 Slavery abolished. (See Slaves) Aug. 1, 1834 Assassination of Mr. Perceval, prime Corporation reform ; act passed. (See minister
May 11, 1812
Sept. 9, 1835
June 20, 1837 United States)
June 18, 1812 [The crown of Hanover is now sepaPeace with France
April 14, 1814
rated from that of Great Britain.] Visit of the emperor of Russia and king Coronation of Victoria
June 28, 1839 of Prussia to England June 7, 1814 Marriage of the queen with prince Albert Centenary of the house of Hanover cele- of Saxe-Coburg
Feb. 10, 1840 brated
August 1, 1814 Oxford's assault on the queen. (See
June 10, 1840
Nov. 21, 1810 the French war June 18, 1815 Prince of Wales born
Nov. 9, 1841 Death of Sheridan
July 9, 1816 King of Prussia visits England, Jan 24, 1842
May 30, 1842
July 3, 1842
Dec. 18, 1817 Queen embarks for Scotland Aug. 29, 1842 Marriage of the duke of Clarence, after- Robert Southey dies. March 21, 1813 wards William IV., to Adelaide of Princess Alice born
April 25, 1843 Saxe-Meiningen July 11, 1818 Duke of Sussex dies
April 29, 1843 Queen Charlotte, consort of George III., Queen's visit to the Orleans' family at dies at Kew Nov. 17, 1818 the Chåtcau d'Eu
Sept. 2, 1843
KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND,
901. Edward the Elder ; succeeded his father BEFORE THE CONQUEST.
Alfred; died in 924. 627. Egbert, first sole monarch, so reigned 924. Athelstan, eldest son of the last king; ten years ; succeeded by his son.
died Oct. 17th, 940. 837. Ethelwolf; reigned twenty years; suc- 940. Edmund I., fifth son of Edward the ceeded by his son.
Elder ; bled to death from a wound 857. Ethelbald, called the II. ; died 20th Dec., received in an affray, May 26th, 347.
860; succeeded by his next brother. 947. Edred, brother of Edmund, died in 955, 860. Ethelbert; died in 866, and was suc
and was succeeded by ceeded by
955. Edwy, eldest son of Edmund, died of 866. Ethelred, third son of Ethelwolf; died grief, in 959. In this reign, Dunstan, April 27th, 872 ; succeeded by
a turbulent and ambitious priest, 872. Alfred, surnamed the Great, fourth son ruled the king, who afterwards baof Ethelwolf; died 28th Oct., 901