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À Ć E. It gives us no small concern to understand, that a passage in our History for the year 1773, should have been supposed to convey an imputation injurious to the honour and character of the Baron de Tott. Independent of our attention to historical truth, as well as to personal justice, we too much regard the. fingular talents and eminent abilities of that Nobleman, not to regret, however innocently, that we thould in any manner, have afforded means for 'wounding his feelings; much less should we confent to its being understood, that we gave any sanction to a false and scandalous calumny. It is impossible, at this distance of times to recollect any of the operative circumstances with respect to that pafiage, or even what our own sense of the subject then was, The Translator of his very curious and valuable Memoirs þas, in his Preface, along with the charge, candidly furnished almost every thing which it would be necessary for us to say upon the subject, by quoting, from ourselves, the uncertainty of the information which could then be obtained, relative to the circumstances of the Russian and Turkish war, and still farther, by his own subsequent acknowledg. ment, that the calumny, to which the pásiage in question is supposed to allude, however maliciously raised, was publicly prevalent. We shall only add, that we are in onrselves convinced of, that Guys, the French conful or deputy, and the real renegado, was the person to whom we really pointed, however the Baron's actions might at first have been mistakenly attributed to him. Time has cleared up the truth, and done ample justice to his character.
For the YEAR, 1783.
HISTORY E U R O P E. U Ꭱ
С НАР. І.
Retrospective view of affairs in India. Benares. Transactions which led to the
dependance of that country on the East India company. The Rajah Bulwant Sing, having taken a decided part in their favour, in the war against his paramount lord, Sujah Ul Dowlab, his territories are secured to him by the treaty of Illahabad. Investiture of Cheit Sing, upon the death of his father Bulwant, and a new treaty concluded in favour of the family by Major Harper. A third treary, in confirmation of the true former, concluded by Mr. Haftings, who is himself a party to it, and renders the company guarantees of the Rajab's poffeffions. Upon ihe death of Sujah Ul Dowlah, the Nabob via zier, the fovereignty of Benares is transferred by his succellor to the company. Extraordinary fübfidies demanded and levied from the Rajah, Cheit Sing, on eccafion of the war with France, lay the foundation of those differences which took place between him and the government of Calcutta. A supply of 2000 cavalry demanded from the Rajah. Charges of disaffection and contumacy laid againf bim. Governor general's progress from Calcutta, to fettle the affairs of Benares, and other countries. Proceeds up the Ganges 20 Buxar, where be is met by the Rajah, with great attendance and number of boats. Different accounts of the conference on the water. Rajab's vift a: Benares forbidden. Rajab taken into custody : rescued, and the Jepoys, with their offie ficers, mafsacred. He flies forft to Ramnagur, and from thence retires in the night to che fortress of Luttee poor. Onsjaun Sing appointed by the governor general to adminifter the affairs of the country in the place of the Rajah. VOL. XXVI. 
Ramjiewaun, garrisons Ramnagur for the Rajah. Scheme for the reduce tion of that place frustrated by the rafhness of Capt. Mayaffre: whe is killed in an ill-judged attack, and the party repulsed with great loss. Country immediately in arms. Design of attacking the governor general in bis quarters obliges him to retire by night to Chunar. Repeated proposals made by the Rojab for an accommodation, produce no effect. Embarralment occafioned by the Nabob vizier's visit. The commotion in Benares Spreads the flame in the adjoining countries. Cheit Sing's manifesto. Attack on the Rajah's camp at Pateetab. Great reinforcements arrive at Chunar. Bundoo Cawn, a native, proposes the means by which the Rajah's forces might, wirkout much difficulty, be dispoDiefed of their strong holds. The scheme adopted by Major Popham; who privately dispatches Major Crabbe, with a strong detachment, to penetrate the mountains, under the guidance of Bundoo Cawn, and attack the enemy in the rear, while he engagés them in front. The design jucceeds; Major Crabbe carries the frong pass of Suckroot; the enemy abandon the fortress of Lurteefpoor; 7 he Rajah flies to Bidjeygur, and all his forces disperse. Country immediately resumes its usual tranquillity. Governor general returns to Benares; jetikes the . government ; appoints a new Rajah; and increases the revenue. Disturbances in the neightouring countries quelled. Treaty of peace and alliance happily concluded wiih Madajee Scindia by Coloned Muir. "The Rajah, Cheit Sing, totally cbandons his country. Strong fortress of Bidjeggur iaken, upon conditions, by Major Popham. Great treasure found, and spoil made by the army.
HILE other parts of India fenfive manners, poflefied such
were desolated by the a spirit of industry, as bad given present and by former wars, the to a whole country, the face of fequeftered and happy country a garden in the highest state of Benares, generally had the for- of culture and beauty ; and whose tune to escape the common cala. labours were common bene. mity. Besides the security de. fit to all, who either lived near rived from the great distance of ihe had occasion to approach fea, the sacred character ascribed them. to that city, which had through The Ganges, before it yet be. many ages been considered as the comes too vatt for health and sa. repository of the religion and learn. tisfa&tion, winding through the ing of the Bramins, could not but variegated face of such a country, endear it in the highest degree could not but greatly heighten the to the Hindoos; and the foreign picturesque beauty of the scene ; ravagers of India, if they paid and lying, as it does, under the no respect, found it necessary, happielt influence of the heavens, at least, to thew some attention to it is not to be wondered at, that the prejudices of the conquered. under such favourable circum. Hoftility indeed was pot much stances, Benares had long been provoked by a people, who, along considered as the paradise of In. with the most gen and inof. dia. The capital was not less
diftinguished for its beauty, than north-west of Calcutta. The river, eminent for its rank and confidera- without taking in its continual tion. But neither the falubrity of windings, points generally from the air, nor the delights of its situ- the west to the east in its course ation, were more alluring to strang. through it. Its extent from ers, than the happy security to per- north to fouth, including the son and property which it afforded. districts of Chunar and GazyIt accordingly became the coveted pour, which are united with it, retreat of the people of all the is about 150 miles; nor is it much Afiatic countries and religions, less from east to weft; but it is who weary of a busy life, vexed a good deal indented on the former by its disappointments, or appre- fide by the province of Babar. hensive of its dangers, wished to It was a part of those extensive enjoy during some portion of their poffeflions, which the misfortunes lives, the tranquillity of a secure of the court of Delli, enabled and happy retirement.
Sujah Ul Dowlah, the grand
, The expences of the present vizier of the empire, and nabob war with Hyder Ally and the of Oude, to secure the actual loMarattas, in which all the Eng- vereignty and possession of in his lith presidencies were fo deeply, own family. The Rajah, Bulwant and one at least so dangerously in- Sing, was tributary to Sujah Ul volved, rose to such an height, Dowlah, for the country of Bethat the wealth and revenue of nares, and its dependencies, at a Bengal, great as these were, proved certain stated tribute or rent; for unequal to their supply. New it is disputed, though indeed of sources were accordingly to be little consequence, to which class fought: and the weak and the it properly belongs. wealthy were doomed, as usual, In the war which broke out in to administer to the wants of the the year 1764, wherein Sujah Ul Itrong and the warlike. The pro- Dowlah supported Coffin Ally secution of these means of supply, Cawn, who had been the murled to the subsequent calamities derer of so great a number of of Benares ; and suddenly plunged Englith gentlemen at Patna, the Mr. Hastings, the governor ge- Rajah Bulwant Sing, notwithneral, into a new war, at near standing the relation in which he 600 miles distance from the seat of stood with Sujah, took decided his government.
part in favour of the English, For the better comprehension and rendered them efsential and or illustration of this subject, it acknowledged services. As Suwill be necessary to take some no- jah Dowlah was so entirely ruined tice of the late' state and govern- by the war, that he scarcely hoped ment of that country, as well as ot to have been left in possession of its relation to, and the means by any part of his territories, it was which it became dependent on the in the power of the English to East India company.
dictate the terms of peace. These The country of Benares lies were, however, so much in his far up the Ganges, not a great favour, as to excite no small surdeal Thort of 600 miles, to the prize at the time, both at home
and in India ; but it was, not- terms of the article, seemed to be withstanding, held as a matter in-, bound only in Bulwant Sing's dispensably neceflary, not only person, without any express prowith relpect to honour, gratitude, vision being made for the contiand good faith, but to the real nuance of ihe zemindaries in the interells of the nation and com- Rajal's family. It appears, howe pany, to provide for the Rajah's ever, from Lord Clive's correla interests and pofl: ssions in such a pondence, that this was fully unmavner by the treaty, as should derstood by all the parties to be efie&ually secure him from the the clear intention of the article; animolity and revenge of Sujah and the value and importance Ui Dowlah, which were well which was attributed to it by known to be boundless and im- himself, and confirmed by the placable.
acknowledgment of the company When General Carnac was em
at home, as well as by the prepowered by the presidency of fidency of Calcutta, sufficiently Bengal, in the year 1765, io ne- thews that they all received and gociate the preliminary articles of considered it in the same sense. a peace with Sajan Ui Dowlah, J.ord Clive paid little attention to this matter was accordingly parii- the nicety of words in a compact cnlarly committed to his charge: with a man, whom he regarded and it was laid down as a specific at this time merely as an inftruarticle of his infiructions, • To ment of his own making, and the jecure Bulwant Sing in the posif explanation of which would rest fion of his country." By the fifth either with himself or the comarticle of the treaty of Illababad, pany. which soon after concluded In fact, the Engl'th by being by Lord Clive, although the most the mediators of this condițion, extraordinary favours and advan- became virtually its guarantees; tages were in other refpects grant- and the ties between them and ed to Sujalı Ul Dowlah, yet he the Rajah, being founded on their was most folemnly bound to con- mutual interests and security, were tinue Bulwant Sing in poffeffion from thence indiffoluble. He looked of all the territories be held be- only to them for prote&tion against fore the war, subject only to the the malice and rapacity of a payment of the same revenue as cruel and perfidious tyrant; while, heretofore.
on the other hand, his country Considering the immense ob- afforded them, without any exjects which ”Lord Clive had at pence, a ftrong and excellent barthat time in act and in contem- rier on the side of Oude, and plation, it is no wonder that he did would, as well as his forces, annot pay all the attention to the swer al purposes of war and dewording of this article, which fence, as effe&ually as if it were the pretidency, if it had been in their own. their hands, would probably have When circumstances served, and dope, and which the character of the proper season was arrived, Suthe vizier inore especially de- jah Ui Dowlalı well knew how to manded. I be latter, by the turn to account ibis paft error, or