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with about 2,000,000 inhabitants—fierce, warlike Ma- / sians, the czar declared war in April, 1871. After a brief hometans. After being long tributary to China, they campaign in May and June, and several conflicts in rebelled in 1864, massacred the Chinese residents, and which the Russians were victors, the sultan surrendered set up their countryman Abel Oghlan as sultan. As he himself to gen. Kolpakoviskie, 4 July, and the country was unable to restrain predatory attacks upou the Rus- was annexed to the Russian empire.





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Eagle, an ancient coin of Ireland, made of a base metal, nomena, by R. and J. W. Mallet, was published by the and current in the first years of Edward I., about 1272, British Association in 1858. In 1860 the velocity of was so named from the figure impressed upon it. The their propagation was estimated by Mr. J. Brown at beAmerican gold coinage of eagles, half-eagles, and quar- tween 470 and 530 feet per second.* ter-eagles began 6 Dec. 1792 ; an eagle is of the value one which made Eubæa an island.

425 of ten dollars, or about 21. 18.–The standard of the eagle Helice and Bura in Peloponnesus swallowed up. was borne by the Persians at Cunaxa, 401 B.C. The

The chasm in the Roman Forum into which Quintus CurRomans carried gold and silver eagles as ensigns, and Duras, in Greece, buried with all its inhabitants; and 12

tius leaped was probably an earthquake. sometimes represented them with a thunderbolt in their cities in Campania also buried ..

345 talons, on the point of a spear, 102 B.C. Charlemagne Lysimachia and its inhabitants buried.

........ about added the second head to the eagle for bis arms, to de- One accompanied the eruption of Vesuvius when Pomnote that the empires of Rome and Germany were united peii and Herculaneum were buried

79 in him, A.D. 802. The eagle was the standard of Napo- Four cities in Asia, two in Greece, and two in Galatia

overturned leon I. and Napoleon III., as well as of Austria, Russia,

. 105 or 106

Antioch destroyed.. and Prussia ; see Knighthood.

Nicomedia, Caesarea, and Nicea overturned..

In Asia, Pontus, and Macedonia, 150 cities and towns Earl (Latin, comes), introduced at the Conquest, su- damaged

157 perseded the Saxon ealdorman, and continued the high- Nicomedia again demolished, and its inhabitants buried est rank in England until Edward III. created dukes

in its ruins..


643 in 1337 and 1351, and Richard II. created marquesses At Constantinople; its edifices destroyed, and thousands

One felt by nearly the whole world. (1385), both above earls. Alfred used the title of earl as perished... a substitute for king. William Fitz-Osborn was made in Africa; many cities overturned..

560 earl of Hereford by William the Conqueror, 1066. Gil- Awful one in Syria, Palestine, and Asia; more than 500

towns were destroyed, and the loss of life surpassed all christ was created earl of Angus, in Scotland, by king calculation..

742 Malcolm III., in 1037, and sir John de Courcy created in France, Germany, and Italy, baron of Kinsale and carl of Ulster in Ireland, by Henry Constantinople overturned; all Greece shaken.

One felt throughout England...

1089 Il., 1181.

One at Antioch; many towns destroyed..

1114 EARL MARSHAL of England, the eighth great officer of state. Catania, in Sicily, overturned, and 15,000 persons buried This office, until it was made hereditary, always passed by

in the ruins grant from the king. Gilbert de Clare was created lord One severely felt at Lincoln

1142 marshal by king Stephen, 1135. The last lord marshal was In Syria, etc., 20,000 perished.. John Fitz-Alan, lord Maltravers.-Camden. Richard II., in At Calabria; one of its cities and all its inhabitants over1397, granted letters-patent to the earl of Nottingham by

whelmed in the Adriatic sea.

..Sept. 1186 the style of earl marshal. In 1672, Charles II. granted to

In Cilicia, 60,000 perished..

1268 Henry, lord Howard, the dignity of hereditary earl marshal. One again felt throughout England; Glastonbury de. The earl marshal's court was abolished in 1641; sec Howard. stroyed...

1274 Earl MARISCHAL of Scotland was an officer who commanded In England; the greatest known there.

14 Nov. 1318 the cavalry, whereas the constable commanded the whole At Naples; 40,000 persons perished...

...5 Dec. 1456 army; but they seem to have had a joint command, as all Constantinople; thousands perished

14 Sept. 1209 orders were addressed to “our constable and marischal." | At Lisbon; 1500 houses, and 30,000 persons buried in the The office was never out of the Keith family. It was re- ruins; Beveral neighboring towns engulfed ....26 Feb. 1531 served at the Union, and when the heritable jurisdictions One felt in London, part of St. Paul's and the Temple were bought, it reverted to the crown, being forfeited by the

churches fell...

.6 April, 1500 rebellion of George Keith, earl marischal, in 1715.

In Japan; several cities made ruins, and thousands perish....

.2 July, 1596 Earl de la Warr's Act, see Children.

In Naples; 30 towns or villages ruined; 70,000 lives

30 July, 1626 Early English Text Society began to publish Awful one at Calabria. .

.27 March, 1638 in 1864.

Ragusa ruined; 5000 perished.

..6 April, 1667

At Schamaki, lasted 3 months; 80,000 perished. . Early-closing Association established 1842, At Rimini; above 1500 perished.

..14 April, 1672 to abridge the hours of labor, and to abolish Sunday Onc severely felt at Dublin, etc...

...17 Oct. 1690 trading.

One at Jamaica, which totally destroyed Port Royal,

whose houses were engulfed 40 fathoms deep, and 3000 Earrings were worn by Jacob's family, 1732 B.C. perished.

.7 June, 1692 (Gen. xxxv. 4).

One in Sicily, which overturned 54 cities and towns, and

300 villages; of Catania and its 18,000 inhabitants, not Earth, see Globe. “Earth to Earth" discussion in a trace remained; more than 100,000 lives were lost, 1875; advocacy of cremation, see Burials.

Sept 1693 Aquila, in Italy, ruined; 5000 perished..

2 Feb. 1703 Earthen-ware, see Pottery.

Jeddo, Japan, ruined; 200,000 perished.
In the Abruzzi; 15,000 perished,

..3 Nov. 1706 Earthquakes. Anaxagoras supposed that earth- At Algiers; 20,000 perished... May and June, 1716 quakes were produced by subterraneous clouds bursting Palermo nearly destroyed; nearly 6000 lives lost.. 1 Sept 1726 into lightning, which shook the vaults that confined Again; in China; and 100,000 people swallowed up at

30 Nov. 1731 them, 435 B.C.Diog. Laert. Kircher, Des Cartes, and In Naples, etc. ; 1940 perished.

29 Nov. 1732 others supposed that there were many vast cavities Lima and Callao demolished; 18,000 persons buried in underground which have a communication with each In London, etc., a slight shock.

28 Oct. 1746

19 Feb. 1750 other, some of which abound with water, others with Port-au-Prince, St. Domingo, ruined.

21 Nov. 1751 exhalations, arising from inflammable substances, as nitre, bitumen, sulphur, etc. Dr. Stukeley and Dr.

* Mrs. Somerville states that about 255 carthquakes have Priestley attributed earthquakes to electricity. They occurred in the British Isles; all slight. To avoid the effects are probably due to steam generated by subterraneous of a shock predicted by a madman for the 8th of April, 1750, heat. An elaborate Catalogue of earthquakes (from passed the night on the 7th in their carriages and in teuts in

thousands of persons, particularly those of rank and fortune, 1606 B.c, to A.D. 1842), with commentaries on the phe- lilyde park.


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Adrianople nearly overwhelmed..

29 July, 1752 | In the Mediterranean: at Candia, 500 lives lost; Rhodes, At Grand Cairo; half of the bouses and 40,000 persons

100; and other islands, 150..

12 Oct. 1856 swallowed up...

..Sept. 1754 In Calabria, * Montemurro and other towns destroyed, and Quito destroyed.. .. April, 1755 about 10,000 lives lost..

.16 Dec. 1857 Kaschan, N. Persia, destroyed; 40,000 perished..7 June, Corinth nearly destroyed.

..21 Feb. 1858 Great earthquake at LISBOX. In about eight minutes At Quito; about 5000 persons killed, and an immense most of the houses and upwards of 50,000 inhabitants

amount of property destroyed.

.22 March, 1859 were swallowed up, and whole streets buried. The Erzeroum, Asia Minor; thousands perished, cities of Coimbra, Oporto, and Braga suffered dread

2 June-17 July, fully, and St. ('bes was wholly overturned. In Spain, At San Salvador; many buildings destroyed, no lives a large part of Malaga became ruins. One half of Fez,


...8 Dec. in Morocco, was destroyed, and more than 12,000 Arabs In Cornwall, slight..

21 Oct. 1859; 13 Jan. 1860 perished there. Above half of the island of Madeira At Mendoza, S. America; about two thirds of the city became waste; and 2000 houses in the island of Mity.

and 7000 lives lost...

.20 March, lene, in the Archipelago, were overthrown. This awful In Perugia, Italy; several lives lost.

.8 May, 1861 earthquake extended 5000 miles; even to Scotland, In Greece, N. Morea, Corinth and other places injured, i Nov.

26 Dec. In Syria, extended over 10,000 square miles; Baalbec Guatemala; 150 buildings and 14 churches destroyed, destroyed; here 20,000 perished. .30 Oct. 1759

19 Dec. 1862 Comorn, l'esth, etc., much damaged..

28 June, 1763 Rhodes; 13 villages destroyed, about 300 persons perishAt Martinique; 1600 persons perished.

Aug. 1767 ed, and much cattle and property lost........22 April, 1863 At Guatemala; Santiago, with its inhabitants, swallowed Manilla, Philippine isles; immense destruction of propup...

.7 June, 1773

erty; about 1000 persons perished.... ...2, 3 July, A destructive one at Smyrnı..

..3 July, 1778 Central, west, and northwest of England, at 3. 22 A.M., At Tauris, 15,000 houses thrown down, and multitudes

6 Oct. buried..

1780 At Macchia, Bendinella, etc., Sicily; 200 houses destroyed, Messina and other towns in Italy and Sicily overthrown; 64 persons killed..

...18 July, 1865 thousands perished. ...

..4 Feb. 1783 Slight earthquake near Tours and Blois, in France, Ezinghian, near Erzeroum, destroyed, and 5000 persons

14 Sept. 1866 buried in its ruins

.23 July, 1784 Argostoli, Cephalonia; above 50 perished... .4 Feb. 1867 St. Lucia, West Indies; 900 perished..

12 Oct. 1788 At Mitylene; about 1000 killed... ...8, 9 March, At Borgo di San Sepolcro; many houses and 1000 per. Djocja, Java; above 400 perished; town destroyed, sons swallowed up... ....30 Sept. 1789

10 June, In Naples; Vesuvius overwhelmed the city of Torre del The cities of Arequipa, Iquique, Tacna, and Chincha, and Greco.

June, 1794 many small towns in Peru and Ecuador destroyed; The whole country between Santa Fé and Panama de

about 25,000 lives lost, and 30,000 rendered homeless; stroyed, including Cuzco and Quito; 40,000 people bur.

loss of property estimated at 60,000,0001. ...13-15 Aug. 1868 ied in one second.....

4 Feb. 1797 [About 11,000l. collected in London to relieve the Cumana, South America, ruined..

.14 Dec.

sullerers.) At Constantinople, which destroyed the royal palace and Slight earthquake in W. England and S. Wales; felt at many buildings... .26 Sept. 1800 Bath, Swansea, etc..

.30 Oct. From Cronstadt to Constantinople..

26 Oct. 1802 In Santa Maura, an Ionian isle, the town Santa Maura A violent one felt in Holland.

end of Jan. 1804 destroyed; about 17 persons perished. 28 Dec. 1869 At Frosolone, Naples; 6000 lives lost. .26 July, 1805 At Quebec, not much damage..

.20 Oct. 1870 At the Azores; a village of St. Michael's sunk, and a lake In Calabria; several villages destroyed, early in.....Oct.

of boiling water appeared in its place.. ..11 Aug. 1810 Northwest of England; houses shaken, crockery broken, Many earthquakes in the lower Mississippi valley, open

evening, 17 March; slight in Yorkshire.....22 March, 1871 ing great chasms in the earth...

1811 California; several small towns destroyed; about 30 Awful one at Caracas (which see). 26 March, 1812 killed

..26, 27 March, 1872 Several throughout India; district of Kutch sunk; 2000 Lehree, Eastern Catchi, Sind frontier, India, destroyed; persons buried 16 June, 1819 about 500 killed

14, 15 Dec. Genoa, Palermo, Rome, and many other towns greatly San Salvador nearly destroyed; about 50 killed; the rest damaged; thousands perish..

escaped through timely warning.

.19 March, 1873 Aleppo destroyed; above 20,000 perish; shocks on

North of Italy: at Feletto, near Conegliano, Venetia, 10 and 13 Aug, and 5 Sept. 1822 church destroyed; about 50 killed; lives lost at Belluno, Coast of Chili permanently raised. .

..19 Nov.

etc.; shock felt at Venice, Verona, etc........ 29 June, In Spain; Murcia and numerous villages devastated, 6000 Azagra, Spain: 200 killed by a landslip...... 22 July, 1874 persons perish..

.21 March, 1829 Antigua and other places in Guatemala destroyed; great Canton and neighborhood; above 6000 perished,

loss of life....

3 Sept. 26 and 27 May, 1830 Kara Hissa and other places in Asia Minor; great de. In the duchy of Parma; 40 shocks at Borgotaro; and at

struction of life.

3-5 May, 1875 Pontremoli many houses thrown down. ..14 Feb. 1834 Sm and ne ghborhood; many perish. ......12 May, Concepcion, etc., in Chili, destroyed.

..20 Feb. 1835 San José de Cucuta and other towns near Santander, on In Calabria, Cosenza and villages destroyed; 1000 per. the boundary of Colombia, destroyed; about 14,000 lives sons buried..

29 April,
said to be lost..

.16-18 May, In Calabria; 100 perish at Castiglione.

12 Oct.

Lahore and vicinity, India; sereral killed. .....12 Dec. At Martinique; nearly half of Port Royal destroyed; At Scheibs, on the Danube; felt throughout Austrian em. nearly 700 persons killed, and the whole island dam


.17 July, 1876 aged...

...11 Jan. 1839 Earthquake and great tidal wave near Callao; went south. At Ternate; the island made a waste, and thousands of

ward; much shipping and several towns destroyed; lives lost.. 14 Feb. 1840 not much mortality.

9, 10 May, 1877 Awful and destructive earthquake at Mount Ararat, in Cua, Venezuela, nearly destroyed, about 300 killed, loss one of the districts of Armenia; 3137 houses were over

about 30,0001..

.14 April, 1878 thrown, and several hundred persons perished,

Shocks felt at Cologne and other parts of Germany and 27 July,

Holland; houses much shaken; bells rung, etc., 9-11 Great earthquake at Zante, where many persons per.


. 26 Aug. ished.

..30 Oct. Aci Reale, Catania, Sicily, 5 villages destroyed, 10 persons At Cape Haytien, St. Domingo, which destroyed nearly


.17 June, 1879 two thirds of the town; between 4000 and 5000 lives Severe shock at Brieg, in Switzerland; felt at Berne, Zuwere lost.. .7 May, 1842 rich, Geneva, etc. ; several killed.

.4 July, 1880 At Point à Pitre, Guadeloupe, which was entirely de. Manilla, etc., Philippines; cathedral destroyed; several stroyed... .8 Feb). 1843 killed, many hurt

.18–24 July, At Rhodes and Macri, when a mountain fell in at the Smyrna and ne ghborhood; many houses destroyed, 2 latter place, crushing a village, and destroying 600 persons killed..

:..29, 30 July, persons.

... 28 Feb. -7 March, 1851 Valparaiso; at Ilapel, Chili, about 200 perish...13 Sept. At Valparaiso, where more than 400 houses were de S. Austria; much damage with loss of life, at Agram, etc. stroyed.. ..2 April,

9-16 Nov-8 Dec. In S. Italy; Melfi almost laid in ruins; 14,000 lives lost, Slight shocks at Inverary and other places W. Scotland, 14 Aug

28 Nov. Philippine isles; Manilla much injured. .16-30 Sept. 1852 Berne and other places, Switzerland; houses split up, etc., In Northwest of England, slight... ..9 Nov.

27 Jan. and 3 March, 1891 Thebes, in Greece, nearly destroyed...

.18 Aug. 1853 Severe shocks in S. Italy; much destruction and loss of St. Salvador, South America, destroyed... ...16 April, 1854 life at Casamicciola, a town in the Isle of Ischia, 289 Anasaca, in Japan, and Simoda, in Niphon, destroyed; houses destroyed, 114 lives lost, about 36,0001. Joss, 4 Jeddo much injured...

.23 Dec.

March; more destruction by another shock. .15 March, Broussa, in Turkey, nearly destroyed..

.28 Feb. 1855 Several villages in Central Europe destroyed. . 25, 26 July, Jeddo, Japun, Dearly destroyed...

..11 Nov.

* In the course of 75 years, from 1783 to 1857, the kingdom At the island of Great Sanger, one of the Moluccas, vol. of Naples lost, at least, 111,000 inhabitants by the effects of canic eruption and earthquake; nearly 3000 lives lost, carthquakes, or more than 1500 per year, out of an average

2 March, 1856 | population of 6,000,000 !--Lacaita.

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579 et seq.

Scio—the town and several villages destroyed; about Recalled through Justinian's jealousy, 542; again, 548; 4,000 perish; much destitution ensues; successive again, 549; disgraced...

562 shocks, beginning 1.30 P. M....... .....3 April, 1881 Beginning of the Turkish power in Asia.

545 The Slavonians ravage Illyria...

551 East Angles, the sixth kingdom of the Heptarchy, Narses defeats Totila and the Goths near Rome..

552 commenced by Uffa, 526 ; ended with Ethelbert in 792; Death of Belisarius (aged 84), of Justinian (aged 83).

Disaffection of Narses..


565 see Britain. The bishop's see founded by St. Felix, who Victories of Maurice and Narses in the East. converted the East Angles in 630, was eventually settled Severe contests with the Avars...

.594-620 at Norwich (which see) about 1094.

Narses burned at Constantinople..


The flight (Hegira) of Mahomet from Mecca to Medina, East End Juvenile Mission established 1866,

where he establishes himself as a prophet and prince, to reclaim destitute children. It maintains homes, Victorious career of Heraclius II...

16 July, 622

.622 et seq. schools, an infirmary, etc. Hon, director, Dr. T. J. He recovers his lost territories,

627 Barnardo; see Burnardo's Homes.

The Saracens invade the empire, 632; defeat Heraclius at

Aiznadin, 633; at Yermuk, 636; take Alexaudria, 610; East India Association, for the advocacy of and the Greek provinces in Africa.

648 the interests of all the inhabitants of India, founded 7 Constans purchases peace with them..

660 Nov. 1866.

They besiege Constantinople seven times...

672-677 A journal is published.

The Bulgarians establish a kingdom in Mosia (now East India Stock Dividend Redemption

Bulgaria), 678; they ravage the country up to Constantinople..

711 Act passed 15 May, 1873. It finally abolished the The Saracens vainly invest Constantinople, 716, 718; decompany on 1 June, 1874, and made needful arrange- feated.

720 ments,

Leo III, the Isaurian forbids the worship of images (this

leads to the Iconoclast controversy, and eventually to East Indies, see Indiu.

the separation of the Eastern and Western churches).. 726 East London Museum, see Bethnal Green.

A great invading Arab force (90,000) defeated by Acronius.

7739 East Saxons, see Britain, p. 113.

The monasteries dissolved..


Destruction of images throughout the empire decreed, Easter, instituted about 68, the festival observed by 754; image-worship restored by the empress Irene (for the church in commemoration of Our Saviour's resur

which she was canonized).

787 rection, so called in England from the Saxon goddess The empire Joses the exarchate of Italy, 752; Dalmatia,

; Sicily and

827 Eostre, whose festival was in April. After much con- Image-worship persecuted, 830; restored, 842; forbidden tention between the Eastern and Western churches, it

at Constantinople by one council, 869; restored by auwas ordained by the council of Nice, 325, to be observed South Italy annexed to the empire..



90 on the same day throughout the whole Christian world. Five emperors reigning at one time..

928 “ Easter-day is the Sunday following that fourteenth Naples added to the empire. day of the calendar moon which happens upon or next

Basil subdues the Bulgarians..

.987, 1014 Bulgaria annexed to the empire

10.8 after the 21st March : so that, if the said fourteenth day The Turks invade Asia Minor.

1018 be a Sunday, Easter-day is not that Sunday, but the The Normans conquer South Italy.

10 0 next.” Easter-day may be any day of the five weeks The first crusade; Alexis I. recovers Asia.


The Venetians victorious over the Greeks. which commence with March 22 and end with April 25. The Hungarians repelled, 1152; peace made with the

1125 The dispute between the old British church and the new Normans in Sicily

1176 Anglo-Saxon church respecting Easter was settled about Wars with the Turks and the Venetians.

1173 664.-Easter-Sunday, 1883, 25 March; 1884, 13 April; The fourth crusade begins..

Cyprus lost to the empire.


1202 1885, 5 April.

Revolt of Alexis against his brother Isaac; the crusaders Easter Island, in the Pacific Ocean, was discovered

take Constantinople, and restore Isaac and his son Alexis IV...

....19 July, 1203 by Davis in 1686; it was visited by Roggewein, April, Alexis Ducas murders Alexis IV. and usurps the throne; 1722, and from him obtained the name it now bears; it

the crusaders take Constantinople, kill Alexis, and eswas visited by captain Cook, March, 1774. At the south

tablish the Latin empire, under Baldwin, count of Flanders..

.9 May, 1204 east extremity is the crater of an extinguished volcano, Empire of Nice founded by Theodore Lascaris. about two miles in circuit and 800 feet deep.

Kingdom of Epirus and Ætolia established...


Constantinople recovered, and the empire re-established Eastern (or Greek) CHURCH, see Greek Church. by Michael Palæologus.

25 July, 1261

Establishment of the Turkish empire in Asia, under OthEastern Empire. After the death of the emperor man I...

199 Jovian, in Feb. 361, the generals at Nice elected Valen- The Genoese trade in the Black Sea.

1313 tinian as his successor, who, in June, made his brother The Turks ravage Mysia, etc., 1340 and 1345; and settle

on the coast of Thrace.

1353 Valens emperor of the West; the final division was in the sultan Amurath takes Adrianople, and makes it his 395, between the sons of Theodosius. The Eastern em- capital, 1362; and, by treaty, greatly reduces the einpire ended with the capture of Constantinople, and death

peror's territories..

1373 of Constantine XIII., 29 May, 1453; see Turkey.

All the Greek possessions in Asia lost.


Sultan Bajazet defeats the Christians under Sigismund Nestorius, the bishop, nominated the first patriarch of

of Hungary, at Nicopolis.

. 28 Sept. 1396 Constantinople..

.9 July, 381

The emperor Manuel vaivly solicits help from the WestTheodosius the Great succors Valentinian II., the Western

ern sovereigns....

1400 emperor, and defeats the tyrant Maximus, at Aquileia, 388 The Greek 'empire made tributary to Timour, 1402, who

A Turkish pacha established at Athens.

1401 Valentinian II. slain by Arbogastes the Frank, who makes Eugenius emperor...


subjugates the Turkish sultan, and dismembers his em. Eugenius defeated and slain by Theodosius, who rennites

pire, 1403; death of Timour, on his way to China...... 1405 the two empires..

Dissension ..6 Sept. 394

among the Turks defers the fall of Constanti. Death of Theodosius; the empire finally divided between

nople, 1403-12; Mahomet I., aided by the emperor his sons-Arcadius receives the East, Honorius the

Manuel, becomes sultan...

1413 West..

Amurath II. in vain besieges Constantinople, 1422; peaco

...17 Jan. 395 Constantinople walled by Theodosius II.

made. 413

1425 Alaric the Goth begins to ravage the empire...

John Palæologus visits Rome and other places, soliciting Violent religious dissensions; Theodosius II. establishes

help in vain...

1437-40 schools and revives learning 425 Accession of Constantine XIII., last emperor::

1448 The Theodosian Code promulgated..

Accession of Mahomet II., 1451; begins the siege of Con-
The councils of Ephesus, 431, 449; of Chalcedon..

stantinople, 6 April; takes it...

.29 May, 1453 Frequent sanguinary conflicts between the Blues and

[He granted the Christians personal security and free Greens, circus factions at Constantinople......


exercise of their religion.) The Justinian Code published....


(See Turkey.) War with Persia; beginning of the victorious career of

EMPERORS OF THE EASTERX EMPIRE Belisarius, the imperial general. ..

.529-531 364. Valens. He suppresses the “Nika '' ("* conquer?') insurrection of 379. Theodosius I. the Great. the circus factions; 30,000 Greeks slain, and Constan

395. Arcadius, the son of Theodosius. tinople burned.

532 408. Theodosius II. succeeded his father. Dedication of St. Sophia....

537 450. Marcian, a Thracian of obscure family. Victories of Belisarius in Africa, Italy, and the East..533-541 457. Leo I. tho Thracian.



474. Leo II. the Younger (died the same year).

1185. Isaac II. Angelus Comnenus, who is deposed, imprison. Zeno, called the Isaurian.

ed, and deprived of his eyes by his brother, 491. Anastasius I., an Wlyrian, of mean birth.

1195. Alexis III. Angelus, the Tyrant: deposed, and his eyes 518. Justin I., originally a private soldier.

put out; died in a monastery. 527. Justinian I., founder of the Digest.

1203. Isaac II. again, with his son, Alexis IV.: deposed. 565. Justin II., nephew of Justinian.

1:204. Alexis V. Ducas: murders Alexis IV.; is killed by the 578. Tiberius II., renowned for his virtues.

crusaders. 582. Maurice, the Cappadocian: murdered, with all his chil.

LATIN EMPERORS. dren, by his successor. 602. Phocas the Usurper, a centurion, whose crimes and 1204. Baldwin I., earl of Flanders, on the capture of Constancruelties led to his own assassination in 610.

tinople by the Latins, elected emperor; made a pris610. Heraclius, by whom Phocas was dethroned.

oner by the king of Bulgaria, and never heard of after641. (Heracleonas) Constantine III. reigned a few months:

wards. poisoned by his stepmother, Martina.

1206. Henry I., his brother (dies in 1217). Constans II. : assassinated in a bath.

1216, Peter de Courtenay, his brother-in-law. 668. Constantine III. (or IV.) Pogonatus.

1221. Robert de Courtenay, his son. 685. Justinian II., son of the preceding: abhorred for his ex. 1228. Baldwin II., his brother (a minor), and John de Brienne, actions, debaucheries, and cruelties; dethroned and

of Jerusalem, regent and associate emperor. mntilated by his successor.

1261. [Constantinople recovered, and the empire of the Franks 695. Leontius: dethroned and mutilated by Tiberius Aspimar.

or Latins terminates.)
698. Tiberius III. Aspimar.
705. Justinian II. restored. Leontius and Tiberius degraded

in the Hippodrome, and put to death. Justinian slain 1204. Theodore Lascaris I.
in 711.

1222. John Ducas Vataces. 711. Philippicus Bardanes: assassinated.

1255. Theodore Lascaris II., his son. 713. Anastasius II. : fled on the election of Theodosius in 716; 1259. John Lascaris, and (1260) Michael VIII. Palæologus. afterwards delivered up to Leo III. and put to death.

GREEK EMPERORS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. 716. Theodosius III. 718. Leo III., the Isaurian.

1261. Michael VIII., now at Constantinople; puts out the eyes [In this reign (726) commences the great Iconoclastic

of John, and reigns alone. controversy; the alternate prohibition and restora.

1282. Andronicus II. Palæologus, the Elder, son of preceding: tion of images involve the peace of several reigns.)

deposed by 741. Constantine IV. (or V.) Copronymus, son of the pre

1328. Andronicus III., the Younger, his grandson. ceding; succeeded by his son,

1341. John Palæologus I., under the guardianship of John 775. Leo IV.

Cantacuzenus: the latter proclaimed emperor at 780. Constantine V. (or VI.) and his mother, Irene.

Adrianople. 790. Constantine, alone, by the desire of the people, Irene 1347. John Cantacuzenus abdicates. having become unpopular.

1355. John Palæologus I. restored. 792. Irene again, jointly with her son, and afterwards alone, 1391. Manuel II. Palæologus, his son: succeeded by his son 797; deposed for her cruelties and murders, and exiled.

and colleague. 802. Nicephorus I. Logothetes: slain.

1425. John Palæologus II. The throne claimed by his three 811. Stauracius: reigns a few days only.

brothers. Michael I. : defeated in batile, abdicates the throne, and 1448. Constantine Palæologus XII. (XIII. or XIV. ; some of retires to a monastery.

the other emperors being called Constantine by some 813. Leo V. the Armenian: killed in the temple at Constanti.

writers): killed, when Constantinople was taken, 29 nople on Christmas-day, 820, by conspirators in the

May, 1453. interest of his successor. 820. Michael II. the Stammerer.

Eastern Question Association formed, the 829. Theophilus, son of Michael.

duke of Westminster president, Dec. 1876. 842. Michael III. Porphyrogenitus, and the Sot, son of the

Eastern Roumelia, see Roumelia. preceding; murdered by his successor. 867. Basil I. tho Macedonian.

Ebelians, a German revivalist sect, which began at 886. Leo VI., the Philosopher. 911. Alexander and Constantine VI. (or VII.) Porphyrogeni. Königsberg, in Prussia, about 1836, its leaders being

tus, brother and son of Leo, the latter only six years archdeacon Ebel and Dr. Diestel, who were tried and of age; the former dying in 912, Zoe, mother of Con- condemned for unsound doctrine and impure lives in

stantine, assumes the regency. 919. Romanus Lecapenus, usurper, associates with him his

1839. The sentence was annulled in 1842, it is said by

royal influence. The sect is popularly termed “Mucker," 920. Christopher, and

German for hypocrites. Their theory and practice of 928. Stephen and Constantine VII. (or VIII.). [Five emperors now reign: Christopher dies, 931; in his “Spiritual Wives," 1868.

spiritual marriage are described by Mr. Hepworth Dixon, Romanus exiled by his sons Constantine and Stephen,

who are themselves banished the next year.) 945. Constantine VII. (or VIII.) reigns alone: poisoned by his of the Nazarenes, were of two kinds: one believed that

Ebionites, heretics, in the first century, a branch daughter-in-law, Theophania, 959. 959. Romanus II., son of preceding: contrived his father's our Saviour was born of a virgin, observed all the pre

death; banished his mother, Helena. 963. Nicephorus II. Phocas: married Theophania, his prede- of the Jews; the other believed that Christ was born af

cepts of the Christian religion, but added the ceremonies cessor's consort, who has him assassinated. 969. John I. Zimisces, celebrated general: takes Basil II. and ter the manner of all mankind, and denied his divinity.

Constantine VIII. (or IX.), sons of Romanus II., as Photinus revived the sect in 342.

colleagues; John dies, supposed by poison, and 976. Basil II. and Constantine VIII. reign; the former dies in

Ebonite (vulcanized India-rubber), see Caoutchouc. 1025, the latter in 1028. 1028. Romanus III. Argyropulus: poisoned by his profligate of the Spaniards by the French, under Lannes, near Tu

Ebro, a river in Spain--the scene of a signal defeat consort Zoe, who raises 1034. Michael IV. the Paphlagonian to the throne; on his dela, 23 Nov. 1808; and also of several important movedeath, Zoo places

ments of the allied British and Spanish armies during 1041. Michael V. Calaphates as his successor: Zoe dethrones him, has his eyes put out, and marries

the Peninsular war (1809-13). 1042. Constantine IX. (or X.) Monomachus, and Zoo reigos Ecclesiastical Commissions, appointed by

jointly; Zoe dies, 1050. 1054. Theodora, widow of Constantine.

queen Elizabeth, 1559; by James I. in Scotland, 1617; 1056. Michael VI. Stratiotes, or Strato: deposed.

by the English parliament in 1641; and by James II., to 1057. Isaac I. Comnenus: abdicates,

coerce the universities, in 1687. A Church Inquiry Com1059. Constantine X. (or XI.) Ducas. 1067. Eudocia, consort of the preceding, and Romanus iv. mission, appointed 23 June, 1832, reported June, 1835.

Diogenes, whom she marries, reign to the prejudice The present ecclesiastical commissioners (bishops, deans, of Suichael, Constantine's son.

and laymen) for the management of church property 1071. Michael VII. Parapinaces recovers his throne, and

were appointed in Feb. 1835, incorporated in 1836, and reigns jointly with Constantine XI. (or XII.). 1078. Nicephorus III. : dethroned by

their proceedings regulated in 1840 and 1811. The law 1081. Alexis or Alexius I. Comnenus; succeeded by

relating to them was amended in 1868. 1118. John Comnenus, his son Kalos: died of a wound from a poisoned arrow.

Ecclesiastical Courts. There existed no dis1143. Manuel I Comnenus, son of John.

tinction between lay and ecclesiastical courts in England 1180. Alexis II. Comnenus, son of the preceding, under the ro. until 1085, after the Norman conquest; sce drches and

gency of the empress Maria, his mother. 1183. Andronicus I. Comnenus: causes Alexis to be strangled, Consistory Courts. Till the establishment of the Divorce and seizes the throne; put to death by

and Probate courts (which see), in 1857, the following


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were the causes cognizable in ecclesiastical courts: blas- An annular eclipse; it was seen and photographed at phemy, apostasy from Christianity, heresy, schism, ordi- Total eclipse of the sun; well seen by sir G. B. Airy, as

Oundle; but not seen well at other places... 15 March, 1858 nations, institutions to benetices, matrimony, divorces, tronomer royal, and others in Spain; Mr. Warren De bastardy, tithes, incest, fornication, adultery, probate of la Rue took photographs.

18 July, 1860 wills, administrations, etc.

Total eclipse of the sun of the longest possible duration;

(the Royal Society provided means for its observation A royal commission of inquiry respecting these courts agreed in India, by col. Walker, Mr. Herschel, and others), to, house of lords; 7 March, 1881, appointeu.

18 Aug. 1868

During the solar eclipse, 18 Aug. 1868, as observed in 1n. Ecclesiastical Dilapidations, law respecting

dia, M. Janssen invented a method of studying the pheamended by acts passed in 1871 and 1872.

nomena of the sun at any time, by employing several Ecclesiastical Gazette, Church of England

spectroscopes, whereby the spectrum is lengthened and

the dazzling brilliancy diminished. Mr. Joseph Nor. semi-official journal; sent gratuitously to all dignitaries man Lockyer had suggested a similar method of ob. and incumbents; established 10 July, 1838.

servation in 1866, but did not use it till 20 Oct. 1868,

being then not aware of M. Janssen's discovery. Ecclesiastical State, or STATES OF THE CHURCH, The solar eclipse well observed in North America 7 Aug. 1869 see Rome, Modern.

Two expeditions to observe the solar eclipse of 22 Dec.

1870, sent out by the British government, were not Ecclesiastical Titles Act, 14 & 15 Vict. c. 60 successful......

22 Dec. 1270 (1851); repealed 24 July, 1871; see Papal Aggression. The solar eclipse well observed at Ceylon and in southern

India, 12 Dec. 1871; and in North America. 29, 30 July, 1878 Echo. The time which elapses between the utter

[The same eclipses (about 70) recur in a period of 18 ance of a sound and its returu must be more than one years 10 days. ] twelfth of a second to form an echo. The whispering- Except the total eclipse, 12 Aug. 1999, there can be no gallery of St. Paul's is a well-known example. The

total eclipse of the sun visible in England for 250 years.

--Hind : July, 1871. Echo, independent evening paper, price }d., established


The first, observed by the Chaldæans at Babylon (Ptolemy, Eckmühl (Bavaria), the site of a battle between iv.).....

721 the main armies of France (75,000) and Austria (40,000); A total one observed at Sardis (Thucydides, vii.).

Again, in Asia Minor (Polybius). .

219 Napoleon and marshal Davoust (hence prince d'Eck- One at Rome, predicted by Q. Sulpitius Gallus (Livy, mühl) defeated the archduke Charles, 22 April, 1809. xliv.).....


One terrified the Roman troops and quelled their revolt Eclectics (from Greek, érdéyw, I choose), ancient (Tacitus)....

14 philosophers (called Analogetici, and also Philalethes, the

Ecnomus, see Himera. lovers of truth), who, without attaching themselves to any sect, chose what they judged good from each : of

École Polytechnique, a military academy at them was Potamon of Alexandria, about A.D. 1. Also a

Paris, established in 1794, and reorganized and given its

The “ Journal” (1795Christian sect, who considered the doctrine of Plato con present name on 1 Sept. 1795. formable to the spirit of Christianity.

1867) contains profound mathematical papers. The

school was reorganized 4 Sept. 1816. The pupils helped Eclipse (the race-horse), see Races.

to defend Paris in 1814 and 1830. Eclipses. Their revolution was calculated by Calip

Economic Museum (or Museum of Domestic pus, the Athenian, 336 B.C. The Egyptians said they and Sanitary Economy), at Twickenham, open free, was had accurately observed 373 eclipses of the sun, and 832 established chiefly by the agency of Mr. Thos. Twining, of the moon, in the period from Vulcan to Alexander, in 1860. It originated from the Paris exhibition of 1855. who died 323 B.C. The theory of eclipses is said to have been known to the Chinese before 120 B.C.

Economist, London weekly journal, devoted to The first

financial matters, first appeared 2 Sept. 1813. eclipse recorded happened 19 March, 721 B.C., at 8.40 P.M., according to Ptolemy; it was lunar, and was ob.

Économistes, a philosophical sect, founded by served with accuracy at Babylon.

François Quesnay (1694–1774), who exalted agriculture A list of eclipses to the year 2000 is given in “L'Art de Véri- above all other arts; be asserted that it gave two things, fier les Dates."

the support of the laborer and an excess of value which The Royal Astronomical Society published a volume of "Ob. belonged to the proprietor of the land (“ product net "), servations made during Total Solar Eclipses," 1880.

and which alone should be taxed. He also favored great ECLIPSES OF THE SUN.

freedom for industry and trade. His “ Physiocratie" The Nineveh eclipse (recorded, according to sir Henry (1768) and other works were at the time very popular, Rawlinson, on a Nineveh tablet in the British Mu.

even at court, and are said to have influenced Adam seum)...

.B.C. 15 June, 763 That predicted by Thales (Pliny, lib. ii. 9), believed to

Smith, author of " The Wealth of Nations." have occurred (see lalys)...

.28 May, 585

Écorcheurs (Flayers), bands of armed adventurers (Sir G. B. Airy thinks the date should be 610; others say 603 or 584 B.C. It is the one recorded by Herodotus who desolated France and Belgium during the fifteenth as interrupting a battle between the Medes and Lydi. century, beginning about 1435. Among their leaders

ans.) Eclipse of Xerxes, when setting out on his expedition

were Chabannes, comte de Dammartin, the bastard of against Greece..

17 Feb. 478 Armagnac, and Villandras; and they at one time numOne at Athens (Thucydides, lib. iv.).

424 bered 100,000. They are said to have stripped their Eclipse of Agathocles (Airy)...

.15 Aug 310 victims to their shirts, and Hayed the cattle. They were Totalone: three days' supplication decreed at Rome (Liry) 188 favored by the English invasion and the civil wars. Ono general at the death of Jesus Christ (Josephus),

A.D. 3 April, 33

Ecuador, or EQUATOR, a South American republic, One observed at Constantinople.. At the battle of Sticklestadt...

29 July, 1030

formerly Quito and other provinces, part of Colombia, In France, when it was dark at noon-day (Du Fresnoy), 1821 ; independent in 1831, when the Colombian republic

29 June, 1033 was divided into three; the other two being Venezuela In England: a total darkness (W. Malmsb.).... 20 March, 1140 and New Granada. Again; the stars visible at ten in the morning (Camden),

The population of Ecuador is about

23 June, 1191 1,010, 400, of which 76,000 are in Quito, the capital. The true sun, and the appearance of another, so that as- Presidents: gen. Franco, 21 Aug. 1859; defeated in battle tronomers alone could distinguish the difference by

by gen. Flores..

. Aug. 1860 colored glasses..

G. G. Moreno.

...Jan. 1861 Observed in Scotland; termed the “black hour'..7 June, 1433 Gerónimo Carrion, 4 Aug. 1865; disputes with the chamObserved in Scotland; termed "Mirk Monday"..8 April, 1652 bers; resigns

Dec. 1867 Total eclipse, visible in England; the darkness so great Dr. Xavier Espinosa was elected president......13 Sept. that the stars shone, and the birds went to roost at Dr. Gabriel Garcia Moreno president

..end of 1872 .3 May, 1715 President Moreno assassinated. 6 Ang.; state of siege Last total eclipse observed in England; seen near Salis

proclaimed, Sept. 1875; Veintimille president. ... Sept. 1876 bury

22 May, 1724 Revolt; constitutional army under Aparicio defeated at Remarkable one, central and annular in the inter or of


14 Dec. Europe. ..7 Sept. 1802 Eruption of Cotopaxi

... 25 June. 1977 Total eclipses-17 July, 1833; 8 July, 1812; 28 July, 1851.

(See Earthquakes, 1868.)




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