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risk, is the only good evidence of price and payment; and in the opinion of the committee, ought in all ordinary cases to be required as evidence of disbursement.

Milledgeville, (Geo.) May 15.

The following letter from Col. Hawkins to the
executive of this State was received yesterday,
by express.

Creek Agency, 10th May, 1816. I have received two communications from Lieut. Col. Clinch, who commands at Fort Gaines, on Chattohochee, (about 65 miles below Fort Mitchell,) of the 3d and 7th. The first to inform me, "the Indians surprised and took two soldiers who had charge of thirty head of cattle near the fort, and drove off the cattle. They were pursued forty-five miles on the trail which leads to St. Marks. I have demanded the soldiers, their horses, cattle, and party of Indians of their chiefs." On the 7th, "the spy I sent after the party reported, they had crossed Flint river near Burgess's old place; they had not killed the two men; but understood they intended to do so, if they became too much fatigued to travel. That the Simenoles and all the towns near the confluence of Flint and Chattohochee were preparing for war; they had been drinking their war physic and dancing for several days. It was understood they were to divide themselves in two parties, one to go against Hartford, the other to attack fort Gaines." This report is confirmed by an Indian arrived last night direct from the hostiles: three white men, you well know, came this morning to inform me "they were of opinion the Simenoles and adherents are preparing to strike a blow some where: and that all the towns who wish to remain friendly are preparing to remove above the line."-That the Simenoles and lower Indians are determined on a war I have not the smallest doubt.

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A detachment of 300 men of the United States army under the immediate command of Capt. Cumming,) attached to the regiment of Col. King,) began a forced march this morning for Fort Hawkins. We understand this movement to be in consequence of an express received from Col. M'Donald, of the 7th infantry, from the Creek agency, stating that the Upper Creeks and Simenoles had formed a junction, and had already commenced hostilities. Their purpose was to attack Col. Clinch, on the Chattohochee, and to murder and depredate along the frontiers of Georgia.

Washington, May 31. NAVY OF THE UNITED STATES. Promotions in the United States' Navy, on the 27th April, 1816.


Samuel Angus,
Melancthon T. Woolsey, and
John Orde Creighton.


Nathaniel Harraden,
Samuel Woodhouse,
Charles C. B. Thompson,
Alexander 6. Wadsworth,
George W. Rodgers,
George C. Read,
Henry E. Ballard,
Thomas Gamble, and
William Carter, jun.


John Hill, jun.
James Armstrong,
John Smoot,
Robert B. Randolph,
William Berry,
Samuel L. Breese,
John Evans,
Richard Heath,
Benjamin Page,
John T. Ritchie,
John A. Wish,
John Gwinn,
William A. Weaver,
Thomas W. Wyman,
James L. Morris,
John A. Belsches,
James Mork,
Andrew Fitzhugh,
William M. Caldwell,
John K. Carter,
Joseph Cross,

Abraham S. Ten Eick,
Thomas Hamersley,
John White,
Wm. M. Robins,
Robert Field,
Hiram Paulding,
Enoch Lowe,
Jonathan D. Williamson,
Charles L. Springer, and
William A. Lee,

William Barnwell,
Wm. C. Whittelsey,
Peter Christic,
John Young, and
Charles M. Recse.


James R. Boyce.

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Extract of a Letter from Joshua Delaplane. The information you ask on the use of Plaister of Paris; the best method of improving exhausted lands; the best mode of making manure, of preserving stock throughout the winter, as well as the best ploughs, shall be carefully given ac

We see no remedy for these evils, and the security of the defenceless inhabitants of the west,cording to my experience. Your first inquiry rebut the utter extermination of these misled and lates to the best mode of using plaister: I would savage narauders. [Charleston Paper, recommend it in all cases to be scattered and har

ten years ago would not produce more than ten bushels of corn per acre. I ploughed it up and sowed it with rye and one bushel of plaister per acre; in February I sowed it with clover seed and one bushel of plaister; at harvest I cut 16 bushels of rye per acre; the spring following I sowed it again with one bushel of plaister, and mowed that season two tons of hay to the acre,


first year, or after your lands were once plaister-the ed, then only sow plaister with the grain. I would recommend harrowing in every kind of grain, and be sure to have your lands harrowed the first time, the way it was ploughed. This will level your ploughing, whereas if you harrow cross ways it turns up your furrows. It is not necessary to put grain in deep, as a proof, put in some grain six inches deep, it will come up after two or three weeks, examine and you will find the main root from which it took its growth gone, and new roots near the surface of the earth succeed-it only requires to be covered. Rye is the best crop to improve land and at the same time to raise clover, clover seed ought to be sowed on the rye in February. Rye is the most valuable to raise on exhausted land; its growth is rapid in the spring, secures the clover from the scorching sun, shades the earth, and acts, so as to nourish and replenish the land; it is the most certain crop, and as it makes more straw than any other grain, the farmer is enabled to make more and the best manure; by proper management this grain can be used in every shape, by having it properly ground and the best flour separated, it will make good bread, and the balance will make good feed for any kind of stock. It is the best grain for work horses, and is valuable to fatten hogs, but upon this suggestion I expect a host of prejudices against me, experience however, has taught me not to give way. For example, say you have a pen of hogs with water running through it, to which you give every day one barrel of corn; in this pen you will lose all the manure, as it will be carried off by every rain; you have another pen upon dry land, well littered with long Plough up the sod completely in April, harrow rye straw; after every rain the hogs will cut it it well the same way that it is ploughed, then up short and make their beds neat, if you have not furrow it quite shallow, barely to make a furstraw, leaves will be an excellent substitute; let row to plant your corn, be sure not to disturb the the number of hogs be equal in both pens; to bottom of your sod, when the corn gets up about those in the second pen feed only half a barrel of six inches, harrow it well and plough quite shalcorn and two bushels of chopt rye; have two low; your corn will not look so promising at first, hogsheads near your pen, into which put every until the roots penetrate the sod, it will then day the two bushels of chopt rye and have them grow rapidly and will not suffer from drought; as filled up with water and stirred, let it stand twen- the sod if left down will retain its moisture: all ty-four hours before used, give this to the hogs the work given corn should be before harvest and instead of water; by having two hogsheads, by in no case should corn be followed with winter the time one is used the other will be fit; keep grain; if you can give your corn ground a dressup the hogs in both pens the same time, and when ing of manure, I would sow it with oats, then killed you will find those in the dry pen will plough up the oats and sow wheat, plough down weigh ten per cent. heavier, and if I had my the stubble, then sow rye, then clover seed, let choice of the pork I should prefer it; besides the the clover remain two years, which would be makmanure will be valuable the ensuing year. You ing four crops in six years. If you have not macan safely winter your sheep upon your rye fields nure to dress your corn ground, fallow it the next without the least injury to it-and with the great-year for wheat, plough down the stubble, sow rye, est advantage to your sheep-I generally let my then clover seed; be sure never to plough your sheep run on my rye fields until the last of March. stubble but once, leaving all covered you possibly I have a field which contains twenty acres, which || can, harrow in all your grain as I have before ob

rowed in with the grain of all kinds; this is more absolutely necessary when the land is exhausted, as it aids and nourishes the sprout immediately on its coming up, when it stands most in need; some roll their grain in plaister; my plan has been, for one hand to sow the grain, while another follows to scatter the plaister, at the rate of one bushel to the acre; where there are two or three harrows it requires two hands, but with one har-and made 33 bushels of clover seed from the serow a single person is sufficient for both opera-cond crop; the spring following I sowed it again, tions, as he would first sow the grain and then the with plaister as before, and cut that year two and plaister. On winter grain I would repeat another an half tons of hay-I then ploughed up the sebushel per acre, the last of February or the first cond crop and sowed it with wheat, which proof March: this would not be necessary after theduced 21 bushels per acre. I then ploughed up wheat stubble and sowed with rye, which produced me 25 and an half bushels per acre; the spring following I gave it a dressing of manure, ploughed it up and planted it in corn, first rolling the seed in plaister, and when it got up about six inches high, I sowed it broadcast with plaister at the rate of one bushel per acre, off of which I gathered 323 barrels of corn, (equal to 30 bushels per acre) the next spring I sowed it with spring barley, (oats would equally prosper) which yielded 32 bushels per acre, which I sold in Georgetown at 1 dollar 50 cents per bushel; after cutting the barley I ploughed down the stubble and sowed it with wheat at the rate of one and an half bushels per acre; and one bushel of plaister. This crop yielded me 33 and an half bushels per acre; I then ploughed down my stubble and sowed down in rye, which I cut last summer and is now in the straw, and from which I think I shall get at least 30 bushels per acre; I sowed it last February with clover seed and intend mowing it the ensuing season. I have made this statement to prove that the only sure mode of improving land is by a regular routine of cropping. You will observe I did not sow this field every year with plaister, nor is it necessary; lands once well plaistered do not need it, as its virtue will not be lost in less than seven years; owing to the scarcity and high price of plaister, for the last two years I may say I have used none, and I do not believe I suffered for the want of it. Corn cropping ought to be avoided as much as possible upon exhausted lands, unless they become soddy, then they may be tended with advantage, both to the soil and cultivator.

served; when you plough down clover for wheat clover seed per acre, which ought to be done on be sure to do it as neatly as possible, the seed rye in February-one and a halt bushels of wheat, turned under will lie the first year without sprout-the last week in September or the first week in ing-this ought to be done between the middle of October-one bushel of rye the second or third August and September; after harvest plough down' week in September-two bushels of barley or oats your wheat stubble, sow rye, and the clover seed as soon as the spring will admit. I have been thus turned under the year before by being brought to full in giving my opinion; you can adopt as you the surf ce, will come up so thick as to need lit-may think adviseable; should any thing I have said prove of advantage, I shall feel myself well rewarded.


tle seed if any at all. I short when the ground
is well set with clover you'll scarcely ever be
compelled to sow more seed; my plan has been
to raise a crop of wheat and rye, then let it lie
one year in clover, then wheat and rye again, that
is to make two crops every two years on the same
land, except when I put corn and manure, then I
generally take four or five crops running before I
give it rest-and would in no case advise land to
he in clover more than one or two years. The
best mode of saving manure when it is scarce and
can only be applied to the corn hill, is to keep it
in a close heap, to become well rotted; but if
you can save enough to give the ground a top-
dressing, I would prefer hauling it out in the raw
state, and let it pass through putrefaction where
it is to act; in this way your land will receive the
whole benefit; if it is left in the barn yard everythe
rain will wash away the best of the substance.

I have for some years given my fields a topdressing in the poorest places, whenever the grounds were sufficiently frozen to go on them without injury.

From the Richmoud Daily Compiler.


Exports of Staples.

Mr. Gallatin, while he was at the head of the Treasury, classed the exports of domestic growth, produce, and manufacture, into four divisions

1st. The produce of the sea.
2d. The produce of the forest.
3d. The produce of agriculture.
4th. Manufactures; and those which are uncer-


With the latter we have as yet nothing to do, as we have confined our views, for the present, to staple articles of the country; the products of the soil, or the water.

Mr. Pitkin, in his "statistical view of the commerce of the United States of America, in con. nection with agriculture and manufactures," has adopted the same analytical divisions; which are useful, not only for the arrangement of our own ideas, but as they give us a birds-eye view of the various pursuits and callings of our fellow citizens.

1st. The Products of the Sea.

Manure may be called the farmers gold mine, and ought to be saved in every shape and manner. To increase the quantity, your stables should be kept well littered with straw; to have stables for your stock is equally important to preserve them during the winter and to accumulate manure; with such protection good hay will keep them in good order. A farmer should always proportion his stock to his means for substituting them, and ne


At the very first mention of the name, we are carried back to New-England. The sea is a sort of classic ground on which the fisherman of the north delights to rove. We feel at once that we are descanting on one of the staples of the northern States,

ver overstock himself-as one horse well fed will do more work than two badly fed; one cow well The principal products of the sea are drawn fed will give more milk than two badly fed, and from the fisheries of the cod and the whale-the one good sheep more wool than two bad ones-In river fisheries, as those of the herring, the shad, fine, nothing which a farmer keeps upon his farm, the salmon, mackarel, &c. though very useful from his horse to his dog, should suffer for food-here and there, (as, for instance, the shad from to make his farm profitable he should make a lit- the bosom of the James River,) are not large tle of every thing to sell; he should not fix his enough to enter into any general view of our commind upon one object of profit alone-Corn or haymercial exports. I would not attempt to make for sale upon exhausted lands; after they are restored you may add the sale of corn and hay to a small extent. A farmer should be certain to have his work done a proper manner, bis ploughing finished and grain sowed in due time and season. When a farmer gets his lands in proper cultivation he ought to make 1000 bushels of grain to the hand, taking into calculation every kind he raises; in harvest and hay making he will be compelled to hire hands to save the crop. During the last seven years I have worked five hands the year round, and my crops (including every kind of grain) have averaged five thousand bushels; this may be doubted; the reader may judge as he pleases, but I am bound to state the truth-our land holders who have most in their power trust too much to others, they should trust to their own judgment, and see that their plans are properly executed. The best ploughs for land clear of stone are made by Chenoweth of Baltimore, if the land is stoney and rough I would recommend Ogle's. On lands that have not been clovered I would sow one gallon of

The Cod fishery-from the very cradle, has been of great interest to the supply of Massachusetts and New-Hampshire. Situated more in the prox inimity of the shoals of cod, which swarm along the banks of Newfoundland, they have turned their attention to this source of subsistence and wealth

the ship builder has been encouraged in his art; thousands of hardy seamen have been reared in this nursery of his profession.

Mr. John Adams, whose heart, amidst all its foibles, has beat high for the interests and glory of his country, was so aware of the importance of the cod-fishery, that he refused to sign the treaty of '83 until the right was expressly reserved to the people of the United States "to take fish of every kind, on the Grand Bank, and on all the other banks of Newfoundland; also in the Gulph of St. Lawrence, and at all other places in the sea, where the inhabitants of both countries used at any time to fish ;" with the liberty, also, of fishing on such part of the coast of Newfoundland, as British fishermen used; and also on the coasts, bays, and creeks of all the other parts of the British domi

nions, but not to dry or cure the fish on the island of Newfoundland-nor on any of the bays or harbours elsewhere, except so long as they remained unsettled.

The cod-fishery did not thrive consideraly for several years until a representation was made to Congress by the legislature of Massachusetts in 1790, and a luminous report was penned by Mr. Jefferson, then secretary of state, A law was then passed for giving a bounty on the exportation of salted fish, as a drawback of the duty imposed on imported salt-which was followed up by a certain compensation to such vessels as were engaged for a certain number of months in the cod-fishery.

Massachusetts owns most of the vessels employed-though New-Hampshire, Rhode-Island, Connecticut, and New-York, participate in the busi


In the year 1807 was the greatest amount of tonnage ever employed; being 70,306 tons; of which 62,213 belonged to Massachusetts. The secretary of the treasury estimated the number of seamen, on an average of ten years, from 1791 to 1800, at 5,000, and the average tonnage at 33,000. From 1801 to 1807 the average of the tonnage was about 44,000; of seamen, about 7,000.

The value of the dried and the pickled fish exported since 1802, is estimated, according to the treasury reports, as follows:



Cod or dried fish.






The principal markets for our fish have been the West-Indies and the southern parts of Europe-there is much demand in the latter, principally on account of the lent days of the Roman Catholic Church; a season when the use of flesh is forbidden by the rituals of their religion.

Since the late war, instructions have been issued to deny us all the liberty, which had been reserved by the treaty of '83 of fishing and curing on the coast-but still respecting our right of fishing in the open sea.

This is not the only case in which one is astonished at the perseverance of the eastern States in refusing to support the interests of their own country (which were more emphatically their own interests.) Nor is one at any loss to guess, that centuries will not elapse before the competition of interests, of trade and of the fisheries, will make New England a decided opponent of Old England.

The Whale fishery, says Mr. Pitkin, (from whose valuable production most of these statements are compiled) "first attracted the attention of the Americans in 1690, and originated at the island of Nantucket, in boats from the shore. In 1715 six sloops, of 38 tons burden each, were employed in this fishery, from that Island. For many years their adventures were confined to the American coast, but as whales grew scarce here, they were extended to the western islands, and to the Brazils, and at length to the North and South Seas."

No particular reports, for the latter years, have come down to us; but from 1787 to 1789 ninetyone vessels, of 5,820 tons, were annually employed in the northern fishery, and 31 vessels, of 4,390 tons, in the southern, with 1,611 seamen-most of them belonging to Nantucket, Boston, Dartmouth, and other ports of Massachusetts. "For many years past this fishery has been carried on from Nantucket and from New Bedford, a large com. mercial and flourishing town on the coast, in its neighbourhood, and has employed from 15 to 18 thousand tons of shipping, principally in the southern Seas."

The following is the value of spermaceti and common whale oil, whale bone, and spermaceti candles, exported, for the years stated: "viz. 1803, $455,000; 1804, $380,000; 1805, $478,000; 1806, $600,000; 1807, $506,000; 1808, $121,000; 1809, $305,000; 1810, $354,000; since which period, the exports have been diminished.

INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. RICHMOND, Jan. 13, 1816. Dear Sir-Your late novel, hazardous, and pub. lic spirited undertaking of the descent of the Roanoke, the passage of the Albemarle Sound, the Dismal Swamp Canal, and finally reaching the port of Norfolk in an open boat, has excited much wonder and delight.

Among the many important effects produced by this bold experiment, that of removing the fallacious idea hitherto entertained, that no profitable trade with those waters could be carried on without the further aid of canals, is not the least.

Pickled fish.

An assurance on our part, that the commerce and trade thus proposed, may be greatly facilitat214,000 ed by the useful hints which you can offer on the best plan of conducting it, has induced the liberty of troubling you on this subject. The fear of omitting, in a detailed enquiry, something which might be important to the attainment of the object of the company, impels us rather to ask of you, sir, in a general way, all the important information relative to the Roanoke river, its capability of navigation, and the most eligible mode of transporting the marketable productions of the country watered by this river, and its tributary streams, to Norfolk.


The earliest possible answer to this letter, without neglecting your public engagements, will confer a favor on your friends,

Col. WM. J. LEWIS.


RICHMOND, Jan. 15, 1816. Gentlemen-I have received your polite, and I may say, flattering letter, in which you request me" to give a general description of Roanoke river; its capability of navigation, and the most eligible mode of transporting the marketable productions of this river, and its tributary streams to Norfolk."

The Roanoke heads in the Allegany mountains, opposite, and at a small distance from, Little river, a branch of the Great Kenhawa. It bears the name of Roanoke until it descends through the South Mountains, or Blue Ridge, when it obtains the name of Staunton. The Upper Roanoke has a sufficient quantity of water for useful navigation at all seasons with judicious management,


and within a few miles of the Allegany Mountains. This part of the river, in low water, has a gentle current, except on the shoals, which abound in Upper Roanoke; though none of them present any serious obstructions to improvement.

Great Falls? It would be but 8 miles, over a fine soil for a good road, and the carriage of produce by land at that place, would be little more than the tollage on canal navigation, where the water must be let down 100 feet by locks.-If trading houses were established at that place, and the produce of the upper country could be sold there at a fair price, it would be immediately carried that far, but no farther. The highland boats will not

From the Eastern side of the Blue Ridge to the Seven Islands, near the mouth of the Great Falling River, the Staunton presents a bolder aspect in the number and difficulty of its falls and shoals,|| some of which, in low water, cannot now be pas-navigate Lower Roanoke to the Sound, owing to sed by loaded boats with safety, and one is entirely the distance being too great for such unceasing impassable; but a small addition to the amount al- bodily exertions-the sickliness of that climate, ready expended in its improvement, would render and an unskilfulness in propelling boats with oarsit perfectly safe at all times, whether the river tide if they were willing to extend their voyage, their was high or low. boats are not of the proper structure; being open, they would not, when loaded, live on rough water. You have a more useful boat now navigating that river from the foot of the Great Falls to Albemarle Sound, and thence through the Dismal Swamp Canal to Norfolk; their burthen is from 25 to 30 tons, which is all they can bear on the Canal in its present shape-But if that Canal was deepened, their burthen might be doubled with

The Staunton, after passing the Seven Islands, having received a considerable accession of water from its northern and southern sides, becomes deeper, more gentle in its current, and has fewer shoals-none, even at low water, to obstruct the passage of boats with five tons weight, to its junction with Dan river. After the union of the Staunton and Dan, the name "Roanoke" is resumed, and the connection produces one of the most beau-out much increase of bulk, and still not draw too tiful and noble rivers on the east of the Allegany great a depth of water for Lower Roanoke. Mountains, until it precipitates itself with awful It might here be observed, that Norfolk presents grandeur down the Great Falls into the plains be- to the high land agriculturist bordering on the low. Here its beauty and "the sound of its many Roanoke and its tributary streams a brighter proswaters" are lost. It creeps on sluggishly in a nar-pect for its marketable produce, than any searow, crooked channel, through cypress swamps,|| port we have, or perhaps can have, on tide water. to the distance of 100 miles, where it suddenly From Albemarle Sound there can be four great spreads itself again into a broad and beautiful river, avenues for transportation to Norfolk, besides the to meet the Chowan, forming together the head great contemplated canal from the falls of Roanof Albemarle Sound. oke to Meherrin, Bennett's Creek, Lake Drum. mond and the Dismal Swamp canal, which route does not touch the sound.

First-A middle route up the Pasquotank, the Dismal Swamp canal, and down the Elizabeth river, already in use. Second-from Albemarle Sound, through Currituck Sound, the North River, and down Elizabeth river. On this route a canal of only 8 miles in length will have to be cut between the navigable waters on each side, through a fine plain, not exceeding four feet in its greatest elevation. Third-from Albemarle Sound up the Chowan River, Bennett's Creek, Lake Drummond, and the Dismal Swamp canal. On this route only a short canal will be required in addition to the present one. Fourth-from the Chow. an, a communication may be had also with Nansemond River, and thence to Norfolk.

This is but a general and imperfect description of this beautiful river; from its source to its mouth, being little short of 300 miles in length, and watering with its tributary streams, at least fifteen millions of acres of as fertile land as any on the Atlantic waters.

The principal obstacle to the navigation of this river is the Great Falls in the state of North Carolina. They are 12 miles from head to foot, and in that distance descend 100 feet, which is 8 feet 4 inches to the mile. On the south side of the river, the distance by land would be 8 miles, with a descent of 12 feet 6 inches per mile.


There are two or three ways of rendering the falls navigable; by canals and locks, or by adhering to the bed of the river.-Canals, when made, are preferable, because they can be navigated at all times without danger or difficulty-but the expense of making canals in some places would be greater than what the tollage ought to justify; and I am led to believe that a canal round these falls would not, in many years, reimburse, by moderate tollage, the expense of constructing it.—The cheapest and most expeditious plan would be to adhere to the bed of the river, a considerable portion of which consisting of still sheets of water, or having a gentle current, is already navigable. || This mode would reduce the actual distance to be improved to only a small portion of the 12 miles.The rapid part of the falls should have straight sluices for descending boats, and for those ascending, diagonal sluices crossing from the bottom to the top of the falls, which would lessen their declivity, and thereby greatly facilitate the passage of ascending boats.

As an immediate trade down the Roanoke is so much wished for by the high land people, why not, for the present, have a land carriage at the

Where so many good communications are presented for selection, it is difficult for the mind to give a preference; it must not confine itself to the present state of the Roanoke and the Sound, nor that of the extensive country watered by their tributary streams; but it must look forward to that period, when the whole of these waters shall become navigable, and when that new spring to industry shall excite in the human heart an additional thirst for gain, exhibited in a more general and ingenious cultivation of the soil, the management of fisheries, of tar, of turpentine, and lumber of all descriptions. Of these articles you export from the Sound annually to the amount of 2,500,000 dollars; but what will be the exports when that fine country shall have arrived at its greatest population-when improvements in agriculturewhen the very hills and mountains shall be embowelled, and their metals and minerals are num

* From North Landing to Kempsville.

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