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Eddas (thought formerly to mean Oldemoder, or | Improved by David I...

1121 to 1153 “mother of mothers;" by others, "art"), two books of Holyrood abbey founded by David I..

Edinburgh constituted a burgh..

.about songs and sagas (prose and verse) containing the Scan- Castle held by England....

1174-86 dinavian mythology (or history of Odin, Thor, Frea, etc.), A parliament held here under Alexander II.


1296 written by skalds, or bards, about the eleventh or twelfth City taken by the English. century, Translations have been made into French, Surrenders to Edward III..

Grant of the town of Leith to Edinburgh English, etc. MSS. of the Eddas exist at Copenhagen St. Giles's cathedral built..

1359 and Upsal.

City burned by Richard II., 1305; and by Henry IV.. 1401

James II, first king crowned here.. Eddystone (or EDYSTONE) Light-house, off the Execution of the earl of Athol. port of Plymouth, erected by the Trinity House to en- Annual fair granted by James II.


1450 able ships to avoid the Eddystone rock. The first light- city strengthened by a wall..

Charter of James III...

1477 house was commenced under Mr. Winstanley, in 1696 ; Edinburgh made tho metropolis by James III..

1482 finished in 1699; and destroyed in the dreadful tempest Royal College of Surgeons incorporated... of 27 Nov. 1703, when Mr. Winstanley and others per

Charter of James IV.

[The palace of Holyrood was built in the reign of ished. A wooden one, by Rudyerd, was built by order James IV.) of parliament, and all ships were ordered to pay one High-school founded...

about 1518 penny per ton inwards and outwards towards supporting A British force, landing from a fleet of 200 ships, burns it, 1708. This light-house was burned 4 Dec. 1755; and Leith is again burned, but Edinburgh is spared.

both Edinburgh and Leith..

.May, 1544 one on a better plan, erected by Mr. Smeaton, finished 9 Tolbooth built.... Oct. 1759. The woodwork of this, burned in 1770, was Marriage of queen Mary and lord Darnley.

1565 David Rizzio murdered..

1566 replaced by stone.

Lord Darnley blown up in a private house by gunpowder, The foundation having given way, a new one was designed by

10 Feb. 1567 Mr. James N. Douglass, engineer of the Trinity House. The Mary marries James, earl of Bothwell... ......15 May, foundation stone was laid by the duke of Edinburgh in the Mary's forced resignation; civil war. presence of the prince of Wales, 19 Aug. 1879. The corner- Death of John Knox.

1572 stone was placed by the duke on 1 June, 1881.

University chartered (see Edinburgh University). 14 April, 1582
Bothwell's attempt on Holyrood house.

27 Dec. 1591 “Eden," ship burned; see Wrecks, 1873.

Riot in the city; the mob attacks the king

1596 Edessa (now Orfah), a town in Mesopotamia, said Janos. Le leaves Edinburgh as king of England, 5 April,

1603; he revisits it.

..16 May, 1617 by some to have been built by Nimrod; by Appian, to George Heriot's hospital founded by his will.. have been built by Seleucus. It became famous for its Charles I. visits Edinburgh..

June, 1633 schools of theology in the fifth century. It was made a

Riots in Greyfriars church at the reading of the English

. 23 July, 1637 principality by the crusaders, and was taken by the Sara- Parliament-house finished.

1640 cens, 1145; by Nur-ed-teen, in 1141; and the Turks, in Charles again visits the city..

.Dec. 1650 1184. Its ancient kings or rulers were named Abgarus The castle is surrendered to Cromwell..

Mercurius Caled first Edinburgh newspaper, ap. and Mannus.


1661 Edgecote, see Bunbury.

Coffee-houses first opened..
Merchants' Company incorporated..

1681 Edgehill Fight (23 Oct. 1642), Warwickshire, be- College of Physicians incorporated.. tween the royalists under prince Rupert and the parlia- Earl of Argyll beheaded..

.30 June, 1685

African and East India Company incorporated. ment army under the earl of Essex, was the first impor- Bank of Scotland founded. tant engagement in the civil war. Charles I. was present, Union of the kingdoms.... and the earl of Lindsay, who headed the royal foot, was Royal bank founded..


Board of trustees of trade and manufactures appointmortally wounded. The king lost 5000 killed. The action was indecisive, though the parliament claimed the Royal Infirmary incorporated..

1736 victory.

Affair of Captain Porteous (see Porteous). .7 Sept.
Medical Society instituted....

1737 Edict of Nantes, by which Henry IV. of France The young Pretender occupies Holyrood.. .17 Sept. 1745 granted toleration to his Protestant subjects, 13 April, Battle of Preston Pans.. 1598, was confirmed by Louis XIII. in 1610, and by Louis Modern improvements. "New town” commenced...... 1753 XIV. in 1652. It was revoked by Louis XIV. 22 Oct. Royal Exchange completed....

Magistrates assigned gold chains..


1761 1685. This act cost France 50,000 Protestant families, Foundation of the North bridge.

.21 Oct. 1763 and gave to England and Germany thousands of indus- Theatre Royal erected....

Great fire in the Lawn market. trious artisans. It also caused a tierce insurrection in Register-office, Princes street, commenced.


1774 Languedoc; see Camisurds. Some of the refugees set- Calton bill observatory founded.

25 July, 1776 tled in Spitalfields, where their descendants yet remain; Great commotion against popery.

.2 Feb. 1779

1780 others settled in Soho and St. Giles's, and pursued the Society of Antiquaries,

Royal Society of Edinburgh incorporated. art of making crystal glasses, and carried on the silk South bridge commenced...

1 Aug. 1785 manufacture and jewelry, then little understood in Eng- Royal College of Surgeons incorporated.. land.

First stone of present university laid..

16 Nov. 1789 Robertson, the historian, dies here.

11 June, 1793 Edicts, public ordinances and decrees, usually set Bridewell, Calton hill, erected...

1796 forth by sovereigns; originated with the Romans. The Holyrood, an asylum to Louis XVIII, and his brother, PERPETUAL Evict: Salvius Julianus, of Milan, a civilian New Bank of Scotland commenced.

afterwards Charles X...

1795 to 1799

.3 June, 1801 at Rome (author of several treatises on public right), Edinburgh Review first published..

10 Oct. 1802 was employed by the emperor Adrian to draw up this New system of police established.

1805 body of laws for the prætors, promulgated 132.

Alarming riots here.

.31 Dec. 1811

Nelson's monument completed. Edinburgh, the metropolis of Scotland, derives its Water Company incorporated..

Gas Company incorporated. name-in ancient records Edinbure and Dun Edin," the Professor Playfair dies


.20 July, hill of Edin"_from its castle, founded or rebuilt by Ed Society of Aris instituted

1821 win, king of Northumbria, who, having greatly extended Union Canal completed.,

1822 his dominions, erected it for the protection of his newly George IV.'s visit; foundation of the national monument,

15-27 Aug acquired territories from the incursions of the Scots and Royal Institution erected

1823 Picts, 626. But it is said the castle was first built by Destructive fires...

..June and Nov. 1824 Camelon, king of the Picts, 330 B.C. It makes a con

Scottish Academy founded.

18:26 Lord Melville's monument erected.

1828 spicuous appearance, standing on a rock 300 feet high at Edinburgh and Dalkeith railway opened ..July, 1831 the west end of the old town, and, before the use of great Statue of George IV. erected....


Death of sir Walter Scott.. guns, was a fortification of considerable strength.

.21 Sept.

Chambers's Edinburgh Journal publ shed, Christianity introduced (reign of Donald 1.)....

201 Association of the Fine Arts, City fortified, and castle rebuilt by Valcolm Canmore... 1074 The British Association meets here.

.8 Sept. 1834


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Edinburgh and Granton railway begun...

1836 Edinburgh University. A college was comArt Union of Scotland....

1837 Monument to sir Walter Scott commenced.

menced by the town council of Edinburgh in 1581, for

1840 Society of Arts, founded 1821; incorporated.

1842 which queen Mary had given the site of ancient relig. Edinburgh and Glasgow railway opened...

.Feb. ious houses, and Robert Reid, bishop of Orkney, the Queen Victoria visits Edinburgh, etc....31 Aug.-15 Sept. Secession, and formation of the Free Church.... 18 May, 1843 James VI., afterwards James I. of England. The first

funds in 1558. In 1582 the university was chartered by New College instituted... North British railway commenced.....

1844 principal was appointed in 1585. The foundation-stone The monument to the political martyrs of 1793-4 laid by

of the new buildings was laid by Francis, lord Napier, Mr. Hume...

A Aug. Sir Walter Scott's monument completed

1845 grand-master of the Masons of Scotland, 16 Nov. 1789. Edinburgh Philosophical Association (established 1832) In 1845 the library contained upwards of 80,000 vol

reorganized as the Edinburgh Philosophical Society, 1846 umes, besides numerous curious and rare MSS. and docNorth British railway opened..

..18 June,

uments, Dr. Lyon Playfair elected the first M.P. for British Association (second time) meets 31 July, 1850 The queen again visits Edinburgh,

29 Aug.

Edinburgh and St. Andrew's universities in conformity Prince Albert lays the foundation-stone of the Scotch Na- with the act of 1868, Dec. 1868. Great movement to tional Gallery

.30 Aug.

extend the university; meeting in London; large subMeeting to vindicate Scottish rights

.2 Nov. 1853 Old buildings near Lawn market burned ....5 Aug. 1857 scriptions, 7 Dec. 1874. Act passed for building new Post-office.. ...July, 1858 Edinburgh's, DUKE OF, Annuity Act, passed 5 National Gallery opened

.21 March, 1859 Aug. 1873. It gave power to the queen to grant an adAgitation against Ministers' Annuity tax. ..Sept. Lord Brougham elected chancellor of the university, Ed

ditional annuity to the duke of 10,0001, on his marriage inburgh...

.1 Nov. to the grand-duchess Marie Alexandrovna, and an annuMinisters' tax abolished, and other arrangements made

which did not give satisfaction: riots ensued... Nov. 1860 ity of 6000l, to the grand-duchess if she should survive 20,000 volunteers reviewed by the queen in Queen's

the duke. The marriage took place 23 Jan. 1874. park..

7 Aug. Edmunds's Case, see under Patents. Industrial Museum act passed.

28 Aug. Edinburgh visited by empress Eugénie. .20 Nov.

Edom, see Idumea. The prince consort lays foundation of new Post - office and Industrial Museum...

.23 Oct. 1861

Education, the art of developing the physical, inFall of a house in High street, 35 persons killed. . 24 Nov. tellectual, and moral faculties of man, bas occupied the Accident on Edinburgh and Glasgow railway-17 killed, geatest minds in all ages : Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, above 100 wounded..

13 Oct. 1862 Cicero, Quintilian, Bacon, Milton, Locke, Rousseau, etc. Lord Palmerston's visit .

.31 March-4 April, 1864 Theatre Royal burned: George Lorimer, dean of guild,

In England the earliest schools for the lower classes and seven persons killed by fall of wall, while endeay. were those attached to the monasteries; for the higher oring to extricate others..

.13 Jan. 1865 classes halls and colleges were gradually founded; see Statues of Allan Ramsay and John Wilson inaugurated,

25 March,

Arts, Schools, Oxford, Cambridge, Endowed Schools, AsNew Post office opened

.7 May, 1866 cham Society, etc. National Museum of Science and Art opened by prince William of Wykeham planted the school at Winchester,

Alfred (who is created duke of Edinburgh, etc., the first whence arose his colleges at that place and Oxford.... 1370 royal prince whose leading title was Scotch, 24 May), Eton college founded by Henry VI...

143 19 May, After the Reformation education was greatly promoted, Great reform demonstration..

17 Nov.

and many grammar-schools were erected and endowed Explosion in the Canongate, at Hammond's, a firework.

by Edward VI and Elizabeth...

.1535-65 maker's--5 killed, many injured..

..9 Oct. 1867 Christ's Hospital, the Blue-coat school, established.. 1553 Visit of Mr. Disraeli, chancellor of the exchequer; con- Westminster school founded by Elizabeth.

1560 servative demonstration....

.29, 30 Oct.

Foundation of Rugby school by Lawrence Sheriff, 1567; Meeting to propose restoration of St. Giles's cathedral, of Harrow school by John Lyon...

1571 1 Nov. The Charterhouse founded by Thomas Sutton..

1611 Visit of John Bright; made freeman.

.3 Nov. 1868 Many charity-schools founded in opposition to Catholic The Annuity tax Abolition act passed. . .9 Aug. 1870

... about 1687 The prince of Wales installed as patron of the Freema- Queen Anne, a zealous friend of education, founded the sons of Scotland, 12 Oct.; laid the foundation stone of

Grey-coat school, Westminster, and cordially suported the new Royal Infirmary.

.13 Oct.

parochial charity-schools (one established at St. MargaMeeting of British Association (third). .2 Aug. 1871 ret's, Westminster, 1688).

1698 Scott centenary celebrated...

.9 (for 15) Aug. Nearly 2000 of these schools established in Great Britain Restoration of St. Giles's cathedral begun.. .17 June, 1872 and Ireland, principally by the instrumentality of the Lady Burdett-Coutts made a burgess...

15 Jan. 1873 Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. 1698-1741 The earl of Derby elected lord rector of the university, Robert Raikes set up Sunday-schools. ............, about 1781

14 Nov. 1874 In 1833 there were 16,828 of these schools, with 1,548,590 Theatre Royal destroyed by fire

.6 Feb. 1875 scholars. Advocates' library injured by fire..

...3 March, Joseph Lancaster, a young Quaker, began to instruct the Southminster theatre burned..

.14 March,
children of the poor

1796 Freedom of city given to right hon. W. E. Forster..5 Nov. He had 90 pupils before he was 18 years old, and 1000 Earl of Derby's address as lord rector.

17 Dec.
pupils in

1798 Statue of Dr. Livingstone unveiled. 15 Aug. 1876 Sunday-school l'nion formed..

1802 Albert memorial inaugurated by the queen ...17 Ang To provide teachers, he invented the monitorial system. Fire at Leith Walk-7 killed through fall of a house, In consequence of his exertions the present British

20 Dec. 1877 and Foreign School Society was founded, with the Messrs. Nolson's printing - office burned ; great loss, name of the Royal Lancasterian Institution,'' etc... 1805

10 April, 1878 This, being unexclusive, was followed by the institution Statue of Dr. Chalmers, by Steell, unveiled...... 27 July, of the Church of England “National Society for EduMarquess of Hartington installed lord rector.....31 Jan. 1879 cating the Poor," on Dr. Bell's system.

1811 New water-works (Portmore reservoir at the Moorsoot Infant Schools began

.about 1815 Hills) opened by the lord provost.

.13 June, The Charity Commission, appointed at the instance of St. Mary's cathedral (Episcopal) founded by the duke of Mr. (afterwards lord) Brougham, published their '* Re. Buccleuch, 1874; consecrated... ......30 Oct.

ports on Education,' in 37 vols, folio


Irish National School System (to accommodate both RoEdinburgh, BiSHoPRIC OF, was created by Charles man Catholics and Protestants) organized mainly by I. when in Scotland in 1633; and William Forbes, min- archbishop Whately and the Roman Catholic arch ister of Edinburgh, first bishop. The king allotted the City of London School, Honey lane, opened.

bishop Murray


1834 parishes of the shires of Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Had- Thỏ Home and Colonial School Society was instituted... 1836 dington, and a part of Berwick and of Stirlingshire, to Practical technical instruction given in the Chester Diocompose the see, The sixth and last prelate was Alex

cesan Training College (rev. Arthur Rigg, principal). 1839-69

In 1834 the government began ASNTAL GRANTS (ibe tirst ander Ross, who was ejected on the abolition of episco- 20,0001.), which continued till the Committee of the pacy, at the period of the revolution, in 1689. Edin- Privy Council on Education was constituted for the

distribution of the money.. burgh became a post-revolution bishopric in 1720; see

The Voluntary School Society and the Congregational Bishops.

Board of Education formed.

.about 1843

1814 Edinburgh Review (by Francis Jeffrer. rer. Ragged School Union established Sydney Smith, Henry Brougham, and other whigs) | Out of a population of 17,927,609, there were 2,414, 451

..0t 1847

Educational Times, monthly, established. published first on 10 Oct, 1802.

day scholars



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.. Oct.


A great educational conference took place at Willis's tion from the dissenters, it passed, and received the Rooms, the prince consort in the chair....22–24 June, 1857 royal assent.....

...9 Aug. 1870 The Industrial Schools act passed in.

(Amended in 1872. 1873, and 1876.) Middle class examinations from the university of Oxford 10,0001. voted by the Christian Knowledge Society in aid begau, June, 1858. The examiners granted the degree

of Church of England schools, .

20 Oct. of A. A. to many persons at Liverpool, Leeds, etc. ; sim. First election of Metropolitan school board (lord Lawilar examinations from Cambridge took place in the rence, chairman).

29 Nov. autumn..

1858 National university for industrial and technical training Report of Commissioners on Popular Education (appoint- proposed..

Oct. ed 1858), published 18 March, 1861, led to the minute

[Meeting held to promote it, 5 July, 1871.) of the Committee of the Privy Council on Education Regulations for school boards issued.

21 Dec. establishing a revised code of regulations; adopted 21 New Revised Code discussed...

March, 1871 July, 1861, to come into operation after 31 March, London School-board Education Scheme proposed, 1862. It decreed regular examinations of the pupils,

23 June, payment by results, evening schools for adulis, and At the London school-board, after sharp discussion, the other changes, which raised a storm of opposition from religious difficulty respecting payment for poor chil. the clergy and schoolmasters. The subject was much dren at denominational schools settled for a year, agitated in parliament (25, 28 March, 1862), but eventu

2 Nov. ally a compromise was effected...

.5 May, 1862 Arrangements for erecting or adapting buildings for new Official instructions for the administration of the Re

schools made by London school-board....

Dec. vised Code issued.....

Sept. Conference of masters of grammar-schools at Highgate, Four establishments in England, France, Germany, and

28 Dec. Italy proposed; the idea is attributed to Mr. Cobden Mr. Dixon's and the nonconformists' censure on the Eleand Mr. Michel Chevalier

mentary Education act; negatived in the commons, "Conscience clause,” founded on the Endowed Schools


.5 March, 1872 act, March, 1860, introduced by the Committee of Scientific instruction: royal commission appointed, May, Council on Education for parishes where only ono 1870; reported..

.. April, 1871; April, school is required. It provided for the admission of Education (Scotland) act passed..

.. 10 Aug. children of dissenters, and exempted them from relig. The London school-board determine to open separate ious teaching and attendance at public worship..Nov. 1863 schools for dirty, unruly children

20 Nov. (Report, 10 June, 1865.)

“Society for Organization of Academical Study” pro. It has been much opposed by the clergy ever since, and posed by sir B. C. Brodie, Dr. Carpenter, prof. Rollescreated much controversy in.. .1866-7 ton, and others, at a meeting...

.16 Nov. College and Public School Commission Report signed Irish University Bill introduced by Mr. Gladstone, 16 Feb. 1864

13 Feb. 1873 Royal commission appointed to inquire into the state First London board-school (at Whitechapel) opened, of education in Scotland. First meeting at Edinburgh,

12 July, 14 Nov. College for northern counties at Knutsford; foundation Miss Burdett-Coutts proposes the establishment of small


.24 Sept. village schools, to be taught by “ambulatory” teach- College for higher education of women, opened at Gir.

Jan. 1865 ton (which see).. Parliamentary committee appointed to inquire into the Great meeting for religious denominational education at best mode of benetiting schools unassisted by the state,

St. James's Hall..

.6 Nov. 28 Feb. Second Metropolitan school-board elected; religious party Training ship established for homeless boys of London; the strongest (Mr., afterwards sir, Charles Reed, M.P., 50 boys placed there by Boys' Refuge committee (see


..27 Nov. Chichester)

..18 Dec. 1866 The universities nominate a board for the examination Committee appointed at a meeting for establishment of of pupils from public schools..

Dec. higher schools for middle classes in London by means Domestic Economy. --Study of food and clothing intro. of funds of lapsed charities, etc., 7 Nov.; nearly 28,0001. duced into government educational department. 1874

subscribed by end of Dec. 1865; 51,3491 received. Oct. Mr. Dixon's compulsory attendance bill rejected (320The subscribers incorporated by charter; their first


.1 July, school opened by lord mayor and others in Bath street, Result of first university examination of 221 schools: St. Luke's

...1 Oct.

Winchester, 34 certiticates; Manchester, 27; Marl. Great prosperity reported at the annual meeting. 18 Mar. 1867 borough, 15; Eton, 13; Sherborne, 11; Wellington Col. Foundation of the London College of the International lege, 10; Rugby, 6, etc.; Christ's Hospital and others, Education Society laid by the prince of Wales,

1; published

..Sept. 10 July, London school-board occupy their new building on Vic. Resolutions moved in the lords by earl Russell (asserting

toria Embankment....

...30 Sept, that every child has a right to education, and recom. New code of raised standards for schools issued. . March, 1875 mending appointment of a cabinet minister of educa- Nuneham college at Cambridge for women opened, tion), withdrawn.....

18 Oct. Important report of schools inquiry commissioners signed First annual conference of teachers..

14 Jan. 1876 2 Dec.

Mr. Dixon's bill for universal school boards and comConference at Manchester recommend compulsory edu

pulsory education rejected by the commons (281–260), cation, to be paid for by rates.. 15 Jan. 1868

April, Public Schools bill brought into the commons....7 Feb. Another Elementary Education act introduced by lord Public Elementary Education bill brought into the lords Sandon, 18 May; a clause permitting unnecessary by duke of Marlborough, 24 March; withdrawn

school boards to be suppressed introduced by Mr. Pell; 18 May,

carried 24 July; 3d reading (119-46), 5 Aug (conTechnical Education. — Minute of Committee of Educa

sidered reactionary) royal assent..

.15 Aug tion, recommending the foundation of scholarships for International congress on education at Philadelphia, giving scientific instruction to artisans........21 Dec.

July, Mr. (now sir) Joseph Whitworth's offer to found 30 schol- Third Metropolitan school · board elected; majority

arships of annual valuo of 1001. each for instruction of against denominational school systems (sir Charles young men in mechanics, etc., 18 March, accepted by Reed, chairman)..

.30 Nov. the lords of the council..

27 March, National Education League dissolved.. .28 March, 1877 Foundation of the first new building for a middle class Election of school attendance committees under the new school in London laid by the lord mayor, Lawrence

.. April, (very successful, 1873)...

15 Dec. Technical Education.-City and Guilds of London InstiPublic Schools act (modifying the government of Eton, tute for the advancement of Technical Education; plan Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse, Harrow, Rug.

recommended by a committee, lord Selborne, chairby, and Shrewsbury schools) passed 31 July, 1868; man, published June; the institute formally consti. amendment acts..

.9 Aug. 1869, 1870, 1873 tuted, 11 Nov. 1878; foundation of the building laid by New statutes for them issued. ...Oct.-Nov. 1869 prince Leopold..

..10 May, 1881 National Education League (advocating compulsory sec- Primary schools in Great Britain: in 1854, 3825; in 1855,

ular education by the state) first met at Birmingham 4800; in 1860, 7272; in 1870, 10,949; in 1877, 18,118; (see below, 1877)..

12, 13 Oct.

in 1878, 19,291; in 1879, 20, 169. National Education Union for supplementing the pres- Amnnal grant for primary schools in Great Britain: in ent denominational system first met at Manchester, 1861, 813,4421.; in 1865, 636,8061. ; in 1870, 840,3361. ;

3 Nov.

in 1878, 2, 463,6561. ; in 1879, 2,732,5301. ; in 1880, Conference of masters of city companies at the Mansion

2,854,9381. House to promote technical education.........5 Nov. Intermediate Education act for Ireland passed. .. 16 Aug. 1878 Conference at the Society of Arts to reconcile the League Education act (Scotland) amended.

.16 Aug and the Union..

..7 Feb. 1870 Revised Code, 7 Feb. 1877; 2 April, 1878. ... April, 1879 Scientific instruction and advancement commission ap. 161st metropolitan-board school opened by sir Charles pointed.

..19 May,
Reed, at Portland town...

23 June, First “drill-review" of London charity - schools, and The Queen u. sir Charles Reed; the Queen's Bench deothers, at the Crystal Palace...

.21 June,

cide that the school-board has power to borrow money, Elementary Education bill introduced by Mr. W. E.

27 June, Forster, 17 Feb.; afer much discussion, and opposi. Metropolitan school-board children on the rolls: 1871,

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1117; 1873, 50,606; 1876, 146,031; 1878 (Christmas), Syphoas introduces the use of an alphabet (l'sher)..... 1891 207,289.

Memnon invents Egyptian characters ? (Blair, Lenglet).. 18:22 Fourth Metropolitan school board elected (sir Charles Amenophis I. acknowledged king of all Egypt (Lenglet). 1821 Reed, chairman) ...27 Nov. 1879 Joseph is sold into Egypt as a slave.

1728 Technical College for north of England inaugurated at He interprets the king's dreams.

1715 Newcastle. 24 Sept. 1880 His father and brethren settle here..

1706 Important decision respecting school fees and attendance Rameses III., or Sesostris, reigns; he extends his domin. (see Trials).

27 June, 1881 ion by conquest over Arabia, Persia, India, and Asia The grant for public education in Great Britain, in 1852,

Minor (Lenglet) uncertain.

1618 was 150,0001. ; 1856-7, 451,2131. ; 1860, 798,9517. ; 1861, Settlement of the Ethiopians (Blair).

1615 803,7941. ; 1864, 705, 4011. ; 1867, 705,8651. For Ireland, Rameses, who imposed on bis subjects the building of 1860, 270,7221. ; 1861, 285,3771. ; 1863, 316,7701. From

walls and pyramids, and other labors, di (Lengl«t)... 1492 1839 to 1860, 3,655,0671, were granted for education. The persecution of the Jews; the exodus of the Israel The grant for education, science, and art, in 1861, was


1491 1,358,9961. ; for 1867-8, 1,487,5541. ; 1872, 1,551,5601. ; Amenophis II, is overwhelmed in the Red Sea, with all 1874-5, 2, 228, 4701. (in addition, 3,060,5667. were locally his army (Lenglet, Blair) raised); 1876–7, England, 707,0551.; Scotland, 438, 2271, ; Reign of Ægyptus, from whom the country, hitherto Ireland, 649,9497. ; for year 1876-7 (United Kingdom),

called Mizraim, is now called Egypt (Blair)..

1485 3,349,3977. ; 1879-80 (Great Britain), 2,854,9381.

Reign of Thuoris (the Proteus of the Greeks); his faculty EDUCATION SOCIETY, formed in July, 1875, for examining of assuming whatever form he pleased probably deand propounding the principles upon which the prac- noted bis policy.

1189 tice of education should be founded, by prof. Alexan- Pseusennes (Shishak) enters Palestine, ravages Judæa, der Bain, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, and others. Branches

and carries off the sacred vessels..

971 have been formed in Dublin and other places.

The dynasty of kings called Tanites begins with PetuAscham Society (which see) formed....... 1880 bastes (Blair).

825 The dynasty of Saites (Blair)..

781 Education IN THE UNITED STATES. In the Sebacon (the Ethiopian) invades Egypt, subdues the United States popular education is provided for by the king, Bocchoris, whom he orders to be roasted alive several states acting independently; but the systems in


737 the several states differ Only in details. Early in the The Dodekarchy (12 rulers) expelled by Psammetichus

650 history of the country, free district schools became com- He invests Azoth, which holds out for nineteen years, the mon in the North, and out of these has grown the vast longest siege of antiquity (Usher)...


Necho begins the canal between the Arabian gulf and system of absolutely free, popular education now in ex

the Mediterranean sea (Blair)..

610 istence in all the states, by means of which every child This canal abandoned after costing the lives of 120,000 in the country is offered thorough elementary secular

men (Herodotus)..

609 education, without cost.

581 The common-school system is Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon deposes Apres..

Apries taken prisoner and strangled in his palace (Diod. supplemented by state normal schools, and the higher Siculus)..

571 education is provided for by the colleges (which see). The philosopher Pythagoras comes from Samos into

Egypt, and is instructed in the mysteries of Egyptian National grants of land in aid of education, arst made... 1803

theology (Usher)

535 National Educational Association formed.

1860 The line of the Pharaohs ends in the murder of Psam. National Bureau of Education established .

menitus by Cambyses (Blair)...

6:26 George Peabody gave the sum of $2,100,000 for the pro

Dreadful excesses of Cambyses; he puts the children of motion of education in the South..


the grandees, male and female, to death, and makes Increased the gift to $3,500,000..

the country a waste (Iterodotus). .

524 Mr. Peabody had already given $1,250,000 in aid of

He sends an army of 50.000 men across the desert to de. higher education in the United States, founding mu

stroy the temple of Jupiter Ammon, but they all perish seums at Harvard and Yale colleges, and institutes at

in the burning sands (Justin). Baltimore and elsewhere.

Egypt revolts from the Persians; again subdued by (See College, Academy, etc.) Xerxes (Blair).....

487 Égalité (Equality), see Orleans.

A revolt under Inarus (Blair)


Successful revolt under Amyrtæus, who is proclaimed Eggs. The duty on imported eggs was repealed in king (Lenglel)...

414 1860, whereby the revenue lost about 20,0001. a year. Egypt again reduced by Ochus, king of Persia, and its

350 Number imported into Great Britain : in 1861, 203,313,- Alexander the Great conquers Egypt and founds Alex

temples pillaged (Usher)... 360; in 1865, 364,013,040; in 1869, 442,172,610; in 1870, andria...

332 430,812,240; in 1876, 753,026,610; 1877, 751,185,600; Prolemy I. (Lagus) Soter re-establishes the monarchy :: 323

Ptolemy II. Philadelphus (with his father), 285; alone 1879, 766,707,840.

[the museum of Alexandria founded; the Septuagint Eglintoun Tournament, see Tournament.

version of the Hebrew Scriptures made; the Pharos completed)..

283-247 Egypt.* The carly seat of political civilization. Ambassadors first sent to Rome..

209 1st epoch : the dynasty of its Pharaohs, or “great Ptolemy III. Euergetes reigns,

247 kings,” commenced with Mizraim, the son of Ham, Overruns Syria, and returns laden with rich spoils and

2500 statues and vessels of gold and silver, which second son of Noah, 2188 B.C. to the conquest by Cam- Cambyses had taken from the Egyptian temples (Blair) 246 byses, 525 B.C. 20 epoch: to the death of Alexander Ptolemy IV. Philopator

Nov. 222 the Great, and establishment of the Ptolemies, 323 B.C.

Battle of Raphia; Ptolemy defeats Antiochus, king of

217 30 epoch : to the death of Cleopatra and the subjuga- Ptolemy V. Epiphanes..

Nov. 205 tion by the Romans, 30 B.C.; see Alexundria and Cairo. Embassy to Rome..

200 Population (1877) of Egypt proper, about 5,517,627; Ptolemy VI. Philometor.

..Oct. 181

At the death of Philometor, his brother Physcon (Ptole. Nubia, 1,000,000; total, with other territories, about

my VII. Energetes) marries his queen, and on the day 17,000,000.

of his nuptials murders the infant son of Philometor in its mother's arms..

Xov. 146 Dynasty of Menes (conjectural)..

.B.C. 2717 or 2412 His subjects, wearied by his cruelties and crimes, com. Mizraim builds Memphis (Blair)...

pel him to flee..

130 Egypt made four kingdoms: viz., I'pper Egypt, Lower Egypt, This, and Memphis (abbé Lenglet, Blair)..

He defeats the Egyptians and recovers his throne, 128; 2126 dies...

117 Athotes invents hieroglyphics.

21:22 Busiris builds Thebes (Usher)..

Ptolemy VIII Soter II. and Cleopatra his mother. 2111 Alexander I. and Cleopatra..

107 (symandyas, the first warlike king, passes into Asia,

Ptolemy VIII, restored.. conquers Bactria, and causes his exploits to be represented in sculpture and painting (Usher, Lenglet)

Revolt in Upper Egypt; Thebes destroyed after a siege 2100 of three years (Diod. Siculus)..

82 The Phænicians invade Lower Egypt, and hold it 260 Alexander II. and Cleopatra I ...

81 years (Usher): the dynasty of Shepherd kings begins. 2090 Ptolemy IX. Auletes. The Lake of Morris constructed..

Berenice and Tryphæna

58 The patriarch Abraham visits Egypt..

1920 Auletes restored, 55; leaves his kingdom to Ptolemy and Cleopatra...

51 * Three magnificent works on Egypt have been published: During a civil war between Ptolemy and Cleopatra U., in France commenced by Napoleon, and the savans who Alexandria is besieged by Cæsar, and the library nearaccompanied him to Egypt), * Description de l'Égypte," ly destroyed by fire (Blair)... 1809-22; in Italy, Rosellini's · Monumenti dell' Egitto," 1832- Casar defeats the king, who, in crossing the Nile, is 44; and in Prussia, Leps us's "Denkmäler aus Aegypten," drowned; and the younger Ptolemy and Cleopatra 1848-50. All these are in the Library of the Royal Inst tution of Great Britain, London.

Cleopatra poisons her brother, and reigns alone

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She appears before Marc Antony to answer for th's Baker marches to Foweera; received by Raongi, enemy

crime; fascinated by her beauty, he follows her into of Kabba Rega, 18 July; returns to Faliko and sup. Egypt.


presses an insurrection of slave-dealers, probably inCleopatra in Syria...

36 cited by Abou Saoud..

..2 Aug. 1872 Antony defeated by Octavius Cæsar at the battle of Ac- Slave-trade apparently subdued; peace and prospect tium (Blair). ..

.2 Sept.
31 of prosperity

..31 Dec. Octavius enters Egypt; Antony and Cleopatra kill them- Baker returns to Gondokoro 1 April; receives honors selves; and the kingdom becomes a Roman province,

from the khedive at Cairo, 25 Aug; arrives in London, Sept. 30

9 Oct. 1873 Egypt visited by Adrian, 122; by Severus

200 Col. Gordon appointed his successor; Abou Saoud his Monachism begin in Egypt by Antony

305 subordinate.. Destruction of the temple and worship of Serapis . 389 Baker's work, “ Ismailia,” published...

.Nov. 1874 Egypt conquered by Chosroes II. of Persia..

616 Invasion of the Saracens under Amrou.. June, 638 The first stone of the new port laid by the khedive, Conquest of Alexandria... .22 Dec. 640

15 May, 1871 Cairo founded by the Saracens...

969 The khedive's son, prince Hassan, made D.C.L. at OxConquest by the Turks ... .1163-96

.13 June, 1872 Government of the Mamelukes established.

1250 The khedive visits the sultun; Constantinople rejoices, Selim I., emperor of the Turks, conquers Egypt... 1517

25 June, It is governed by beys till a great part of the country is The sultan, by a firman, renders the khedive practically conquered by the French, under Bonaparte (see Alex

independent (he must not coin money, make treaties, andria).. 1798-99 or build iron-clads)..

.8 June, 1873 The invaders dispossessed by the British, and the Turk- First Egyptian budget produced; asserted revenue, 10,ish government restored. 1801 166,0001. ; cxpenditure, 9,010,0001..

.Oct. Mehemet Ali massacres the Mamelukes, and obtains the Mr. Acton and Mr. Pennell employed to arrange finances supreme power ..

...1 March, 1811
of Egypt...

...spring of 1875 Arrival of Belzoni, 1815; he removes statue of Memnon, International court of justice opened by the khedive, 1816; explores temples, etc... 1817

28 June, Formation of the Mahmoud canal, connecting Alexan. The khedive's shares of Suez canal (which see) purchased dria with the Nile....

1820 by the British government; announced... ... Nov. Mehemet Pacha revolts and invades Syria..

1831 Egyptian expedition into Abyssinia surprised and defeatHis son Ibrahim takes Acre, 27 May; overruns Syria; ed with much slaughter...

... 16 Oct. defeats the Turks at Konieh...

..21 Dec. 1832 Rt. hon. Stephen Cave sent on special mission to Egypt, He advances on Constantinople, which is entered by Rus.

Dec. sian auxiliaries, 3 April; war ends with convention of New (Gregorian) style adopted; mixed courts opened, Kutayah. 4 May, 1833

1 Jan. 1876 Mehemet again revolts, claiming hereditary power; Ibra- Resignation of Nubar Pacha, able minister of commerce, him defeats the Turks at Nezib.. 24 June, 1839 announced...

.4 Jan. England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia undertake to expel War with Abyssinia (which see).

1875-7 Ibrahim from Syria; Napier bombards Beyrout, 10 Mr. Cave's report (refers to waste and extravagance; Oct. ; Acre taken by the British and Austrian fleets,

great works undertaken with insufficient means; loss under sir R. Stopford, 3 Nov.; the Egyptians quit by adventurers; inilitary expenditure; and necessity Syria...

.21 Nov. et seq. 1810 for intervention of superior power to restore credit and Peace restored by treaty; Mehemet made hereditary restrain expenditure), sent 13 March; published in viceroy of Egypt, but deprived of Syria. ......15 July, 1841 Times...

..4 April, 1876 Ibrahim Pacha dies (see Suez)...

10 Nov. 1848 The khedive decrees consolidation of his debt, 91,000,The Suez canal begun...


0001., at 7 per cent., and a sinking fund, 7 May; decrees Hereditary succession and right of coining money grant


14 and 25 May, ed, but tribute raised from 400,0001. to 750,0001. 27 May, 1861 His son Hassan received by the queen... 27 June, Malta and Alexandria telegraph opened.. ..1 Nov. Decisions of the international law.court not accepted by The viceroy Said visits Italy, France, and England, May the government; the court closed by M. Haakman; he to Sept. ; returns to Alexandria.. ..1 Oct. 1862 is superseded..

...July, Sultan of Turkey visits Egypt...

.7 April, 1863 Mr. Göschen, with M. Joubert (on behalf of the khedive's Increased cultivation of cotton in Egypt

.1863-7 creditors), arrives at Cairo, 14 Oct.; their scheme acceptAt the demand of the sultan, the viceroy sends troops to ed (debt of about 91,000,0001. to be reduced to about repress the insurgents in Arabia..

May, 1864 59,000,0001., interest of 7 per cent to be reduced to Opening of part of the Suez canal (which see)....15 Aug. 1865 about 6 per cent.); agreement signed about 10 Nov.; Direct succession to the viceroyalty granted by the announced (termed since, “Göschen decree”) is Nov. Porte..

.21 May, 1866 Ismail Sadyk, autocratic finance minister, suspected of Egyptian legislative chamber opened with a speech from conspiracy; resigns insolently; seized and banished, the viceroy. .27 Nov.

Nov. Viceroy invested with Order of the Bath (as G. C.B.) by Mr. Göschen's report approved by a meeting in London, lord Clarence Paget... .30 Jan. 1867

28 Nov. Designated "sovereign" by the sultan.. ..9 June, Col. Gordon, after successful administration, returus to The viceroy visits Paris..

16 June-5 July,

Feb. 1877 He arrives in London 6 July; received by the queen at Peace with Abyssinia negotiating by col. Gordon, June; Windsor, 8; by lord Derby, 10; by the lord mayor, 11; terms said to be accepted..

.Oct. departs.

18 July,

Bad report respecting Egyptian finances, Feb.; commis. The viceroy (now termed the Khedive) visited England, sion appointed...

. March, 1878 22 June, 1869 Egypt at peace; all soldiers at home.

20 April, Present at the inauguration of the Suez canal...17 Nov. Confidence restored by decree for payment of official The differences between the sultan and himself respect


12 May, ing prerogatives arranged, the viceroy giving up the Nubar Pacha again minister.

.. 15 Aug. power of imposing taxes and of contracting loads, Dec. The khedive accepts the terms of the commission; he

and his family give up landed property to the state, Sir Samuel Baker appointed solo commander of a mili

Aug. tary expedition to suppress the slave trade up the Nile, Mr. Rivers Wilson appointed finance minister, and M. de with absolute authority over the country south of Gon:

Blignières minister of works soon after........... Sept. dokoro (for four years from 1 April, 1869).....10 May, Attacks on them and Nubar Pacha by discontented of. Departure from Khartoum. 8 Feb. 1870 ficers at Cairo dispersed....

.19 Feb. 1879 Many delays and impediments; proceods to explore

Nubar Pacha resigns..

..19 Feb. White Nile..

11 Aug. Definitive peace between the khedive and Abyssinia anArrives at Gondokoro 15 April; names it Ismailia, and


Feb. officially annexes it to Egypt..

... 20 May, 1871 Prince Tewlik, president of the council, and Nubar Pacha, War with the warlike and treacherous Baris of Belinian; foreign minister.

.about 5 March, beats them in several engagements. ...July-Sept. Mr. Rivers Wilson and M. de Blignières remonstrate Supported by his model corps, “the forty thieves," he

with the khedive..

.6 April, quells disaflection and mutiny in his troops. .Oct. He puts forth a new financial scheme; Tewfik Pacha, Mr. Sends vessels with women, children, and sick to Khar. Rivers Wilson, and M. de Blignières dismissed; new toum.......

.3 Nov.

ministry, under Cherif Pacha, formed... about 7 April, Makes peace with the Baris and returns to Gondokoro, Col. Gordon's lieutenant, Gessi (Nov. 1878), completely

19 Nov.

defeats the rebel slave dealers in the Soudan, Central Advances south; suffers much by negro treachery and


.......5 May, inefficiency of his Egyptian troops; heroism of lady England and France, in a note, require the appointment Baker.... ...Jan.-Feb. 1872 of European ministers.

.. about 5 May, Arrives at the African Paradise, Faliko; meets there his England, France, Germany, Austria, and Italy recom

enemy, Abou Saoud, the slave dealer, 6 March; at Ma. mend the khedive to abdicate... ...abont 20 June, sindi, in Unyoro...

. 25 April, He refers to the sultan, who declines to interfere; the Received by Kabba Rega, the young king, who attempts khedive offers to pay his debts in full .22 June,

to poison Baker's priy, and attacks them in the night; The khedive deposed by the sultan; prince Tewfik, his he is defeated and Masindi burned. ...........8 June,

son, proclaimed his successor.. ......26 June,

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