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Declaration of Rights, see Rights.

soundings, especially in the Gulf Stream, have been made

in connection with the United States coast survey. Decorated Style, see Gothic.

These soundings are made with apparatus especially deDecoration Day. The custom of strewing flow-vised for the purpose ; and, under the supervision of ers on the graves of the dead originated among the prof. Agassiz and the count de Pourtalès, they have been women of the South, who, during the civil war, annually made to contribute largely to scientific knowledge condecorated the graves of soldiers in that way. The beau- cerning ocean deposits and the deep-sea faunæ. The tiful custom was adopted throughout the country, and

voyage of the coast-survey vessel Hassler, in 1871, with in 1868 and 1869 gen. John A. Logan, as commander-in- Agassiz and other scientific men on board, was very chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, appointed 30 rich in scientific results. May for that purpose. Since that time 30 May in each year has been observed as Decoration Day throughout 1045. Professor Owen thinks that fallow-deer are not

Deer are mentioned in a will of one Athelstan, dated the United States.

native, but were introduced here at an early period. Decorative Art. Its principles, enunciated by There are now in England 334 deer-parks, the oldest A. W. Pugin in his “ Designs,” in 1835, have been ad- being probably lord Abergavenny's at Eridge, Sussex. vanced by Owen Jones, Redgrave, and others. Owen See Evelyn Shirley's “ Account of Deer-parks,” July, Jones's elaborate “Grammar of Ornament” was pub-1867. 1658 deer in the royal parks, 1873. lished in 1856. A decorative art society, founded in

“Deerhound," an English yacht, while conveying 1814, existed for a short time only.

arms to the Carlists, seized by the Spanish government De Courcy's Privilege, that of standing covered vessel Buenaventura, off Biarritz, and captain and crew before the king, granted by king John to John de Cour-imprisoned, 13 Aug. ; released about 18 Sept. 1873. Rescy, baron of Kingsale, and his successors, in 1203. He cued capt. Semmes and part of his crew from the Alawas the first Irish nobleman created by an English sov-bama after her capture by the Kearsarge, 19 June, 1864. ereign, 27 Hen. II. 1181, and was intrusted with the

Defamation is punishable by fine and imprisongovernment of Ireland, 1185. The privilege was allowed ment by statute of 1843. The jurisiliction of the eccleto the baron of Kingsale by William III., George III., siastical courts on this subject was abolished by 18 and and by George IV. at his court held in Dublin in Aug. 19 Vict. c. 41 (1855). 1821. The present baron is the 30th in succession.

Defence Act, a complete conscription act, authorDecretals. They formed the second part of the izing a levy en masse, 1803, was unsuccessful; new meascanon law, or collection of the pope's edicts and decrees ures were taken in 1807-8. The Defence of the Realm and the decrees of councils. The first acknowledged to Act passed 28 Aug. 1860, in consequence of the unsettled be genuine is a letter of Siricius to Himerus, a bishop state of Europe, and the doubtful policy of the emperor of Spain, written in the first year of his pontificate, 385. Napoleon; see Fortification and Colonies. -Howel. Certain false decretals were used by Gregory IV. in 837. The decretals of Gratian, a Benedictine (a 4 Sept. 1870, when the emperor was deposed and a re

“Defence Government" in France, formed on collection of canons), were compiled in 1150.-Hénault. Five books were collected by Gregory IX. 1227; a sixth public proclaimed, gen. Trochu president; it included by Boniface VIII. 1297; the Clementines by Clement Gambetta, Simon, etc. It resigned after Paris had caV. in 1313; employed by John XXII. in 1317; the Ex- pitulated, 5, 6 Feb. 1871; see France.

Defender of the Faith (Fidei Defensor), a title travagantes range from 1422 to 1483. Dedication of the Jewish tabernacle took place VIII. of England, 11 Oct. 1521, for the tract against Lu

of the British sovereign, conferred by Leo X. on Henry 1490 B.C.; of the temple, 1004 B.C.; of the second tem-ther on behalf of the Church of Rome (then accounted ple, 515 B.C. The Christians under Constantine built

Domicilium fidei Catholicæ). new churches and dedicated them with great solemnity, in a.v. 331 et seq. The dedication of BOOKS (by authors

Defenders, a faction in Ireland which arose out of to solicit patronage or testify respect) existed in the a quarrel between two residents of Market-hill, 4 July, time of Mæcenas, 17 B.C., the friend and counsellor of

784. Each was soon aided by a large body of friends, Augustus, and a patron of Horace (Ode i. 1).

and many battles ensued. On Whit-Monday, 1785, an

armed assemblage of one of the parties (700 men), called Deed, a written contract or agreement. The for- the Nappagh Fleet, prepared to encounter the Baun mula, “ I deliver this as my act and deed,” occurs in a Fleet, but the engagement was prevented They subcharter of 933.Fosbrooke, Deeds in England were formerly written in Latin or French; the earliest known sequently became religious parties—Catholic and Presinstance in English is the indenture between the abbot Boys: the latter were so named because they usually

byterian — distinguished as Defenders and Peep-o'-day of Whitby and Robert Bustard, dated at York in 1343 ; visited the dwellings of the Defenders at daybreak in see English.

search of arms; see Diamond, Deep-sea Soundings. Much new and interest

Degrees. Eratosthenes attempted to determine esting information respecting the animal life and tem- the length of a geographical degree about 250 B.C.; see perature of the deep sea has been acquired by the dredg- Geodesy, Latitude, and Longitude. Collegiate degrees are ings on the coast of Norway by M. Sars, and by those coeval with universities. Masters and doctors existed, of Dr. W. B. Carpenter and professor (afterwards sir) 826. Those in law are traced up to 1149; in medicine, Wyville Thomson on our own coasts, near the Faroe to 1384; in music, to 1463. Middle-class examinations isles, in 1868 and 1869, and in the Mediterranean by Dr. for degrees were instituted at Oxford, 18 June, 1857; at Carpenter in 1870. Living animals have been found at Cambridge, 24 Nov. 1857; and girls were allowed to a depth of three miles. On 21 Dec. 1872: Dr. Wyville compete for degrees, Oct. 1863. Bill to enable Scotch Thomson and a party of scientific men sailed in H.M.S. universities to grant degrees to women rejected by the Challenger (capt. G. S. Nares) to examine into the phys- commons, 3 March, 1876; see Women. ical and biological condition of the great ocean basins

Dei Gratia, see Grace of God. and the direction of their currents. Deepest sounding then known was taken in the Atlantic, north of St.

Deira, a part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of NorthThomas's, 3875 fathoms (4 miles, 710 yards), 24 March, umbria; see Britain, p. 113. 1873. On 10 Dec. 1874, capt. Thompson succeeded capt. Deism, THEISM, or MONOTHEISM (Latin, deus; Nares, who took command of the new Arctic expedition. Greek, Deós, God), the belief in one God, in opposition The Challenger returned, with valuable collections, 25 to polytheism and to the doctrine of the Trinity. About May, 1876, after a voyage of above 80,000 miles. The the middle of the sixteenth century some gentlemen of “ Voyage" was published by sir C. Wyville Thomson in France and Italy termed themselves deists, to disguise Dec. 1877. A Norwegian expedition explored the north- their opposition to Christianity by a more honorable apern seas 16 July-18 Aug. 1877. Extensive deep-seal pellation than that of Atheism (which see). The most distinguished deists were Herbert, baron of Cherbury, in | 29 May, 1806. The members were lord Grenville, lord 1624; Hobbes, Tindal, Morgan, lord Bolingbroke, Gib- Erksine, earl Spencer, and lord Ellenborough. The inbon, Hume, Holcroft, Paine, and Godwin.

quiry, of which the countess of Jersey, sir J. and latly A high caste Brahmin, Rammohun Roy, founded a Brah- Douglas, and other persons of rank were the prompters, min monotheistic church..

..about 1830 led to the publication called " The Book;" afterwards The “Progressive Brahmins," termed the Brahmo Somaj, or theistic church of India, opened a place of wor

suppressed. The charges against the princess were disship at Calcutta..

...24 Aug. 1869 proved in 1807 and in 1813; but, not being permitted to Their leader, Baboo Keshub Chunder Sen, was received appear at court, she went on the continent in 1814; see at a public meeting in London as a reformer, 12 April,

Queen Caroline. and subsequently preached in a Unitarian chapel, Finsbury, London

1870 Delium, Bæotia, N. Greece, the site of a celebrated Schism in his church; new church formed.

1880 temple of Apollo. Here, in a conflict between the Athe(See Unitarians and Voysey.)

nians and the Boeotians, in which the former were deDelagoa Bay (S.E. Africa), claimed by Great Brit- feated, Socrates the philosopher is said to have saved ain and Portugal. Having been referred to arbitration, it the life of his pupil Xenophon, 424 B.C. was awarded to Portugal by marshal MacMahon, Aug. 1875.

Della Crusca Academy of Florence merged into Delaware, one of the United States of North Amer- the Florentine in 1582.—The DELLA Crusca School, a ica, named after lord De la Warre, governor of Virginia, term applied to some English residents at Florence, who who entered the bay 1610. It was settled by Swedes, printed inferior sentimental poetry and prose in 1785. sent there by Gustavus in 1627; acquired by the Dutch, They came to England, where their works, popular for 1655; ceded to the English, 1664.

a short time, were severely satirized by Gifford in his Delegates, Court of. Appeals to the pope in ec- “ Baviad” and “Mæviad” (1792–5). clesiastical causes having been forbidden (see Appeals), Delos, a Greek isle in the Ægean sea. Here the such causes were for the future to be heard in this court, Greeks, during the Persian war, 477 B.C., established their established by Henry VIII., 1533.–Stow. This court common treasury, which was removed to Athens, 461. was abolished in 1832, and appeals now lie to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, according to 3 & oracles delivered by the Pythia, or priestess in the tem

Delphi (N. Greece), celebrated for its enigmatical 4 Will. IV. c. 41 (1833); and 6 & 7 Vict. c. 38 (1843); ple of Apollo, which was built, some say, by the council see Arches.

of the Amphictyons, 1263 B.C. The Pythian games were Delft (S. Holland), a town founded by Godfrey le first celebrated here 586 B.C. The temple was burned by Bossu about 1074; famous for “Delft earthenware;" first the Pisistratidæ, 548 B.C. A new temple was raised by manufactured here about 1310. The sale of delft greatly the Alemæonidæ. The Persians (480 r.c.) and the Gauls declined after the introduction of potteries into Germany (279 B.C.) were deterred from plundering the temple by and England. Grotius was born here, 10 April, 1583; awful portents. It was, however, robbed and seized by and here William, the great prince of Orange, was assas- the Phocians 357 B.C., which led to the Sacred War, and sinated by Gerard, 10 July, 1584.

Nero carried from it 300 costly statues, A.D. 67. The oraDelhi, the once great capital of the Mogul empire, cle was consulted by Julian, but silenced by Theodosius. and chief seat of the Mahometan power in India; it was Delphin Classics, a collection of thirty-nine Lattaken by 'Timour in 1398. It is now in decay, but con- in authors in sixty volumes, made for the use of the tained a million of inhabitants in 1700. In 1739, when dauphin (in usum Delphini), son of Louis XIV., and pubNadir Shah invaded Hindostan, he entered Delhi; lished in 1674-91. Ausonius was added in 1730. The 100,000 of the inhabitants perished by the sword, and duc de Montausier, the young prince's governor, proposed plunder to the amount of 62,000,0001. sterling is said to the plan to Huet, bishop of Avranches, the dauphin's have been collected. Similar calamities were endured preceptor; and he, with other learned persons, including in 1761, on the invasion of Abdalla, king of Candahar. Madame Dacier, * edited all the Latin classics except LuIn 1803, the Mahrattas, aided by the French, took Del

Each author is illustrated by notes and an index hi; but were defeated by gen. Lake, 11 Sept., and the of words. An edition of the Delphin classics, with adaged Shah Aulum, emperor of Hindostan, was restored ditional notes, etc., was published by Mr. Valpy of Lonto his throne with a pension; see India, 1803. On 10 don, 1818 et seq. May, 1857, a mutiny arose in the sepoy regiments at Meerut. It was soon checked; but the fugitives fled to the world 1536; and began 7 Dec. 1656, and continued

Deluge. The Deluge was threatened in the year of Delhi on 11 May, and, combined with other troops here, 377 days (Gen. vi., vii., and viii.). The ark rested on seized the city, proclaimed a descendant of the Mogul Mount Ararat 6 May, 1657; and Noah left the ark 18 king, and committed frightful atrocities. The rebels Dec. following. The year corresponds with that of 2348 were anxious to possess the chief magazine; but, after a gallant defence, it was exploded by order of lieut. Wil- B.C. --Blair. The

following are the epochs of the Delloughby, who died of his wounds shortly after. The uge, according to Dr. Hales :

Septuagint ..B.C. 3246 Clinton.. other heroes of this exploit were lieutenants Forrest and Jackson

3170 | Playfair Rayner, and the gunners Buckley and Scully. Delhi Hales.

Usher and Eng. Bible... 2348

3146 Marsham..

Josephus was shortly after besieged by the British, but was not

3103 Petavius. taken till 20 Sept. following. The final struggle began Hindoo.

3102 | Strauchius.. on the 14th, brigadier (since sir) R. Archdale Wilson Samaritan.

2998 Hebrew

2288 being the commander. Much heroism was shown; the Howard ..

2698 | Vulgar Jewish..

2101 gallant death of Salkeld at the explosion of the Cashmere In the reign of Ogyges, king of Attica, 1764 B.c., a deluge so

inundated Attica that it lay waste for nearly 200 years. gate created much enthusiasm. The old king and his

Buffon thinks that the Hebrew and Grecian deluges sons were captured soon after: the latter were shot, and

were the same, and arose from the Atlantic and Bosphorus the former, after a trial, was sent for life to Rangoon, The deluge or Deucalion, in Thessaly, is placed 1503 B,c. acwhere he died 11 Nov. 1862; see India, 1857. A camp

cording to Eusebius. It was often confounded by the an. formed at Delhi by the earl of Mayo, the viceroy, Dec.

cients with the general flood; but considered to be mere1871, was visited by the king of Siam, Jan. 1872. The ly a local inundation, occasioned by the overflowing of the prince of Wales visited Delhi, 11 Jan. 1876. Queen Vic- river Peneius, whose course was stopped by an earthquake toria was proclaimed empress of India here with much

between the mounts Olympus and Ossa. Deucalion, who

then reigned in Thessaly, with his wife Pyrrha, and some magnificence, many Indian princes being present, 1 Jan. of their subjects, are stated to have saved themselves by 1877.

climbing up Mount Parnassus. “Delicate Investigation” into the conduct of

A general deluge was predicted to occur in 1524, and arks

were built; but the season happened to be a fine and dry one. the princess of Wales (afterwards queen of England, as consort of George IV.) was commenced by a committee at the age of 23; and also Anacreon, Sappho, Plautus, Terence,

* This beautiful and gifted woman translated Callimachus of the privy council, under a warrant of inquiry, dated and Homer. She died in 1720.

can.

.B.C. 2482

2352

3155

Persian.

2314 2329 2293

Blair.

.B.C.

......A.D.

1440

1665

....... 1728

Demerara AND ESSEQUIBO, colonies in British Gui-country. For their numerous invasions of Britain, etc., ana, South America, founded by the Dutch, 1580, were see Danes. Population of the kingdom of Denmark in taken by the British, under major-gen. Whyte, 22 April, 1860, 1,600,551 ; of the duchies of Schleswig, Holstein, 1796, but were restored at the peace of Amiens, March, and Lauenburg, 1,004,473; of the colonies, 120,283. By 1802. They again surrendered to the British under the treaty of peace, signed 30 Oct. 1864, the duchies were gen. Grinfield and commodore Hood, Sept. 1803, and be taken from Denmark; Schleswig and Holstein were to came English colonies in 1814. John Scott was appoint- be made independent, and Lauenburg was to be incor. ed governor, 31 Dec. 1868; James R. Longden, 1874; porated, by its desire, with Prussia. For the result, see Cornelius Hendrickson Kortright, 1877.

Gustein and Prussia, 1866. Population of the monDemocratic Federals, a political party, pro- archy, 1870, 1,784,741; 1876, 1,903,000; 1880, 1,969,454 ; posed by Mr. Joseph Cowan, M.P. for Newcastle, opposed of the colonies, 1860, 127,401; 1876, 129,000; 1880, 150,

350, to the policy of the government of Mr. Gladstone, 5 April, 1881.

Reign of Skiold, alleged first king..

The Danish chronicles mention 18 kings to the time of Democrats, advocates for government by the peo

Ragnor Lodbrog, killed in an attempt to invade Engple themselves (onuos, people, and kpatzīv, to govern), land.

794 a term adopted by the French republicans in 1790 (who Canute the Great conquers Norway..

1016-28 termed their opponents aristocrats, from äpıoroc, bravest By the union of Calmar, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden made one kingdom ander Margaret.

12 July, 1397 or best). The name Democrat was adopted by one of Copenhagen made the capital... the two great political parties in the United States before Accession of Christian I. (of Oldenburg), from whom the the present and recent questions entered into politics. Christian 11. deposed; independence of Sweden under

1448 The Democrats in early days advocated free trade and Gustavus Vasa acknowledged.

1523 opposed national appropriations for internal improve- Lutheranism introduced in 1527; established by Chris

Their opponents were
tian III...

1530 ments, a national bank, etc.

1612 called Whigs until 1853-55, when the Native American, Christian IV. chosen head of the Protestant league

Danish East India Company established.. or Know-nothing, party arose. In 1856 the various par- against the emperor...

1629 ties in opposition to the Democrats were merged into the Charles Gustavus of Sweden invades Denmark, besieges

1658 Republican party. The Republicans opposed and the The Crown made hereditary and absolute. Democrats favored the extension of slavery. With the Frederick IV. takes Holstein, Schleswig, Tonningen, and election of Mr. Lincoln as president, 4 Nov. 1860, the Re- Stralsund; reduces Weismar, and drives the Swedes publicans came into control of the national government; Copenhagen nearly destroyed by fire.

.....1716 et seq. which they have held ever since. The elections of 1874 The peaceful reign of Christian VI..

..1730-46 and 1875 gave the Democrats a majority in congress, but Plot of the queen-dowager against the ministers and in 1881 they became again a minority party in both

Matilda (sister of our George III. and queen of Chris

tian VII., a weak monarch). Matilda, entrapped into houses.

a confession of criminality to save the life of supDemonology, see Devil-worship.

posed lover, Struenzee, condemned to imprisonment for life in the castle of Zell...

18 Jan. 1772 Denain (N. France). Here marshal Villars defeated Count Struenzee and Brandt beheaded..

. 28 April the Imperialists, 24 July, 1712.

Queen Matilda dies, aged 24

1775

Christian VII. becomes deranged, and prince Frederick Denarius, the chief silver coin among the Romans,

is appointed regent..

1784 weighing the seventh part of a Roman ounce, and value One fourth of Copenbagen burned.

9 June, 1795 7fd. sterling, first coined about 269 B.C., when it ex- Admirals Nelson and Parker bombard Copenhagen changed for ten ases; see As. In 216 B.c. it exchanged

(which see). (Confederacy of the North (see Armed Neutrality) dissolved)...

.2 April, 1801 for sisteen ases, A pound weight of silver was coined Admiral Gambier and lord Cathcart bombard Copenhainto 100 denarii.Digby. A pound weight of gold was gen; the Danish fleet surrenders.

.7 Sept. 1807 coined into twenty denarii aurei in 206 B.C., and in Peace of Kiel; Pomerania and Rügen annexed to Den

mark for Norway...........

...14 Jan. 1814 Nero's time into forty-five denarii aurei.Lemprière.

Pomerania and Rügen ceded to Prussia for Lauenburg.. 1815 Denham Murders, see Trials, 1870.

Commercial treaty with England...

1824

1831 Denis, St., an ancient town of France, near Paris, Christian VII1. declares the right of the crown to Schles

Frederick VI. grants a new constitution. famous for its abbey and church; the former abolished wig, Holstein, etc. ....

.11 July, 1846 at the Revolution, the latter the place of sepulture of the Accession of Frederick VII. 20 Jan.; he proclaims a new French kings, from its foundation by Dagobert, about

constitution, uniting the duchies more closely with Denmark.

28 Jan. 1848 630; the remains of the saint Denis were placed there Insurrection in the duchies: a provisional government in 636. On 6, 7, 8 Aug. 1793, the republicans demol

.23 March, ished most of the royal tombs, and in Oct. following the The rebels seize fortress of Rendsburg........ 24 March

.9 April, bodies were taken from coffins and cast into a pit; the The Danes defeated by the Prussians (helping the duch lead was melted, and the gold and jewels taken to Paris. ies) near Dannawerke, Schleswig..

23 April,

...1 Aug By a decree of Bonaparte, dated 20 Feb. 1806, the church The North Sea blockaded by Denmark.

Hostilities suspended; the European powers recommend (which had been turned into a cattle-market) was or

peace....

26 Aug. dered to be cleansed out and redecorated as “the future Hostilities recommence..

..25 March, 1849 burial-place of the emperors of France.” On the return Victory of the Danes over the Holsteiners and Germans, of the Bourbons, more restorations were effected, and the Several conflicts with varying success..

10 April,

... June, duc de Berri and Louis XVIII. were buried here. The The king sanctions a new liberal constitution....5 June, damage sustained in the war of 1870-1 has been well Armistice renewed at Malmo....

..10 July, repaired.

Separate peace with Prussia...

. 2 July, 1850

Integrity of Denmark guaranteed by England, France, Denison's Act (18 & 19 Vict. c. 34) provides " for Prussia, and Sweden..

4 July, the education of the children of persons in receipt of Battle of Idstedt, and defeat of the Schleswig-Holsteiners

by the Danes.

. 25 July, out-door relief:" passed 26 June, 1855.

Procotol signed in London by the ministers of all the Denman's Act, LORD), 6 & 7 Vict. c. 85 (1843), re- great powers..

23 Aug lates to juries and witnesses.

Bombardnient of Friedrichstadt by the Holsteiners, and

the town almost destroyed, but not taken, Denmark (N. Europe). The most ancient inhab

29 Sept. to 6 Oct. itants were Cimbri and Teutones, who were driven out Proclamation of the stadtholders of Schleswig-Holstein, by the Jutes or Goths. The Teutones settled in Germany

placing the rights of the country under the protection of the Germanic confederation..

.10 Jan. 1851 and Gaul; the Cimbrians invaded Italy, where they were The integrity of the Danish monarchy and the independefeated by Marius. The peninsula of Jutland obtained dence of Schleswig and its old union with Holstein its name from the Jutes; and the name of Denmark is guaranteed by treaty........

........ 18 Feb. 1852 Austrians evacuate Holstein, etc..

.2 March, supposed to be derived from Dun, the founder of the Treaty of European powers.' (The sucression in the line Danish monatchy, and mark, a German word signifying of Sonderburg-Glücksburg settled, and the integrity of

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the Danish kingdom guaranteed. Christian, duke of The Danes defeated by Wrangel at Oever-see; Schleswig 1864 Augustenburg - Holstein, renounced his rigbts for a taken; prince Frederick proclaimed...

.6 Feb. compensation in money.]...

.8 May, 1852 The all.es occupy Flensburg, 7 Feb.; commence their atThe king promulgates a new constitution, 29 July, 1854; tack on Düppel. ...

..13 Feb. adopted

.1 Oct. 1855 The federal commissioners protest against the Prussian The sound dues abolished for a compensation (sce Sound), occupation of Altona

13 Feb. 14 March, 1857 The Prussians enter Jutland; take Kolding, 18 Feb.; Dissension between the government and the duchies,

Danes fortify Alsen..

18 Feb. et seq. Oct. 1857-62 A conference on Danish affairs proposed by England; Fortification of Copenhagen decreed... ...27 March, 1858 agreed to by allies...

23 Feb. New ministry appointed 3 Dec. 1859; resigns 9 Feb.; A subscription for the wounded Danes begun in London, bishop Monrad forms a ministry.. 24 Feb. 1860

24 Feb. The assembly of Schleswig complain that the promise of De Gertach, general of the Danes..

.1 March, equality of national rights in 1852 has not been kept, Defeated at Sonderbygaard and Veill.. .8 March, 11 Feb.; protest against the annexation to Denmark, The rigsraad vote a firm address to the king, 26 Feb.; ad. 1 March, journed...

.22 March, The Prussian chamber of deputies receive a petition The Prussians bombard and take the village of Düppel.

from Schleswig, and declare that they will aid the or Dybbõl, 16, 17 March, and bombard Fredericia, 20 duchies, 4 May; at which the Danish government pro

March; repulsed in an attack on the fortress. 28 March, tests...

..16 May, The opening of the conference adjourned from 12 Correspondence ensues between the Prussian, Danish,

to 20 April, and British governments; the Danish government de- The Prussians take the fortress of Düppel by assault, clares for war, if German forces enter the duchies, Jan. 1861 with much slaughter.....

...18 April, Warlike preparations in Denmark.

.Feb. Meetings of the conference at London; result unfavoraDecimal coinage adopted. ..

..June,
ble to Denmark...

25 April et seq. Agitation in favor of union of Denmark with Sweden, The Danes retreat to Alsen; evacuate Fredericia and June; the king of Sweden visits Denmark, and is

fortresses of Jutland,

29 April, warmly received...

.17 July, 1862 Agreement for an armistice for one month from 12 May, Earl Russell recom nends the government to give to Hol.

9 May, stein and Lauenburg all that the Germanic confedera. Jutland subjected to pillage for not paying a war contri. tion desire for them, and to give self-government to bution to Prussians...

.6 May et seq. Schleswig...

.... 24 Sept. The Danes defeat the allies in a naval batile off HeligoM. Hall, the Danish minister, declines to accede, stating land..

....9 May, that to do so would imperil the existence of the mon. The armistice prolonged a fortnight.

.........9 June, archy itself.. ...20 Nov. The conference ends..

.22 June, Princess Alexandra of Denmark married to the prince of Hostilities resumed, 26 June; the Prussians bombard Al. Wales at Windsor.

.10 March, 1863 sen; take the batteries and 2400 prisoners.... 29 June, The king grants, by patent, independent rights to Hol. The Monrad ministry resigns; count Moltke charged to stein, but annexes Schleswig.. .30 March, form an administration.

.8–10 July, Austria and Prussia protest against it..........17 April, Alsen taken; Jutland placed under Prussian administraFurther diplomatic correspondence...

tion; prince John of Denmark sent to negotiate at BerThe king accepts the crown of Greece for his relative,

lin..

.9 July, prince William George, and gives him sound political Formation of the Bluhme ministry..

11 July, advice.. .6 June, Armistice agreed to...

.18 July, Death of the crown prince Frederick Ferdinand, the Conference for peace at Vienna..

26 July, king's uncle..

.29 June, " Treaty of peace signed at Vienna; the king of Denmark The German diet demands ánnulment of the patent of resigns the duchies to the disposal of the allies, and

30 March (Holstein and Schleswig to be united with agrees to a rectification of his frontier, and to pay a the same right); and threatens an army of occupa- large sum of money to defray the expenses of the war, tion.... ..9 July,

30 Oct. The king replies that he will consider occupation to be an Proclamation of the king to the inhabitants of the duch. act of war.

27 Aug

ies, releasing them from their allegiance......16 Nov. Vain efforts for alliance with Sweden.

... Aug. Project of a new constitution presented to the chambers, Extra levy for the army decreed.

..1 Aug
21 Dec. ; rejected....

. 25 Feb. 1865 New constitution (uniting Schleswig with Denmark) pro- New ministry formed under count Frijsenborg, 6 Nov.; posed in the rigsraad..

29 Sept. a new constitution proposed, 7 Nov.; approved by Death of Frederick VII. and accession of Christian TŘ., the two chambers, 19 and 27 July; sanctioned by the

15 Nov.
king....

.....28 July, 1866 Prince Frederick of Augustenburg claims the duchies of Princess Dagmar married to prince Alexander of Russia, Schleswig and Holstein .. .16 Nov.

9 Nov. Great excitement in Holstein; many officials refuse to New rigsraad opened...

..12 Nov. take oath to Christian...

21 Nov. et seq.
The king visited England..

March, 1867 Saxony, Bavaria, Hesse, and other German powers re- The Danish West Indies, St. Thomas and St. John, pro. solve to support the prince of Augustenburg,

posed to be sold to the United States for 1,500,0001. ; 26 Nov. et seq. proclamation in the islands dated..

.25 Oct. New constitution affirmed by the rigsraad, 13 Nov.; Proposed sale of St. Thomas to the United States apsigned by king, 18 Nov. ; published... ...1.2 Dec.

proved by the assembly (not carried out)......30 Jan. 1868 The Austrian and Prussian ministers say that they will Marriage of the crown-prince Frederick to the princess quit Copenhagen if the constitution of 18 Nov. is not Louisa of Sweden.

. 28 July, 1869 annulled.

.Dec. New ministry formed by M. Holsteinborg. ...... 20 May, 1870 Great excitement in Norway; proposals to support Den Denmark remains neutral in the Franco-Prussian war; mark

Dec.

fruitless visit of the duc de Cadore to Copenhagen, Prince Frederick's letter to the emperor Napoleon, 2

4-11 Aug. Dec. , an ambiguous reply.

10 Dec. Birth of a son to the crown-prince...... ...27 Sept. Denmark protests against federal occupation .... 19 Dec. Destructive hurricane over the kingdom; loss of life and 900 representatives of different German states meet at property...

.12, 13 Nov. Frankfort, and resolve to support prince Frederick as Parliament opened..

..1 Oct. 1871 duke of Schleswig and Holstein, and the inseparable War budget reduced...

.18 Dec. union of those duchies...

21 Dec. Meeting of the International at Copenhagen forbidden; The federal execution takes place; a Saxon regiment en

chiefs arrested..

.5 May, 1872 ters Altona, 24 Dec.; and the federal commissioners Industrial exhibition opened.

.13 June, assume administrative powers.

...25 Dec. Statue of Frederick VII. at Copenhagen solemnly inThe Danes retire from Holstein to avoid collision with augurated...

.6 Oct. 1873 federal troops.

.24 Dec. et seq. A communistic party in the assembly (folkething) defeat Prince Frederick enters Kiel as duke of Schleswig and the ministry, 4 Dec.; the king refuses to dismiss it, Holstein.. ......30 Dec.

6 Dec. The Danes eracuate Rendsburg. ..31 Dec. New ministry under Fonnesbeck.

14 July, 1874 Ministerial crisis: Hall retires, and bishop Monrad forms The king visits Iceland (which see), July-Aug.; Edina cabinet..

.31 Dec.
burgh..

16 Aug. Dissension among Germans; the Austro-Prussian propo- Several ministerial changes.

1875 sition rejected by the diet..

.14 Jan. 1864 J. B. S. Estrup, president of the ministry.......11 June, Austria and Prussia demand abrogation of the constitu- The folkething, defeating the government on the question tion (of 18 Nov.) in two days, 16 Jan.; the Danes re

of fortifications, is dissolved..

29 March, quire six weeks' time. ...

18 Jan. New assembly meets, 15 May; votes no confidence in the The German troops under marshal Wrangel enter Hol- ministry, 12 June; is adjourned. .............24 June, 1876 stein

21 Jan, Continued contest between the king and senate and the The Prussians enter Schleswig, and take Eckenforde, lower house... 1 Feb. Crisis respecting the supplies...

..Dec. They bombard Missundo, 2 Feb.; which is burned, 3 Feb. The session closed without settling the budget... 4 April, 1877 The Danes abandon the Dannewerke to save their army, Provision made by the king for it in accordance with the 5 Feb.; great discontent in Copenhagen........6 Feb. constitution...

....12 April,

66

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..... Oct.

SOVEREIGNS.

Political crisis; an armistice agreed to.. ..8 Nov. 1877 | tained by marshal Bernadotte (afterwards Charles XIV., Negro outbreak at Santa Cruz (see Virgin Isles).. 1-5 Oct. 1878 king of Sweden) over marshal Ney, 6 Sept. 1813. Marriage of princess Thyra with the duke of Cumber

'The land....

.11 Dec.

loss of the French exceeded 13,000 men, several eagles, The lower house dismissed by the king as incapable and and cannon; of the allies, 6000. The defeat of Napoidle.....

.about 10 May, 1881 leon at Leipsic, on 18 Oct. following, closed this disasA.D.

trous campaign. 794. Sigurd Snogoje. 803. Hardicanute.

Denominations, THE THREE (Presbyterians, Con850. Eric I.

gregationalists or Independents, and Baptists), were or854. Eric II. 883. Gormo, the Old; reigned 53 years.

ganized in 1727 as an association, with the privilege of 941. Harold, surnamed Blue Tooth.

direct appeal to the reigning sovereign of Great Britain. 991. Suenon, or Sweyn, the Forked-beard. 1014. Canute II. the Great, king of Denmark and England.

Dentists, an act for regulating their education and 1035 Canute III., son (Hardicanute of England).

registration passed 22 July, 1878. 1042. Magnus, surnamed the Good, of Norway.

The Odontological Society (of Dentists) established...... 1856 1047. Suenon, or Sweyn II. (Denmark only). 1073. [Interregnum.]

The Dental Hospital of London, Leicester square, was established...

1858 1076. Harold, called the Simple.

(See Odontology.) 1080. Canute IV. 1086. Olaus IV. the Hungry.

Deodand (Latin, to be given to God). Formerly 1095. Eric I., styled the Good. 1103. [Interregnum.].

anything which had caused the death of a human being 1105. Nicholas I., killed at Sleswick.

became forfeit to the sovereign or lord of the manor, and 1135. Eric II., surnamed Harefoot.

was to be sold for the benefit of the poor. The forfeit1137. Eric III. the Lamb.

ure was abolished by 9 & 10 Vict. c. 62 (1846). 1147.

Suenon, or Sweyn III.; beheaded.
Canute V. until 1157 (civil war).

D'Éon, CHEVALIER, who had acted in a diplomatic 1157. Waldemar, styled the Great.

capacity in several countries, and been minister plenipo1182. Canute VI., surnamed the Pious. 1202. Waldemar II. the Victorious.

tentiary from France in London, was affirmed to be a 1241. Eric IV.

female, at a trial at the King's Bench in 1771, in an ac1250. Abel: assassinated his elder brother Eric; killed in an tion to recover wagers as to his sex. He subsequently

expedition against the Frisons. 1252. Christopher I.; poisoned.

wore female attire, but at his death he was proved to be 1269. Eric V.

a male. 1286. Eric VI. 1320. Christopher II.

Deontology, the knowledge of what is right, or the 1334. [Interregnum of seven years.]

science of duty (from the Greek TÒ Očov, that which is 1340. Waldemar III.

proper), an element of the Utilitarian philosophy pro1375. [Interregnum.]

pounded by Jeremy Bentham in bis “ Deontology," pub1376. Olaus V. 1387. Margaret, styled the “ Semiramis of the North," queen lished by Dr. Bowring in 1834.

of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. 1397. Margaret and Eric VII. (Eric XIII. of Sweden).

Departments, see France. 1412. Eric VII. reigns alone; obliged to resign both crowns. Deptford (near London). The hospital here was 1438. (Interregnum.)

incorporated by Henry VIII. about 1512, and called the 1440. Christopher III. king of Sweden. 1448. Christian I. count of Oldenburg; elected king of Den- Trinity-house of Deptford Strond; the brethren of Trin

mark, 1448; of Sweden, 1457; succeeded by his son, ity-house hold their corporate rights by this hospital. 1481. John; succeeded by his son,

The dockyard, founded about 1513, was closed 31 March, 1513. Christian II. called the Cruel, and the “Nero of the

North;" he caused all the Swedish nobility to be mas- 1869, having been purchased by Mr. T. P. Austin for 70,sacred; dethroned for his tyranny in 1523; died in a 0001. He sold part of it to the corporation of London dungeon in 1559.

for 94,6401., for a market for foreign cattle, which was [Sweden separated from Denmark.)

opened for use 28 Dec. 1871. On 4 April, 1581, queen

Elizabeth dined at Deptford on board the Golden Hind, 1523. Frederick I. duke of Holstein, son of Christian I.; a lib- the ship in which Drake had made his voyage round the

eral ruler. 1533. Christian III., son of Frederick; established the Luther- globe. The Deptford victualling-office was burned 16

an religion; esteemed the “Father of his People." Jan. 1748–9; the storehouse, 2 Sept. 1758; the Red House, 1559. Frederick II., son of Christian III.

26 Feb. 1761; and the king's mill, 1 Dec. 1755. Peter 1588. Christian IV., son. 1648. Frederick III. ; changed the constitution from an elec- the Great of Russia lived at Evelyn's house, Say's court,

tive to an HEREDITARY MONARCHY, vested in his own while learning ship-building, etc., in 1698.

family, 1665. 1670. Christian V., son of Frederick III. ; succeeded by his son.

Deputies, CHAMBER OF, the title borne by the 1699. Frederick IV. ; leagued with the czar Peter and the king French legislative assembly, from the restoration of the of Poland against Charles XII. of Sweden.

Bourbons in 1814 till Jan. 1852, when it was named 1730. Christian VI., his son.

Corps Législatif." 1746. Frederick V., his son; married the princess Louisa of England, daughter of George II.

Derby was made a royal burgh by Egbert (about 1766. Christian VII., his son (see p. 198). 1784. Prince Frederick doclared regent, in consequence of the 828). Alfred expelled the Danes from it and planted a mental derangement of his father.

colony in 880. His heroic daughter, Ethelfeda, again 1808. Frederick VI., previously regent, now king.

expelled the Danes in 918. William I. gave Derby to 1814. Norway annexed to Sweden, 14 Jan.

his illegitimate son, William Peveril. Lombe's silk

throwing machine was set up in 1718; and in 1756, Jed1839. Christian VIII. (son of Frederick, brother of Christian ediah Strutt invented the Derby ribbed stocking-frame.

VII.). 1848. Frederick VII., son of Christian VIII. ; 20 Jan. ; born 6 The young Pretender reached Derby 3 Dec. 1745, and

Oct. 1808; separated from his first wife, Sept. 1837; retreated thence soon after. The new town-hall was from his second wife, Sept. 1846; married morganati opened 29 May, 1866. The midland counties fine-art cally Louisa, countess of Danner, 7 Aug. 1850; died 15 exhibition was held here, and was opened by the duke

Nov. 1863.
1863. Christian IX., son of William, duke of Schleswig-Hol- of Devonshire, 5 May, 1870.

stein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg; 15 Nov. (succeeded by DERBY TRIALS. Brandreth, Turner, Ludlam senior, Ludlam
virtue of the protocol of London, 8 May, 1852, and of
the law of the Danish succession, 31 July, 1853). He

junior, Weightman, and others, Luddites, convicted at a

commission of high-treason, 15 Oct. 1817; and Brandreth, was born 8 April, 1818; married princess Louisa of

Turner, and the elder Ludlam executed, 7 Nov. following.
Hesse-Cassel, 26 May, 1842. [He is descended from
Christian III.,
and she from Frederick V.; both from Twenty-one prisoners indicted at Derby for the murder of ser-

Twenty-three were tried, and twelve pot tried.
George II. of England.

eral miners in the Red-soil mine; but were acquitted on the Heir : Frederick (his son), born 3 June, 1843; married prin. cess Louisa of Sweden, 28 July, 1869. Son: Christian,

ground that the mischief was not wilful, 23 March, 1834. born 26 Sept. 1870.

Derby Administrations: the first formed after Dennewitz (Prussia). Here a victory was ob- the resignation of lord John Russell, 21 Feb. 1852 (face

DENMARK AND NORWAY.

DENMARK.

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