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was not attacked by the fleets in the war with Russia, | in England is now nearly all subject to parliament, 1854-5.

which annually provides for the support of the sc:erCrook, a bishop's pastoral staff or erook, distinct eign and government about 375,000i." The revenue of from the crozier. Nine pastoral staffs have been recent- the duchy of Cornwall belongs to the prince of Wales ly presented to English bishops; one to the bishop of even during his minority. Henry VII. (1485) resumed Hereford, Dr. James Atlay, in Jan. 1872.

those lands which had been given to their followers by Cropredy Bridge, near Banbury, Oxfordshire. estates of the crown were largely bestowed on their

the sovereigns of the house of York. The hereditary Here the royalists defeated sir William Waller and the courtiers by the sovereigns especially by the Stuarts. army of the parliament, 29 June, 1644.

Crown of India, Imperial Order of, instituted by
Croquet. This game, which became common in
Britain about 1850, is said to be a revival of the old Pall title of empress, 1 Jan. 1877), for princesses of the royal

queen Victoria (to commemorate the assumption of the Mall (which see). It has been much superseded by Lawn family, distinguished Indian and British ladies, and Tennis, 1877-81.

wives of viceroys and governors and secretaries of state Crosier, a staff surmounted by a cross, borne before for India, 31 Dec. 1877. Twelve ladies (the marchioness an archbishop, was in use in the fourth century.. The of Salisbury and others) invested, 29 April, 1878. bearing a crosier before ecclesiastics is mentioned in the

Crowns and HALF-crowns of silver were coined in life of St. Cæsarea of Arles about 500.

England by Edward VI. in 1553. None were coined in Cross. That on which the Redeemer suffered on 1861, and they were gradually withdrawn from circulaMount Calvary was said to have been found at Jerusa- tion. The coinage of half-crowns was resumed in 1974, lem, with two others, deep in the ground, by St. Helena, after an inquiry as to their utility. 3 May, 328 (termed the Invention of the Cross); Christ's being distinguished from those of the thieves by a sick land, 24 Hen. VIII. 1532. Crows were anciently em

Crows. An act passed for their destruction in Engwoman being cured by touching it. It was carried away by Chosroes, king of Persia, on the plundering of Jeru- ployed as letter-bearers, as carrier-pigeons are now. salem; but was recovered by the emperor Heraclius (who Croydon, Surrey, granted to Lanfranc, archbishop defeated him in battle), 14 Sept. 615, and that day has of Canterbury, about 1070. Archbishop Whitgift's hussince been commemorated as “ the festival of the Exalta- pital was founded in 1596. The fine old parish church tion of the Cross," established in 642.

was burned 5, 6 Jan. 1867. It is asserted by church writers that a great shining Crozier, see Crosier.

cross was seen in the heavens by Constantine, and that it led him to adopt it on his standard, with the

Crucifix, the cross with the figure of Christ attached inscription “In hoc signo vinces?? _* Under this sign to it, first known in the fourth, came into general use in thou shalt conquer.

With this (Labarum) he ad- the eighth century. vanced to Rome, where he vanquished Max Oct. 312.—Lenglet.

Crucifixion. A mode of execution common among
Signing with the Cross was first practised by Christians the Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians, Carthaginians, Greeks,

to distinguish themselves from the Pagans.... .about 110 and Romans. Ariarathes, of Cappadocia, aged 80, van-
In the time of Tertullian, it was deemed efficacious against
poison, witchcraft, etc. ....

260 quished by Perdiccas, and discovered among the prisonCrosses in churches and chambers were introduced about ers, was flayed alive and nailed to a cross, with his prinie 431; and set up on steeples about .

568 cipal officers, 322 B.C. Jesus Christ was crucified 3 April, Crosses in honor of queen Eleanor were set up in the places where her bearse rested, between 1296 (when

A.D. 33.Usher (15 April, A.D. 29, Clinton; 28 March, she died) and

1307 A.D. 31, Males). Crucitixion was ordered to be discono Crosses and idolatrous pictures were removed from tinued by Constantine, 330.—Lenglet.

churches, and crosses in the streets demolished, by order of parliament.

1641 Cruelty to Animals, see Animals, and l'irisecMaids of the Cross were a community of young women tion.

who made vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, instituted in....

1625 Crusades (French Croisades), wars undertaken to The order of Ladies of the Star of the Cross was insti. drive the infidels from Jerusalem and the “ Holy Land."

tuted by the empress Eleonora di Gonzaga, wife of Leopold I., in..

1668

Peter Gautier, the Hermit, an officer of Amiens, on his

return from pilgrimage incited pope Urban II. to exCrossed Checks, see Drafts.

pel infidels from the city where Christ had taught. UrCrotona (S. Italy), a city founded by the Achæan ban convened a council of 310 bishops at Clermont in Greeks about 710 B.C. Here Pythagoras taught about France, at which the ambassadors of the chief Christian 520. The Crotous destroyed Sybaris, 510.

potentates assisted, and gave Peter the commission to Crown. An Amalekite brought Saul's crown to

summon Europe to a general war, 1094. The first cruDavid, 1056 B.C. (2 Sam. i.). The first Roman who wore

sade was published ; an army of 300,000 men was raised, a crown was Tarquin the Elder, 616 B.C.

of which Peter had the direction, and Godfrey de BouThe crown

illon the command, 1095. The warriors wore a red cross was first a fillet tied round the head; afterwards it was formed of leaves and flowers, and also of stuffs adorned upon the right shoulder, and their motto was Volonté de

Dieu,

“God's will."— The French government have pubwith jewels; see Tiara.

lished some of the historians of the Crusades in a magThe crown of Alfred had two little bells attached (872); it is nificent form (1844-77).

said to have been long preserved at Westminster, and may
have been that described in the parliamentary inventory 1. Crusade (1095) ended by Jerusalem being taken by assault,
taken in 1649.

15 July, 1099, and Godfrey de Bouillon made king. Athelstan's crown resembled an earl's coronet, 929.

II. Preached by St. Bernard in 1146, headed by emperor ConWilliam I. wore his crown on a cap, adorned with points, rad II. and Louis VII. of France. Crusaders defeated; Je. 1066.

rusalem lost in 1187. Richard III. introduced the crosses, 1483.

III. Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, etc., in 1188, joined by Henry VII. introduced the arches, 1485.

Philip II. of France and Richard I. of England in 1190. GloThe crown and regalia of England were pledged to the city of rious, but fruitless.

London by Richard II. for 20001. in 1386; see the king's re- IV. 1195, by emperor Henry VI.: successful till his death in ceipt on redeeming them.-Rymer.

1197. The crown of Charles II., made in 1660, is the oldest existing V. Proclaimed by Innocent III., 1198. Baldwin, count of Flan. in England (sec Blood's Conspiracy).

ders, attacked the Greeks, and took Constantinople in 1203. The Imperial State Crown of England was made by Rundell His companions returned.

and Bridges in 1838, principally with jewels taken from old VI. In 1216. In 1229, emperor Frederick II. obtained pog.
crowns. It contains one large ruby, 1 large sapphire, 16 sap- session of Jerusalem on a truce for ten years. In 1210,
phires, 11 emeralds, 4 rubies, 1363 brilliants, 1273 rose dia- Richard, earl of Cornwall, arrived at Palestine, but soon
monds, 147 table diamonds, 4 drop-shaped pearls, and 273 departed.
pearls. - Professor Tennant.

VII. By Louis IX. (St. Louis), 1248, who was defeated and taken

prisoner at Mansourah, 5 April, 1260; released by rausom; Crown Lands. The revenue arising from those truce of ten years.

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VIII. and last, in 1270, by the same prince, who died of a con- | Haydn's “Creation" performed (Costa, conductor), tagious disease, at Carthage, in Africa, 2 Aug. Prince Ed

1 May, 1861 ward, afterwards Edward I. of England, was at Acre, 1271. Blondin's performances on an elevated rope begin here In 1291, the soldan took Acre, and the Christians were driven The plays on violin, cooks, simulates faliing, etc.), out of Syria.

1 June,

Successful Handel festival: a new arched roof construct. Cruz, see Santa Cruz.

ed for the orchestra; about 400 vocal and instruCryolite, a Greenland mineral, a fluoride of alumin- mental performers..

23, 25, 27 June, 1862

Successful Handel festival.. ium and sodium, employed in procuring metallic alu- North wing, containing tropical department, the Alham

.......26, 28, 30 June, 1865 minium in 1855.

bra, and other courts, destroyed by fire (about 150,000L

damage) Cryophorus, an instrument (invented by Dr. Wol- Prince of Wales present at a grand concert to raise funds

.30 Dec. 1866 laston about 1812) to demonstrate the relation between to restore the palace.

26 June, 1867 evaporation at low temperatures and the production of Visit of the viceroy of Egypt (gives 5001.), July; of the cold.

sultan (gives 10001.)...

16 July,

Conservative working-men's demonstration. ...,11 Nov. Cryptograph, an apparatus for writing in cipher, Meeting of shareholders decide by ballot that free tickets

shall not be issued to admit non-shareholders on Sun. invented by sir Charles Wheatstone, and made known

days.

...31 Dec. in 1868, in which different key-words may be employed, North wing restored and reopened to the public.. 15 Feb. 1968 and, it is said, absolute secrecy insured. A crypto- An Aeronautical Exhibition opened... .2.1 June, graphic machine was patented 1860; see Cipher.

Protestant meeting to defend the Irish Church..17 Aug.
Reception of the vicomte de Lesseps.

..July, 1870
A system of secret writing described in " Archiv der Death of Mr. Robert K. Bowley, fourteen years manager
Mathematik".
1795 of the company...

.25 Aug Professor J. F. Lorenz published a system at Magdeburg 1806 Successful Handel festival.

19, 21, 23 June, 1871 Joseph Ludwig Kluber published “Kryptographik”. .. 1809 The grand-duke Wladimir of Russia entertained here by Messrs. Thos. De la Rue published Mr. Wm. Henry Roch

the prince of Wales, ...

26 June, fort's system of secret writing termed ** Arcanography,

Cat-show, native and foreign.. ......13 July-2 Dec. resembling Lorenz's... 1836 Dividend on stock, 14 per cent.

.Dec. Mr. A. L. Flamm patented an improvement upon this Inauguration of the great aquarium by prof. Owen..Jan. 1872 system..... ....about Oct. 1875 Lecture by prof. Flower.

12 Jan. Bird-show opens ...

10 Feb. Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, London; see Exhibi- Thanksgiving festival for the recovery of the prince of tion of 1851.

Wales..

.1 May, Dog-show opens.

..4 June, Crystal Palace, New York. This building was Meeting of National Union of Conservative and Consti. opened 14 July, 1853, by president Pierce, for a univer

tutional Associations..

.24 June, sal industrial exhibition. It stood in Reservoir Square.

National music meetings; competition and concerts,

27 June-6 July, Its main buildings and galleries covered an area of Scottish southern gathering; highland sports ... 25 July, 173,000 square feet. After the close of the exhibition National cat-show.

26-29 Oct. it was used by the American Institute for its fairs and Grand commemoration of the opening of the palace; the

Bird-sbow..

22 Feb. 1873 for meetings of various kinds. On Oct. 1858, it was Paxton memorial unveiled..

.10 June, destroyed by fire, together with a great number of arti- Visits of the shah of Persia... 30 June, 3 July, cles sent for exhibition at the American Institute. The National music meetings.

.3, 5, 8, 10, 12 July,

Resignation of Mr. George Grove, many years secretary, Crystal Palace was owned by a stock company, was

announced Sept.; succeeded by capt. Flood Page. Dec. designed by Messrs. Carstensen and Gildemeister, of Visit of the czar

.16 May, 1874 New York, and was considered a beautiful piece of archi- Handel festival; successful.

22, 24, 26 June, Visit of the sultan of Zanzibar.

.19 June, 1875 tecture.

National music meeting.

.1-10 July, Crystal Palace, Sydenham. The exhibition Visit of the king and queen of Greece and prince and building of 1851 having been surrendered to Messrs. Fox

princess of Wales...

.....19 July, 1876 Great clock completed..

.Nov. and Henderson on 1 Dec. 1851, the materials were sold Handel festival..

25, 27, 29 June, 1977 for 70,0001. to a company, who soon after commenced re- Handel festival; successful.

.21, 23, 25 June, 1880 erecting the Crystal Palace on its present site, near Syd- Great damage done by bursting of a water tank; no

lives lost..

..30 Sept. enham in Kent, under the direction of sir Joseph Pax- International woollen exhibition opened by the duke ton, Owen Jones, Digby Wyatt, and others.

of Connaught.

.2 June, 1881 posed capital of 500,0001. (in 100,000 shares of 5l. each)

Crystallography is the science relating to the was increased in Jan. 1853 to 1,000,0001.

symmetrical forms assumed by substances passing from First column raised by S. Laing, M.P.. ..5 Aug. 1852 the liquid to the solid state. Romé de Lisle published During the progress of the works as many as 6400 men

his “ Essai de Cristallographie" in 1772; but René-Just were engaged at one time. By the fall of scaffolding, 12 men were killed ..

..15 Aug. 1853 Haiiy is regarded as the founder of the modern school Dinner given to professor Owen and others in the inte. of crystallography (1801).-Whewell. Dana, Dufresnoy,

rior of the model of the iguanodon, constructed by Mr. and Miller are eminent modern writers on this subject. Waterhouse Hawkins ..

.31 Dec. The palace opened by the queen..

10 June, 1854 Ctesiphon (afterwards Al Madayn), on the Tigris, Grand musical féle on behalf of the Patriotic Fund,

the splendid capital of Parthia, was taken by Traj un in

28 Oct. The palace visited by the emperor and empress of the

116, and by Alexander Severus (who made 100,000 capFrench, etc..

.20 April, 1855 tives), 198. Its defences deterred Julian from the siege, First grand display of the great fountains, before the

363. It was taken by Omar and the Saracens, 637, and queen and 20,000 spectators,

.18 June, 1856 The receipts were 115,6271. ; the expenditure, 87,8721.

utterly destroyed, and Cusa, near it, built with the remains. not including payments for preference shares, etc., in

Cuba (its original name), an island (West Indies) disyear ending...,

....30 April, 1857 On the fast-day (for the Indian mutiny) rev. C. Spurgeon

covered by Columbus on his first voyage, 28 Oct. 1492; preached here to 23,000 persons; 4761. were collected, settled by Velasquez, 1511-12. Population, 1870, 765,000 to which the C. P. company added 2001... 7 Oct.

whites; 250,000 colored, 368,000 slaves; in 1877, about The preliminary Handel festivals (sce Handel), 15, 17, 19 June, 1937, and.

.2 July, 1858

1,400,000. Centenary of the birth of Robert Burns celebrated: the The buccaneer Morgan took the Harana ; see Bucca. directors awarded 501, to a prize poem on the subject,

1969 which was obtained by Mies Isa Craig

.25 Jan. 1859 A British expedition lands and remains 20 July-20 Nor. 1711 The Handel festival

20, 22, 24 June, The Havana taken by admiral Pococke and lord Albe. Festival kept in honor of Schiller, 10 Nov. 1839; of Men. marle, 1762; restored at the peace of Paris. ....10 Feb). 1763 delsohn...

.4 May, 1860 "Lone Star" society (which see), for the acquisition of London charity children sing here.

.....6 June,
Cuba, etc., formed..

1843 3000 Orpheonistes (French musical amateurs) perform The president of the United States (Taylor) published a

choral music, 25 June; the Imperial band of Guides strong proclamation, denouncing the olject of the inperform, 26 June; both dine in the palace....30 June, vaders...

11 Aug. 1819 115 brass bands perform...

..10 July, Expedition of gen. Lopez and a large body of Americans, Annual rose-show began....

with the view of wresting this island from the dominNorth wing injured by a gale of wind.. .20, 21 Feb. 1861 ion of Spain, landed at Cuba (defeated)........17 May, 1850

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Cuba again invaded by Lopez and others .13 Aug. 1851 skins of beasts, and afterwards tanned leather, formed the They are defeated and taken; 50 shot, and Lopez garrot- cuirass of the Britons until the Anglo-Saxon era. It ed at Havana..

..1 Sept. The president of the United States again issued a procla

was afterwards made of iron and brass. The cuirass mation against an intended expedition against Cuba, was worn by cavalry in the reign of Henry III., 1216 et

31 May, 1854 Messrs. Buchanan, Mason, and Soulé, United States en

seq. Napoleon had several regiments of cavalry wearvoys, met at Ostend and Aix-la-Chapelle, and reported,

ing cuirasses, and most European armies have picked recommending the purchase of Cuba.

..Oct.

corps of such. The Spanish minister in cortes declared that the sale of Cuba would be “the sale of Spanish honor itself,”

Culdees, said to derive their name from cultores

19 Dec. Dei, worshippers of God, monks in Scotland and Ireland, Insurrection of Creoles, headed by Carlos Manuel de

who had their principal seat at St. Andrew's. It is said Cespedes, for expulsion of Spaniards after the revolution in Spain; volunteer force raised to aid Lersundi,

that in 1185, at Tipperary, there was a Culdean abbey the governor.

.Sept.-Nov. 1868 whose monks were "attached to simple truth and pure A filibusters' attack on Cuba repelled. . 17 May, 1869 Christian worship, and had not yet conformed to the The United States decide not to recognize the insurgents as belligerents..

...June, 1870

reigning superstition." They were eventually subjected About 2000 lives lost by a hurricane. ..about 14 Oct.

to the papal yoke. The captain-general De Rodas resigned, and left Cuba,

15 Dec.

Cullen's-wood (Ireland). An English colony Insurrection subdued, but enduring; the volunteers very from Bristol, inhabiting Dublin, went to divert them

insubordinate; military despotism; occasional reign selves at Cullen's - wood, when the O'Byrnes and of terror; massacres.

..Jan.-Nov. 1871

O'Tooles fell upon them, and destroyed 500 men, beDon Gonzalo Castañon murdered by Cubans; his tomb desecrated by medical students, 25 Nov.; eight tried

sides women and children, 30 March, 1209 (on Easter, and shot at Havana....

27 Nov. afterwards called Black, Monday). Mr. F. Delano sent by the United States government to report on the state of Cuba..

...9 Dec. 1872 Culloden, near Inverness, where the English, unThe merciless war still continues; no quarter given.Dec. der William, duke of Cumberland, defeated the Scotch, Suspended hostilities through the establishment of the Spanish republic..

headed by the young Pretender, the last of the Stuarts,

...Feb. 1873 Much fighting reported..

June,

16 April, 1746. The Scots lost 2500 men in killed upon The Virginius, American schooner, while conveying men the field, or in the slaughter which occurred in the pur

and arms from New York to the insurgents in Cuba, is suit, while the loss of the English did not far exceed 200. captured by the Spanish gunboat Tornado, 31 Oct.; conveyed to Cuba; above 90 insurgents and sailors

Prince Charles, who wandered among the wilds of Scot(some British and Americans) tried; many insurgents land for six months, while 30,0001. were offered for taking and about 6 British and 30 Americans shot...4-7 Nov.

him, at length escaped from Uist to Morlaix, and died at After much correspondence the Virginius was surren

Rome 3 March, 1788. dered to the Americans, 19 Dec.; she foundered on her way to New York..

.. about 26 Dec.

Culture, according to Mr. Matthew Arnold ("The Bascones defeats the marquis Santa Lucia and 5000 insurgents at Naranjo..

...Feb. 1874 Apostle of Culture "), is the knowledge of the best that Gen. Martinez Campos appointed governor, with plenary

has been thought and said in the world" (1880). powers.

.Oct. 1876 The struggle going on, but more subdued...... summer, 1877

Cultur-Kampf, see Kultur-Kampf. A “Cuban league” in the United States, said to be formed to obtain recognition of the insurgents as bel

Culverin, cannon so called from the French couleuligerents, etc...

..Sept.

vrine, said to have been introduced into England from a Estrada, the Cuban president, said to be captured...Oct. French model in 1534. It was originally five inches and Reported surrender of many insurgents.. .23, 24 Dec. Surrender of the insurgent government; end of the in

a quarter diameter in the bore, and carried a ball of surrection announced....

..21 Feb. 1878 eighteen pounds.--Bailey. Amnesty declared, with freedom to slaves presenting themselves before 31 March (slavery to be abolished

Cumæ (S. Italy), a Greek colony, 1050 B.C., said to gradually)....

.. March, have been the residence of the ancient Siby), was taken Campos and Jovellar enter Havana triumphantly,

by the Samnites 420 B.C., and annexed by the Romans

14 June, Insurrection; state of siege; amnesty promised. 19 Sept. 1879 Insurgents totally defeated at Placeta; announced.3 Dec.

Cumberland, a N.W. county of England, was Bill for gradual emancipation of the slaves passed by the Spanish senate, 21 Dec. 1879; by chambers of deputies

granted to Malcolm I. of Scotland in 945, by king (230-10, 21 Jan.); promulgated...

18 Feb. 1880 Edmund, " on condition that he should be his felloisCuba reported tranquil....

. . . . . . Sept. worker." It was seized by William I., but restored to Cubit, a measure by which the ark of Noah was Malcolm III., " who became his man," 1072. William the measured (2448 B.c.). It was the distance from a man's Lion, after his defeat at Alnwick, resigned Cumberland elbow to the extremity of the middle finger. According to Henry II., and it was finally annexed to England in to Arbuthnot, the Hebrew cubit was a little under 22 1237. inches, the Roman cubit 17} inches, and the English 1726. William Augustus, second son of George II., died 13 Oct. cubit 18 inches.

1765.

1766. Henry Frederic, son of Frederic, prince of Wales, died Cucking-stool (or DUCKING-STOOL), for shrews:

18 Sept. 1790. one at Kingston-on-Thames was used in April, 1745; 1799. Ernest Augustus, fifth son of George III. ; became king and another at Cambridge in 1780.Chambers.

of Hanover, 20 June, 1837; died 18 Nov. 1851.

1851. George V., the ex-king of Hanover; died 12 June, 1878. Cucumbers, noticed by Virgil and other ancient 1878. Ernest Augustus, son; born 21 Sept. 1845; married prin

cess Thyra of Denmark, 21 Dec. 1878. poets, were brought to England from the Netherlands

Issue, Mary

Louisa, boru 11 Oct. 1879; son, 28 Oct. 1880. about 1538. Cuddalore (India), on the coast of the Carnatic,

“Cumberland, The," see Naval Battles, 1811. was acquired by the English in 1681. It was reduced Cumulative Vote, in parliamentary elections, by the French in 1758, but recaptured in 1760 by sir proposed by Mr. Robert Lowe,* 4 July, during the deEyre Coote. Again lost in 1781, it underwent a destruc- bates on the reform bill, and rejected 5 July, 1867, by 314 tive siege by the British under gen. Stuart, in 1783, which to 173. By the act passed 15 Aug. 1867 (30 & 31 Vict. was continued until peace was signed, when it reverted c. 102), it was enacted that at a contested election for to them, 1784.

any county or borough represented by three members, no Cuenca, New Castile, Spain, 80 miles from Madrid, person shall vote for more than two candidates. The attacked by the Carlists 13 July, and captured 14 July,

of " At any contested election for a county or borough rep1874. The garrison and the inhabitants were barba- resented by more than two members, and having more than rously used. Gen. Lopez Pinto rescued the prisoners, 19 one seat vacant, every voter shall be entitled to a number of July.

votes equal to the number of vacant seats, and may give all

such votes to one candidate, or may distribute them among Cuirass, a part of Greek and Roman armor. The the candidates as he thinks fit,"

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338 B.C.

DUKES.

cumulative vote was used in the election of the London Cursitor Baron. This office, formerly attached to school board, 29 Nov. 1870.

the court of exchequer, was abolished in 1856, on the Cunaxa, in Mesopotamia, near the Euphrates, death of the right hon. George Bankes. where Cyrus the younger was defeated and slain by his Curtatone, near Mantua (N. Italy). Here the Ausbrother Artaxerxes II., against whom he had conspired trians, under Radetzky, crossed the Mincio, and defeated (401 B.C. ), narrated in Xenophon’s “ Anabasis.” His the Italians after a severe conflict, 29 May, 1848. Greek auxiliaries were successful; see Retreat of the

Cushee Pieces, invented by Richard Leake, the Greeks,

master-gunner of the Royal Prince man-of-war, renownCuneiform Inscriptions (from cuneus, Latin ed for bravery shown in the engagement with the Dutch for a wedge), in characters resembling arrow-heads, in- admiral Van Tromp, in 1673. scribed on bricks or clay tablets, found at Babylon, Be

Custom is a law not written (lex non scripta), estabhistun, etc., have lately been deciphered by English and foreign scholars , who date some of them as far back as from lex scripta, or the written law.

lished by long usage and consent, and is distinguished

It is the rule of 2000 B.C.; see Assyria, Babylon, Behistun.

law when it is derived from 1189 downwards. Sixty Cunnersdorf (in Prussia). On 12 Aug. 1759, Fred- years' custom is binding in the civil law, and forty years' erick II., king of Prussia, with 50,000 men, attacked the in ecclesiastical cases. Austrian and Russian army of 90,000 in their camp near this place, and at first gained considerable advantages; land, under Ethelred II. in 979.

Customs were collected upon merchandise in Engbut pursuing them too far, the Austrians and Russians them by grant of parliament was established 3 Edw. I.

The king's claim to rallied, and gained a complete victory. The Prussians

1274. The customs were farmed to sir Thomas Smith lost 200 pieces of cannon and 30,000 men in killed and for annual sums varying from 14,0001. to 50,000). in the wounded.

reign of Elizabeth.–Stow. They were farmed by Charles Cupola Ships, see Navy of England, 1861.

II. for 390,0001. in 1666.-- Davenant. In 1671 commisCupping, a mode of blood-letting. The skin is sioners were appointed. The customs were consolidated scarified by lancets, and a glass cup in which the air has by Mr. Pitt in 1787. Between 1820 and 1830 so many been rarified by heat is immediately applied to it, when reductions and consolidations were made in the customs the blood usually flows into the cup. This operation was department, that above a quarter of a million was saved well known to the ancients, and is described by Hip- in salaries, though the work had enormously increased. pocrates (413 B.C.) and Celsus (20 B.C.). It was com- -Acts consolidating the customs duties were passed in mon in England about 1820.

1853, 1854, and 1860, whereby the number of articles in Curaçoa, an island in the Caribbean sea, settled by the tariff and the amount of the customs were greatly the Spaniards about 1527, was seized by the Dutch in reduced. Many changes have been made since; see 1634. In 1800 the French, settled on part of this island, Revenue. The disqualification of custom-house officers quarrelled with the Dutch, who surrendered it to a Brit- and officers of excise from voting for the election of memish frigate. It was restored to the Dutch in 1802, taken bers of parliament in 1782 was removed in 1867–8. from them by the British in 1807, and again restored in the laws respecting the customs were amended by an act 1814.

passed 21 Aug. 1871, and consolidated by acts passed,

24 July, 1876 Curates were of early appointment as coadjutors in Customs in

Customs in year ending the Catholic church, and are mentioned in England in the 1580.

£14,000

31 March, seventh century. Among the acts passed for the relief 1592..

.50,000 1860.

£24,391,084 of this laborious class of the clergy are the 12th Anne, 1622

1614.
.148,000 1864.

23, 234,356 168,000 1867.

.22, 299,306 1713, and 36th, 53d, and 58th Geo. III., and especially the 1642.

.500,000 1869.

. 22, 424,000 beneficent act, 2 Will. IV., Oct. 1831. It appeared by

530,000 1870.

21, 499,843 parliamentary reports on ecclesiastical revenues that

.1,555,600 | 1872.

20,225,892 .2,000,000 1873..

20,976, 236 there were, in 1831, 5230 curates in England and Wales, 1808..

.9,973,240 1874.

20,323,325 whose stipends amounted to 424,695). The greatest 1823.

. 11,498,762 1875.

.19,349.280 1830.

17,540,323 1876.. number of curates in one diocese was Lincoln, 629; and

20,196,691 1835., .18,612,906 1877.

19,896,386 the smallest that of St. Asaph, 43. The Pastoral Aid 1840

.19,915, 296 1878.

..20.013, 180 Society was established in 1836; the Society for Pro- 1845.

. 20,196,856

20,318,064 moting the Employment of Additional Curates, in 1837;

. 20,442,170 1880..

.19, 169,605 the Curates' Augmentation Fund, 1866.

...21,630,081

The customs in Ireland, a sack of wool, 3d. ; a last of Curfew Bell (from the French couvre feu) was re- hides, 6d.; a barrel of wine, 2d... vived or introduced in England by Will. I. 1068. On The customs business of Ireland was transferred to the

London board... the ringing of the curfew at eight o'clock in the even

Custom-house. A custom house was erected in London ing all fires and candles were to be extinguished, under on a large scale, 1304; and a yet larger in 1559; burned a severe penalty.--Rapin. The curfew was abolished 1 down in 1666; a new one, built by Charles II., burned Hen. I. 1100. A so-called curfew bell was rung at West

down in 1718, again rebuilt; and once more burned down,

and immense property and valuable records destroyed, Ham so lately as Nov. 1859.

12 Feb. 1814 Curiatii, see Rome, 669 B.C.

The present edifice opened....

.12 May, 1817

Dublin custom-house commenced in 1781; opened in Curling, a Scotch national game with stones on the 1791. The eastern wing of its warehouse was destroy. ice, said to have been introduced from the Low Countries ed by fire, with property to the amount of 400,0001. in the sixteenth century. The Duddingstone curling

9 Aug. 1833 club was instituted 1795. The royal Caledonian curl- Customs Parliament, see Zollverein. ing club, founded in 1838, owns a large artiticial pond at

Custos Rotulorum, keeper of the rolls or records Strathallan, Perthshire.

of the sessions of the peace, previously nominated by the Curragh, see Kildare.

lord chancellor, was in 1545 directed to be appointed by Currants, from Corinth, whence, probably, the tree a bill signed by the king. The act was contirmed in was first brought to us about 1533." The name is also 1689. given to a small kind of dried grape, brought from the Custozza, near Verona (N. Italy). Here the Italians Levant and Zante. The duty on these currants (44s. 41. were defeated by marshal Radetzky, 23 July, 1818; and per cwt, in 1834) has been reduced to 78. The hawthorn' here they were again defeated, 24 June, 1866, after a currant (Ribes oxyacanthoides) came from Canada in series of desperate attacks on the Austrian army. The 1705.

Italians were commanded by their king, Victor EmmanCurrency Acts. Those of sir Robert Peel were uel, and the Austrians by the archduke Albrecht. The passed in 1819 and in 1844.

Italian loss was computed to be 720 killed, 3112 wound

1684.
1720.
1748..

1879.

1850..
1855

1224

6 Jan. 1830

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ed, and 4315 missing; the Austrian loss, 960 killed, 3690 | lished in 1877 for promotion of literature and the arts in
wounded, and nearly a thousand prisoners. The Italians Wales.
soon recrossed the Mincio.

Cymri or Kymri (hence Cambria), the great Celtic
Cutch (Kachh), W. India, a principality under the family to which the Britons belonged, and which came
government of Bombay. In consequence of the depre- from Asia and occupied a large part of Europe about
dations of the natives, the East India government re- 1500 B.C. About A.D. 640 Dyvnwal Moelmud reigned
sorted to hostile measures, which resulted in a stringent 'King of the Cymry;" see Wales.
treaty with the rao in Jan. 1816. In 1819 he was de- Cynics, a sect of philosophers founded by Antisthenes
posed for misgovernment, and replaced by his infant son, (about 396 B.C., Diog. Laert., Clinton), who professed to
supported by a British contingent. The traffic in chil contemn all worldly things, even sciences, except moral-
dren, detected in Dec. 1835, was suppressed by the Brit- ity; and lived in public with little shame. Diogenes,
ish. Many persons perished by an earthquake in July, the eminent cynic, died 323 B.C.
1819.-Thornton.

Cynoscephalæ (dogs' heads, so named from the Cutlery, see Steel.

shape of the heights), in Thessaly, where Pelopidas and Cuttack (Katak), E. India, a British province ceded the Thebans defeated Alexander, tyrant of Phera and to the E. I. company in 1803. Cuttack, the capital, was the Thessalians, 364 B.C. Pelopidas was slain. Here taken by col. Harcourt, 14 Oct. same year. The Mah- also the consul Flaminius totally defeated Philip V. of rattas conquered it in 1750,Thornton.

Macedon, 197 B.C., and ended the war. Cutting-out Machines. Wearing apparel was Cypress, Cupressus sempervirens, a tree found in the first cut out by machinery in England by Messrs. Hyams isle of Cyprus. The Athenians buried heroes in coffins in 1853. The machine, invented by Mr. Frederick Os- made of this wood, of which Egyptian mummy-chests bourn, consists of a reciprocating vertical knife working were also fabricated. The ancients planted it in cemethrough a slot in the table that supports the pile of teries. The cypress was brought to England about 1441. cloth to be cut. The cloth being pressed up to the edge The deciduous cypress, C. disticha, came from North of the knife by the attendant, the knife will sever it in America before 1640. the direction of the lines marked on the upper layer. Cyprus, a large island in the Mediterranean, near

Cuzco, capital of Peru, was entered by Pizarro in the coasts of Asia Minor and Syria; present capital Nov. 1533, and taken by him in Aug. 1536, after five Levkosia or Nikosia; seaports, Larnaka and Famagosta. months' siege.

Here the ancients found copper (@s Cyprium), silver, and Cyanogen, a colorless gas (composed of nitrogen with trees in ancient times; and under Venice its com

precious stoves. The country was fertile, and abounded and carbon), irritating to the nose and eyes, derived from Prussian blue, was first obtained in the free state is now about 135,000: under Venice, said to have been

merce was important. The population, two thirds Greek, by Gay Lussac in 1815, being the first instance of the isolation of a compound radical.

a million, probably exaggerated.

The Phænician colonists introduced the worship of AshCycle of the sun, the twenty-eight years before the taroth (the Greek Astarte or Aphrodite, the Roman days of the week return to the same days of the month; conquered by Amasis

, king of Egypt; revolted at the inthat of the moon is nineteen lunar years and seven in

vasion of Cambyses, and submitted to Persia. ....B.C. tercalary months, or nineteen solar years. The cycle Revolted, and subjected. ..

300-499 of Jupiter is sixty years. The Paschal cycle, or the Partly independent under Evagoras and Nicocles, kings time of keeping Easter, was first calculated for the period Supported Alexander the Great..

of Salamis.

.387 et seq. of 532 years by Victorius, 463. Blair. See Metonic Taken from Demetrius by Ptolemy of Egypt.. Cycle, Calippic Period.

Became a Roman province..

Visited by Paul and Barnabas (Acts xiii.). Cyclones, circular whirlwinds, or hurricanes, com- Great revolt of the Jews.. mon in the East and West Indian and Chinese seas, Seized by the Arabs, 646; recovered by Greeks.

1184 vary from 200 to 500 miles in diameter. Many details Isaac Comnenus, king. respecting them will be found in Reid's “ Law of Storms," seized by Richard 1. of England, 1191; given by him to

Guy de Lusignan, as king.

1192 published 1838.

"Order of the Sword" established (ceased with 8th king), 1195 By a great cyclone immense damage was done on sea

Guy's descendant, Catherine de Cornaro, sold it to Venice, 1487 and land; about 100 ships are said to have been lost,

Cyprus conquered by the Turks with great barbarity...1570–1
Insurrections suppressed, 1764; with massacre..

1823
and about 60,000 persons perished, and whole towns
nearly destroyed; see Calculta. .

Gen. di Cesnola, a Genoese, the American consul, by ex

...5 Oct. 1864 Captain Watson, of the Clarence, observing the barometer

cavations discovers many Babylonian, Egyptian, Phæ

nician, and Greek gold and silver ornaments, and other falling, and foretelling the approach of the cyclone, saved his ship by steering out of its range.

relics (sold to the Metropolitan Museum, New York),

1866 et see Great cyclone in the Bahamas, at Nassau, New Provi

His work, “Cyprus: its Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temdence; above 600 houses and many churches and other buildings thrown down; between 60 and 70 persous

ples,” published in London and New York. ......Dec. 1877

The island given up to Great Britain for administration killed, and a great many ships dismantled....1, 2 Oct. 1866

by the Anglo Turkish convention.. Another cyclone at Calcutta, not so destructive...1 Nov. 1807

4 June, 1878

Possession taken by admiral lord John Hay, 12 July; by A cyclone desolated Antigua, St. Kitts, and other isles ;

sir Garnet J. Wolseley, as lord high commissioner, religious and manufacturing buildings destroyed, and

22 July, thousands made homeless..

.21 Aug. 1871

Much sickness, with deaths, reported........ Aug. -Sept. Destructive cyclone near Madras; ships lost......1 May, 1872

Orders for the government by a lord high commissioner, Destructive cyclone, S. E. Bengal; Calcutta barely es

given at court..

.14 Sept. caped ; about 215,000 persons perished...

......31 Oct. 1876

Sir G. J. Wolseley's decree for compulsory labor on pub-
(See Virgin Isles.)
lic works, dated..

16 Dec Cyclopædia, see Encyclopædia.

He is sent to S. Africa; succeeded by sir Robert Bid-
dulph..

June, 1879 Cyclopean Masonry, a term given to very an- The British buy the government lands, except the Sulcient buildings in Greece, Italy, and Asia Minor, prob- tan's estates, early in..

Increased general prosperity reported (in Blue Book), ably the work of the Pelasgi, more than 1000 B.C.

Aug. 1890 Cyder, see Cider.

Locusts dreaded..

May, 1881 Cymbal, the oldest known musical instrument, made Cyr, St., near Versailles. Here a college for ladies of brass. Xenophon says the cymbal was invented by was founded by Madame de Maintenon, in 1686, and Cybele, and used in her feasts about 1580 B.C.

here she died, 15 April, 1719. It was made a military Cymmrodorion Society was established in Sept. college in 1803. 1751, to instruct the ignorant and relieve distressed Cyrenaic Sect, founded by Aristippus the Elder, Welsh. It was suspended in 1781, and revived 24 June, 365 B.C. They taught that the supreme good of man is 1820, for literary purposes. The society was re-estab- pleasure, particularly that of the senses; and that crea

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