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lending the "Aid" from the royal navy and subscribing £1000 engaged with a squadron in the siege and relief of Brest, when towards the expenses of the expedition. A Company of Cathay he received a wound at Fort Crozon from which he died at was established, with a charter from the crown, giving the Plymouth on the 22nd of November. His body was taken to company the sole right of sailing in every direction but the east; London and buried at St Giles', Cripplegate. Though he appears Frobisher was appointed high admiral of all lands and waters to have been somewhat rough in his bearing, and too strict a that might be discovered by him. On the 26th of May 1577 the disciplinarian to be much loved, Frobisher was undoubtedly one expedition, consisting, besides the "Aid,” of the ships“ Gabriel" of the most able seamen of his time and justly takes rank among and “Michael,” with boats, pinnaces and an aggregate com- England's great naval heroes. plement of 120 men, including miners, refiners, &c., left Black- See Hakluyt's Voyages; the Hakluyt Society's Three Voyages of wall, and sailing by the north of Scotland reached Hall's Island Frobisher; Rev. F. Jones's Life of Frobisher (1878); Julian Corbeti, at the mouth of Frobisher Bay on the 17th of July. A few days Drake and the Tudor Navy (1898). later the country and the south side of the bay was solemnly FROCK, originally a long, loose gown with broad sleeves, more taken possession of in the queen's name. Several weeks were now especially that worn by members of the religious orders. The spent in collecting ore, but very little was done in the way of word is derived from the O. Fr. froc, of somewhat obscure origin; discovery, Frobisher being specially directed by his commission in medieval Lat. froccus appears also as floccus, which, if it is the to " defer the further discovery of the passage until another original, as Du Cange suggests (literula mulala), would connect time." There was much parleying and some skirmishing with the word with “ flock” (9.0.), properly a luft of wool. Another the natives, and earnest but futile attempts made to recover the suggestion refers the word to the German Rock, a coat (cf. men captured the previous year. The return was begun on the “rochet "), which in some rare instances is found as hrock. The 23rd of August, and the “ Aid ” reached Milford Haven on the formal stripping off of the frock became part of the ceremony of 23rd of September; the “Gabriel ” and “Michael,” having degradation or deprivation in the case of a condemned monk; separated, arrived later at Bristol and Yarmouth.
hence the expression “ to unfrock” (med. Lat. defrocare, Fr. Frobisher was received and thanked by the queen at Windsor. défroquer) used of the degradation of monks and of priests from Great preparations were made and considerable expense incurred holy orders. In the middle ages “ frock "was also used of a long for the assaying of the great quantity of “ore ” (about 200 tons) loose coat worn by men and of a coat of mail, the “frock of mail.” brought home. This took up much time, and led to considerable In something of this sense the word survived into the 19th dispute among the various parties interested. Meantime the century for a coat with long skirts, now called the “frock coat." faith of the queen and others remained strong in the productive. The word in now chiefly used in English for a child's or young ness of the newly discovered territory, which she herself named girl's dress, of body and skirt, but is frequently used of a woman's Mela Incognita, and it was resolved to send out a larger expedi- dress. Du Cange (Glossarium, s.v. flocus) quotes an early use tion than ever, with all necessaries for the establishment of a of the word for a woman's garment (Miracula S. Udalrici, ap. colony of 100 men. Frobisher was again received by the queen | Mabillon, Acla Sanctorum Benedict. saec. v. p. 466). Here a at Greenwich, and her Majesty threw a fine chain of gold around woman, possessed of a devil, is cured, and sends her garments his neck. On the 31st of May 1578 the expedition, consisting in to the tomb of the saint, and a dalmatic is ordered to be made all of fifteen vessels, left Harwich, and sailing by the English out of the flocus or frocus. “Frock ” also appears in the “smock Channel on the 20th of June reached the south of Greenland, frock," once the typical outer garment of the English peasant. where Frobisher and some of his men managed to land. On the It consists of a loose shirt of linen or other material, worn over 2nd of July the foreland of Frobisher Bay was sighted, but the other clothes and hanging to about the knee; its characterstormy weather and dangerous ice prevented the rendezvous istic feature is the “ smocking," a puckered honeycomb stitching from being gained, and, besides causing the wreck of the barque round the neck and shoulders. “ Dennis ” of 100 tons, drove the fleet unwittingly up a new FROEBEL, FRIEDRICH WILHELM AUGUST (1782-1852), (Hudson) strait. After proceeding about 60 m. up this“ mistaken German philosopher, philanthropist and educational reformer, strait,” Frobisher with apparent reluctance turned back, and was born at Oberweissbach, a village of the Thuringian forest, after many bulietings and separations the fleet at last came to on the 21st of April 1782. Like Comenius, with whom he had anchor in Frobisher Bay. Some attempt was made at founding much in common, he was neglected in his youth, and the rea settlement, and a large quantity of ore was shipped; but, as membrance of his own early sufferings made him in after life might be expected, there was much dissension and not a little the more eager in promoting the happiness of children. His discontent among so heterogeneous a company, and on the last mother he lost in his infancy, and his father, the pastor of day of August the feet set out on its return to England, which Oberweissbach and the surrounding district, attended to his was reached in the beginning of October. Thus ended what was parish but not to his family. Friedrich soon had a stepmother, little better than a fiasco, though Frobisher himself cannot be and neglect was succeeded by stepmotherly attention; but a held to blame for the result; the scheme was altogether chim- maternal uncle took pity on him, and gave him a home for some erical, and the "ore" seems to have been not worth smelting. years at Stadt-Ilm. Here he went to the village school, but like
In 1580 Frobisher was employed as captain of one of the many thoughtful boys he passed for a dunce. Throughout life queen's ships in preventing the designs of Spain to assist the he was always seeking for hidden connexions and an underlying Irish insurgents, and in the same year obtained a grant of the unity in all things. Nothing of the kind was to be perceived reversionary title of clerk of the royal navy. In 1585 he com- in the piecemeal studies of the school, and Froebel's mind, busy manded the “ Primrose,” as vice-admiral to Sir F. Drake in his as it was for itself, would not work for the masters. His halfexpedition to the West Indies, and when soon afterwards the brother was therefore thought more worthy of a university country was threatened with invasion by the Spanish Armada, education, and Friedrich was apprenticed for two years to a Frobisher's name was one of four mentioned by the lord high forester (1797-1799). admiral in a letter to the queen of " men of the greatest ex- Left to himself in the Thuringian forest, Froebel began to perience that this realm hath," and for his signal services in the study nature, and without scientific instruction he obtained a “ Triumph," in the dispersion of the Armada, he was knighted. profound insight into the uniformity and essential unity of He continued to cruise about in the Channel until 1590, when he nature's laws. Years afterwards the celebrated Jahn (the was sent in command of a small feet to the coast of Spain. In “ Father Jahn" of the German gymnasts) told a Berlin student 1591 he wisited his native Altofts, and there married his second of a queer fellow he had met, who made out all sorts of wonderful wife, a daughter of Lord Wentworth, becoming at the same time things from stones and cobwebs. This queer fellow was Froebel; a landed proprietor in Yorkshire and Notts. He found, how and the habit of making out general truths from the observation ever, little leisure for a country life, and the following year took of nature, especially from plants and trees, dated from the solitary charge of the fleet fitted out by Sir Walter Raleigh to the Spanish rambles in the forest. No training could have been better suited coast, returning with a rich prize. In November 1594 be was lo strengthen his inborn tendency to mysticism; and when he left the forest at the early age of seventeen, he seems to have | Langethal and Middendorff. These young men, ten years been possessed by the main ideas which influenced him all his younger than Froebel, became attached to him in the field, and life. The conception which in him dominated all others was the were ever afterwards his devoted followers, sacrificing all their unity of nature; and he longed to study natural sciences that prospects in life for the sake of carrying out his ideas. he might find in them various applications of nature's universal At the peace of Fontainebleau (signed in May 1814) Froebel laws. With great difficulty he got leave to join his elder brother returned to Berlin, and became curator of the museum of at the university of Jena, and there for a year he went from mineralogy under Professor Weiss. In accepting this appointlecture-room to lecture-room hoping to grasp that connexion ment from the government he seemed to turn aside from his of the sciences which had for him far more attraction than any work as educator; but if not teaching he was learning. More particular science in itself.
But Froebel's allowance of money and more the thought possessed him that the one thing needful was very small, and his skill in the management of money was for man was unity of development, perfect evolution in accordance never great, so his university career ended in an imprisonment with the laws of his being, such evolution as science discovers of nine weeks for a debt of thirty shillings. He then returned in the other organisms of nature. He at first intended to become home with very poor prospects, but much more intent on what a teacher of natural science, but before long wider views dawncd he calls the course of self-completion” (Vervollkommnung upon him. Langethal and Middendorff were in Berlin, engaged meines selbst) than on “getting on" in a worldly point of view. in tuition. Froebel gave them regular instruction in his theory, He was sent to learn farming, but was recalled in consequence and at length, counting on their support, he resolved to set of the failing health of his father. In 1802 the father died, and about realizing his own idea of “the new education.” This was Froebel, now twenty years old, had to shift for himself. It was in 1816. Three years before one of his brothers, a clergyman, some time before he found his true vocation, and for the next had died of fever caught from the French prisoners. His widow three and a half years we find him at work now in one part of was still living in the parsonage at Griesheim, a village on the Germany now in another-sometimes land-surveying, sometimes Ilm. Froebel gave up his post, and set out for Griesheim on foot, acting as accountant, sometimes as private secretary; but in all spending his very last groschen on the way for bread. Here this his "outer life was far removed from his inner life," and in he undertook the education of his orphan niece and nephews, spite of his out ward circumstances he became more and more and also of two more nephews sent him by another brother. conscious that a great task lay before him for the good of With these he opened a school and wrote to Middendorff and humanity. The nature of the task, however, was not clear to Langethal to come and help in the experiment. Middendorff him, and it seemed determined by accident. While studying came at once, Langethal a year or two later, when the school architecture in Frankfort-on-Main, he became acquainted with had been moved to Keilhau, another of the Thuringian villages, the director of a model school, who had caught some of the which became the Mecca of the new faith. In Keilhau Froebel, enthusiasm of Pestalozzi. This friend saw that Froebel's true Langethal, Middendorff and Barop, a relation of Middendorfi's, field was education, and he persuaded him to give up architecture all married and formed an educational community. Such zeal and take a post in the model school. In this school Froebel could not be fruitless, and the school gradually increased, though worked for two years with remarkable success, but he then for many years its teachers, with Froebel at their head, were in retired and undertook the education of three lads of one family. the greatest straits for money and at times even for food. After In this he could not satisfy himself, and he obtained the parents' fourteen years' experience he determined to start other instituconsent to his taking the boys to Yverdon, near Neuchâtel, and tions to work in connexion with the parent institution at Keilhau, there forming with them a part of the celebrated institution of and being offered by a private friend the use of a castle on the Pestalozzi. Thus from 1807 till 1809 Froebel was drinking in Wartensee, in the canton of Lucerne, he left Keilhau under the Pestalozzianism at the fountainhead, and qualifying himself to direction of Barop, and with Langethal he opened the Swiss carry on the work which Pestalozzi had begun. For the science institution. The ground, however, was very ill chosen. The of education had to deduce from Pestalozzi's experience principles Catholic clergy resisted what they considered as a Protestant which Pestalozzi himself could not deduce. And“ Froebel, the invasion, and the experiment on the Wartensee and at Willisau pupil of Pestalozzi, and a genius like his master, completed the in the same canton, to which the institution was moved in 1833, reformer's system; taking the results at which Pestalozzi had never had a fair chance. It was in vain that Middendorff at arrived through the necessities of his position, Froebel developed Froebel's call left his wife and family at Keilhau, and laboured the ideas involved in them, not by further experience but by for four years in Switzerland without once sceing them. The deduction from the nature of man, and thus he attained to the Swiss institution never flourished. But the Swiss government conception of true human development and to the requirements wished to turn to account the presence of the great educator; of true education " (Schmidt's Geschichte der Pädagogik). so young teachers were sent to Froebel for instruction, and
Holding that man and nature, inasmuch as they proceed from finally Froebel moved to Burgdorf (a Bernese town of some the same source, must be governed by the same laws, Froebel importance, and famous from Pestalozzi's labours there thirty longed for more knowledge of natural science. Even Pestalozzi years earlier) to undertake the establishment of a public orphanage seemed to him not to "honour science in her divinity.” He and also to superintend a course of teaching for schoolmasters. therefore determined to continue the university course which The elementary teachers of the canton were to spend three had been so rudely interrupted eleven years before, and in 1811 months every alternate year at Burgdorf, and there compare he began studying at Göttingen, whence he proceeded to Berlin. experiences, and learn of distinguished men such as Froebel and But again his studies were interrupted, this time by the king Bitzius. In his conferences with these teachers Froebel found of Prussia's celebrated call “ to my people." Though not a that the schools suffered from the state of the raw material Prussian, Froebel was heart and soul a German. He therefore brought into them. Till the school age was reached the children responded to the call, enlisted in Lützow's corps, and went through were entirely neglected. Froebel's conception of harmonious the campaign of 1813. But his military ardour did not take development naturally led him to attach much importance 10 his mind off education. “Everywhere,” he writes, “ as far as the earliest years, and his great work on The Education of Man, the fatigues I underwent allowed, I carried in my thoughts my published as early as 1826, deals chiefly with the child up to the future calling as educator; yes, even in the few engagements age of seven. At Burgdorf his thoughts were much occupied in which I had to take part. Even in these I could gather with the proper treatment of young children, and in scheming experience for the task I proposed to myself.” Froebel's for them a graduated course of exercises, modelled on the games soldiering showed him the value of discipline and united action, in which he observed them to be most interested. In his eagerness how the individual belongs not to himself but to the whole to carry out his new plans he grew impatient of official restraints; body, and how the whole body supports the individual.
so he returned to Keilhau, and soon afterwards opened the first Froebel was rewarded for his patriotism by the friendship Kindergarten or“Garden of Children," in the neighbouring village of two men whose names will always be associated with his, I of Blankenburg (1837). Firmly convinced of the importance of the Kindergarten for the whole human race, Froebel described | immense importance of the first stage, Froebel like Pestalozzi his system in a weekly paper (his Sonntagsblatt) which appeared devoted himself to the instruction of mothers. But he would not, from the middle of 1837 till 1840. He also lectured in great like Pestalozzi, leave the children entirely in the mother's hands. towns; and he gave a regular course of instruction to young Pestalozzi held that the child belonged to the family; Fichte, teachers at Blankenburg. But although the principles of the on the other hand, claimed it for society and the state. Kindergarten were gradually making their way, the first Kinder- Froebel, whose mind delighted in harmonizing apparent congarten was failing for want of funds. It had to be given up, and tradictions, and who taught that “all progress lay through Froebel, now a widower (he had lost his wife in 1839), carried opposites to their reconciliation,” maintained that the child on his course for teachers first at Keilhau, and from 1848, for belonged both to the family and to society, and he would therethe last four years of his life, at or near Liebenstein, in the fore have children spend some hours of the day in a common Thuringian forest, and in the duchy of Meiningen. It is in these life and in well-organized common employments. These last years that the man Froebel will be best known to posterity, assemblies of children he would not call schools, for the children for in 1849 he attracted within the circle of his influence a woman in them ought not to be old enough for schooling. So he inof great intellectual power, the baroness von Marenholtz-Bülow, vented the name Kindergarten, garden of children, and calied who has given us in her Recollections of Friedrich Froebel the only the superintendents “children's gardeners.”
He laid great lifelike portrait we possess.
stress on every child cultivating its own plot of ground, but this These seemed likely to be Froebel's most peaceful days. He was not his reason for the choice of the name. It was rather married again in 1851, and having now devoted himself to the that he thought of these institutions as enclosures in which training of women as educators, he spent his time in instructing young human plants are nurtured. In the Kindergarten the his class of young female teachers. But trouble came upon him children's employment should be play. But any occupation from a quarter whence he lcast expected it. In the great year in which children delight is play to them; and Froebel invented of revolutions (1848) Froebel had hoped to turn to account the a series of employments, which, while they are in this sense general eagerness for improvement, and Middendorff had pre- play to the children, have nevertheless, as seen from the adult sented an address on Kindergartens to the German parliament. point of view, a distinct educational object. This object, as Besides this, a nephew of Froebel's, Professor Karl Froebel of Froebel himself describes it, is “to give the children employment Zürich, published books which were supposed to teach socialism. in agreement with their whole nature, to strengthen their bodies, True, the uncle and nephew differed so widely that the “new to exercise their senses, to engage their awakening mind, and Froebelians were the enemies of " the old," but the distinction through their senses to bring them acquainted with nature and was overlooked, and Friedrich and Karl Froebel were regarded their fellow creatures; it is especially to guide aright the heart as the united advocates of some new thing. In the reaction and the affections, and to lead them to the original ground of all which soon set in, Froebel found himself suspected of socialism life, to unity with themselves.” and irreligion, and in 1851 the “cultus-minister” Von Raumer Frocbel's own works are: Menschenerzichung ("Education of issued an edict forbidding the establishment of schools “after Man'), (1826), which has been translated into French and English; Friedrich and Karl Frocbel's principles ” in Prussia. This was Pädagogik d. Kindergartens; Kleinere Schriften and Mutter- und a heavy blow to the old man, who looked to the government of
Koselieder; collected editions have been edited by Wichard Lange
(1862) and Friedrich Seidel (1883). the “Cultus-staat” Prussia for support, and was met with denun- A. B. Hauschmann's Friedrich Fröbel is a lengthy and unsatisciation. Whether from the worry of this new controversy, or from factory biography. An unpretentious but useful little book is whatever cause, Froebel did not long survive the decree. His F. Froebel, a Biographical Sketch, by Matilda H. Kriege, New York seventieth birthday was celebrated with great rejoicings in May (Steiger). A very good account of Froelicl's life and thoughts is
given in Karl Schmidt's Geschichte d. Pädagogik, vol. iv.; also in 1852, but he died on the 21st of June, and was buried at Schweina, Adalbert Weber's Geschichte d. Volksschulpad. u. d. Kleinkindera village near his last abode, Marienthal, near Bad-Liebenstein.erziehung (Weber carefully gives authorities). For a less favour
“All education not founded on religion is unproductive." able account see K. Strack's Geschichte d. deutsch. Volksschulwesens, This conviction followed naturally from Froebel's conception of Frau von Marenholtz-Bülow published her Erinnerungen an F.Fröbel the unity of all things, a unity due to the original Unity from terpreter of Froebel, has expounded his principles in Das Kind u. whom all proceed and in whom all “ live, move and have their sein Wesen and Die Arbeit u. die neue Erziehung. H. Courthope being.” As man and nature have one origin they must be subject Bowen has written a memoir (1897) in the " Great Educators to the same laws. Hence Froebel, like Comenius two centuries series. In England Miss Emily A. Ę. Shirreff has published Principles before him, looked to the course of nature for the principles | Dr Henry Barnard's Papers on Froebel's Kindergarten (1881); R. H.
of Froebel's System, and a short sketch of Froebel's life. See also of human education. This he declares to be his fundamental Quick, Educational Reformers (1890).
(R. H. Q.) belief: “In the creation, in nature and the order of the material
FROG,' a name in zoology, of somewhat wide application, world, and in the progress of mankind, God has given us the true strictly for an animal belonging to the family Ranidae, but also type (Urbild) of education.” As the cultivator creates nothing used of some other families of the order Ecaudata of the sub-class in the trees and plants, so the educator creates nothing in the Batrachia (q.v.). children,--he merely superintends the development of inborn
Frogs proper are typified by the common British species, faculties. So far Froebel agrees with Pestalozzi; but in one
Rana temporaria, and its allies, such as the edible frog, R. respect he went beyond him. Pestalozzi said that the faculties esculenta, and the American bull-frog R. calesbiana. The genus were developed by exercise. Froebel added that the function
Rana may be defined as firmisternal Ecaudata with cylindrical of education was to develop the faculties by arousing voluntary transverse processes to the sacral vertebra, teeth in the upper activity. Action proceeding from inner impulse (Selbstlätigkeit) jaw and on the vomer, a protrusible tongue which is free and was the one thing needful.
forked behind, a horizontal pupil and more or less webbed toes. The prominence which Froebel gave to action, his doctrine It includes about 200 species, distributed over the whole world that man is primarily a doer and even a creator, and that he
1 The word “frog" is in O.E. froga or frox, cf. Dutch vorsca, learns only through “self-activity," has its importance all Ger. Frosch; Skeat suggests a possible original source in the root through education. But it was to the first stage of life that meaning, “ to jump,' to spring," cl. Ger. froh, glad, joyful and
" frolic. Froebel paid the greatest attention. He held with Rousseau
The term is also applied to the following objects: the that each age has a completeness of its own, and that the per- for suspending a sword, bayonet, &c.; a fastening for the front
horny part in the center of a horse's hoof; an attachment to a belt fection of the later stage can be attained only through the of a coat, still used in military uniforms, consisting of two buttons perfection of the earlier. If the infant is what he should be as on opposite sides joined by ornamental looped braids; and, in rail. an infant, and the child as a child, he will become what he should way construction, the point where two rails cross. These may be be as a boy, just as naturally as new shoots spring from the healthy various, transferred applications of the name of the animal, but the plant. Every stage, then, must be cared for and tended in such
frog" of a horse was also called "frush," probably a corruption of
the French name fourchette, lit. little fork. The ornamental braiding a way that it may attain its own perfection. Impressed with the is also more probably due to "srock," Lat. floccus.
with the exception of the greater part of South America and | memorial erected by the queen to Lady Augusta Stanley (d. Australia Some of the species are thoroughly aquatic and have 1876), wife of Dean Stanley. The royal mausoleum, a cruciform fully webbed toes, others are terrestrial, cxcept during the breed building with a central ociagonal lantern, richly adorned within ing season. or hers are adapted for burrowing, by means of the with marbles and mosaics, was erected (1862-1870) by Quee. much-enlarged and sharp-edged cubercle at the base of the inner Victoria over the tomb of Albert, prince consort, by whose side toe, whilst not a few have the lips of the digits dilated into disks the queen herself was buried in 1901. There are also memorials by which they are able to climb on trees. In most of the older to Princess Alice and Prince Leopold in the mausoleum. To classifications great importance was attached to these physio- the south of the mansion are the royal gardens and dairy. logical characters, and a number of genera were established FRÖHLICH, ABRAHAM EMANUEL (1790–1865), Swiss poet, which, owing to the numerous annectent forms which have since was born on the ist of February 1796 at Brugg in the canton of been discovered, must be abandoned. The arboreal species Aargau, where his father was a teacher. After studying theology were thus associated with the true trec-frogs, regardless of their at Zürich he became a pastor in 1817 and returned as teacher internal structure. We now know that such adaptations are to his native town, where he lived for ten years. He was then of comparatively small importance, and cannot be utilized appointed professor of the German language and literature in for establishing groups higher than genera in a natural or the cantonal school at Aarau, which post he lost, however, in phylogenetic classification. The tree-frogs, H ylidae, with which the political quarrels of 1830. He afterwards obtained the post the arboreal Ranidae were formerly grouped, show in their of teacher and rector of the cantonal college, and was also anatomical structure a close resemblance to the toads, Bufonidae, appointed assistant minister at the parish church. He died at and are therefore placed far away írom the true frogs, however Baden in Aargau on the ist of December 1865. His works aregreat the superficial resemblance between them.
170 Fabeln (1825); Schweizerlieder (1827); Das Evangelium Some frogs grow to a large size. The bull-frog of the eastern Si Johannis, in Liedern (1830); Elegien an Wieg' und Serg United States and Canada, reaching a length of nearly 8 in. from (1835); Die Epopõen; Ulrich Zwingli (1840); Ulrich von snout to vent, long regarded as the giant of the genus, has been Hulten (1845); Auserlesene Psalmen und geistliche Lieder für surpassed by the discovery of Rana guppyi (8} in.) in the die Evangelisch-reformirte Kirche des Cantons Aargau (1844); Solomon Islands, and of Rana goliath (10 in.) in South Cameroon. Über den Kirchengesang der Protestanten (1846); Trostlieder
The family Ranidae embraces a large number of genera, some (1852); Der Junge Deutsch-Michel (1846); Reimsprüche aus of which are very remarkable. Among these may be mentioned Staal, Schule, und Kirche (1820). An edition of his collected the hairy frog of West Africa, Trichobatrachus robustus, some works, in 5 vols., was published at Frauenfeld in 1853. Fröhlich specimens of which have the sides of the body and of the hind is best known for his two heroic poems, Ulrich Zwingli and limbs covered with long villosities, the function of which is Ulrich von Hutlen, and especially for his fables, which have been unknown, and its ally Gampsosteon yr batesi, in which the last ranked with those of Hagedorn, Lessing and Gellert. phalanx of the fingers and toes is sharp, claw-like and perforates See the Life by R. Fäsi (Zürich, 1907). the skin. To this family also belong the Rhacophorus of eastern FROHSCHAMMER, JAKOB (1821–1893), German theologian Asia, arboreal frogs, some of which are remarkable for the and philosopher, was born at Illkofen, near Regensburg, on the extremely developed webs between the fingers and toes, which 6th of January 1821. Destined by his parents for the Roman are believed to act as a parachute when the frog leaps from the Catholic priesthood, he studied theology at Munich, but felt branches of trees (Nying-frog of A. R. Wallace), whilst others an ever-growing attraction to philosophy. Nevertheless, after have been observed to make aerial nests between leaves overhang- much hes he took what he himself calls the most mistaken ing water, a habit which is shared by their near allies the Chiro- step of his life, and in 1847 entered the priesthood. His keenly mantis of tropical Africa. Dimorphognathus, from West Africa, logical intellect, and his impatience of authority where it clashed is the unique example of a sexual dimorphism in the dentition, with his own convictions, quite unfitted him for that unquestion. the males being provided with a series of large sharp teeth in the ing obedience which the Church demanded. It was only after lower jaw, which in the female, as in most other members of the open defiance of the bishop of Regensburg that he obtained family, is edentulous. The curious horned frog of the Solomon permission to continue his studies at Munich. He at first devoted Islands, Ceratobalrachus guentheri, which can hardly be separated himself more especially to the study of the history of dogma, from the Ranidae, has teeth in the lower jaw in both sexes, and in 1850 published his Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte, which whilst a few forms, such as Dendrobales and Cardioglossa, which was placed on the Index Expurgatorius. But he felt that his on this account have been placed in a distinct family, have no real vocation was philosophy, and after holding for a short time teeth at all, as in toads. These facts militate strongly against an extraordinary professorship of theology, he became professor the importance which was once attached to the dentition in the of philosophy in 1855. This appointment he owed chiefly to his classification of the tailless batrachians.
work, Über den Ursprung der menschlichen Seclen (1854), in FROG-BIT, in botany, the English name for a small floating which he maintained that the human soul was not implanted herb known botanically as Hydrocharis Morsus-Rance, a member by a special creative act in each case, but was the result of a of the order Hydrocharideac, a family of Monocotyledons. The secondary creative act on the part of the parents: that soul as plant has rosettes of roundish floating leaves, and multiplies well as body, therefore, was subject to the laws of heredity. like the strawberry plant by mcans of runners, at the end This was supplemented in 1855 by the controversial Menschenseele of which new leaf-rosettes develop. Staminate and pistillate und Physiologie. Undeterred by the offence which these works flowers are borne on different plants; they have three small gave to his ecclesiastical superiors, he published in 1858 the green sepals and three broadly ovate white membranous petals. Einleitung in die Philosophic und Grundriss der Metaphysik, The fruit, which is fleshy, is not found in Britain. The plant in which he assailed the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas, that occurs in ponds and ditches in England and is rare in Ireland, philosophy was the handmaid of theology. In 1861 appeared
PROGMORE, a mansion within the royal demesne of Windsor, | Über die Aufgabe der Natur philosophie und ihr Verhältnis zur England, in the Home Park, 1 m. S.E. of Windsor Castle. It Naturwissenschaft
, which was, he declared, directed against the was occupied by George III.'s queen, Charlotte, and later by purely mechanical conception of the universe, and affirmed the the duchess of Kent, mother of Queen Victoria, who died here necessity of a creative Power. In the same year he published in 1861. The mansion, a plain building facing a small lake, has Über die Freiheit der Wissenschafl, in which he maintained the in its grounds the mausoleum of the duchess of Kent and the independence of science, whose goal was truth, against authority, royal mausoleum. The first is a circular building surrounded and reproached the excessive respect for the latter in the Roman with Ionic columns and rising in a dome, a lower chamber within Church with the insignificant part played by the German Catholics containing the tomb, while in the upper chamber is a statue of the in literature and philosophy. He was denounced by the pope duchess. There is also a bust of Princess Hohenlohe-Langen. bimself in an apostolic brief of the uth of December 1862, berg, half-sister of Queen Victoria; and before the entrance is a land stugents of theology were forbidden to attend his lectures.
Public opinion was now keenly excited; he received an ovation | seigneurie of Beaumont fell into the hands of Jean, younger son from the Munich students, and the king, to whom he owed his of the count of Hainaut. With this Jean, sire de Beaumont, appointment, supported him warmly. A conference of Catholic lived a certain canon of Liége called Jean le Bel, who fortunately savants, held in 1863 under the presidency of Döllinger, decided was not content simply to enjoy life. Instigated by his seigneur that authority must be supreme in the Church. When, however, he set himself to write contemporary history, to tell “ la pure Döllinger and his school in their turn started the Old Catholic veriteit de tout li fait entièrement al manire de chroniques." movement, Frohschammer refused to associate himself with With this view, he compiled two books of chronicles. And the their cause, holding that they did not go far enough, and that chronicles of Jean le Bel were not the only literary monuments their declaration of 1863 had cut the ground from under their belonging to the castle of Beaumont. A hundred years before fect. Meanwhile he had, in 1862, founded the Athenäum as the him Baldwin d'Avernes, the then seigneur, had caused to be organ of Liberal Catholicism. For this he wrote the first adequate written a book of chronicles or rather genealogies. It must account in German of the Darwinian theory of natural selection, therefore be remembered that when Froissart undertook his own which drew a warm letter of appreciation from Darwin himself. chronicles he was not conceiving a new idea, but only following Excommunicated in 1871, he replied with three articles, which along familiar lines. were reproduced in thousands as pamphlets in the chief European Some 20 m. from Beaumont stood the prosperous city of languages: Der Fes Petri in Rom (1873), Der Primal Petri Valenciennes, possessed in the 14th century of important und des. Papstes (1875), and Das Christenthum Christi und das privileges and a flourishing trade, second only to places like Christenthum des Papstes (1870). In Das neue Wissen und der Bruges or Ghent in influence, population and wealth. Beaumont, neue Glaube (1873) he showed himself as vigorous an opponent once her rival, now regarded Valenciennes as a place where the of the materialism of Strauss as of the doctrine of papal infalli- ambitious might seek for wealth or advancement, and among bility. His later years were occupied with a series of philosophical those who migrated thither was the father of Foissart. He works, of which the most important were: Die Phantasie als appears from a single passage in his son's verses to have been a Grund princip des Wellprocesses (1877), Über die Genesis der painter of armorial bearings. There was, it may be noted, Menschheit und deren geistige Entwicklung in Religion, Siltlichkeil already what may be called a school of painters at Valenciennes. und Sprache (1883), and Über die Organisation und Cultur der Among them were Jean and Colin de Valenciennes and André menschlichen Gesellschaft (1885). His system is based on the Beau-Neveu, of whom Froissart says that he had not his equal unifying principle of imagination (Phantasie), which he extends in any country. to the objective creative force of Nature, as well as to the subjec- The date generally adopted for his birth is 1338. In after tive mental phenomena to which the term is usually confined. years Froissart pleased himself by recalling in verse the scenes He died at Bad Kreuth in the Bavarian Highlands on the 14th and pursuits of his childhood. These are presented in vague of June 1893.
generalities. There is nothing to show that he was unlike any In addition to other treatisesonthcological subjects, Frohschammer other boys, and, unfortunately, it did not occur to him that a was also the author of Monaden und Weltpkantasie and Uber die photograph of a schoolboy's life amid bourgeois surroundings Bedeutung der Einbildungskraft in der Philosophie Kants und Spinozas would be to posterity quite as interesting as that faithful por. (1879); Uber die Principien der Aristotelischen Philosophie und die Bedeutung der Phantasie in derselben (1881); Die Philosophie als
traiture of courts and knights which he has drawn up in his Idealwissenschaft und System (1884); Die Philosophie des Thomas Chronicle. As it is, we learn that he loved games of dexterity son Aquino kritisch gewürdig! (1889); Uber das Mysterium Magnum and skill rather than the sedentary amusements of chess and des Daseins (1891); System der Philosophie im Umriss, pt. i. (1892). His autobiography was published in A. Hinrichsen's Deutsche Denker that with his companions he played at tournaments, and that
raughts, that he was beaten when he did not know his lessons, (1888). See also F. Kirchner, Über das Grundprincip des Weltprocesses (1882), with special reference to F.; E. Reich, Well- he was always conscious—a statement which must be accepted anschauung und Menschenleben; Betrachtungen über die Philosophie with suspicion-that he was born J. Frohschammers (1894); B. Münz, J. Frohschammer, der Philosoph
" Loer Dieu et servir le monde." der Weltphantasie (1894) and Briefe von und über J. Frohschammer (1897): J. Friedrich, Jakob Frohschammer (1896) and Systematische
In any case he was born in a place, as well as at a time, singu. und kritische Darstellung der Psychologie J. Frohschammers (1899); larly adapted to fill the brain of an imaginative boy. Valenciennes A. Attensperger, J. Frohschommers philosophisches System im was then a city extremely rich in romantic associations. Not Grundriss (1899).
far from its walls was the western fringe of the great forest of FROISSART, JEAN (1338-1410?), French chronicler and Ardennes, sacred to the memory of Pepin, Charlemagne, Roland raconteur, historian of his own times. The personal history and Ogier. Along the banks of the Scheldt stood, one after the of Froissart, the circumstances of his birth and education, the other, not then in ruins, but bright with banners, the gleam of incidents of his life, must all be sought in his own verses and armour, and the liveries of the men at arms, castles whose chronicles. He possessed in his own lifetime no such fame as seigneurs, now forgotten, were famous in their day for many a that which attended the steps of Petrarch; when he died it did gallant feat of arms. The castle of Valenciennes itself was not occur to his successors that a chapter might well be added illustrious in the romance of Perceforest. There was born that to his Chronicle setting forth what manner of man he was who most glorious and most luckless hero, Baldwin, first emperor wrote it. The village of Lestines, where he was curé, has long of Constantinople. All the splendour of medieval life was to forgotten that a great writer ever lived there. They cannot be seen in Froissart's native city: on the walls of the Salle le point to any house in Valenciennes as the lodging in which he Comte glittered-perhaps painted by his father--the arms and put together his notes and made history out of personal remi- scutcheons beneath the banners and helmets of Luxembourg, niscences. It is not certain when or where he died, or where he Hainaut and Avesnes; the streets were crowded with knights was buried. One church, it is true, doubtfully claims the honour and soldiers, priests, artisans and merchants; the churches were of holding his bones. It is that of St Monegunda of Chimay.
rich with stained glass, delicate tracery and precious carving; " Gallorum sublimis honos et fama tuorum,
there were libraries full of richly illuminated manuscripts on Hic Froissarde, jaces, si modo forte jaces."
which the boy could gaze with delight; every year there was the It is fortunate, therefore, that the scattered statements in his fête of the puy d'Amour de Valenciennes, at which he would hear writings may be so pieced together as to afford a tolerably the verses of the competing poets; there were festivals, masques, connected history of his life year after year. The personality mummeries and moralities. And, whatever there might be of the man, independently of his adventures, may be arrived at elsewhere, in this happy city there was only the pomp, and not by the same process. It will be found that Proissart, without the misery, of war; the fields without were tilled, and the meaning it, has portrayed himself in clear and well-defined harvests reaped, in security; the workman within plied his outline. His forefathers were jurés (aldermen) of the little craft unmolested for good wage. But the eyes of the boy were town of Beaumont, lying near the river Sambre, to the west of the turned upon the castle and not upon the town; it was the forest of Ardennes. Early in the 14th century the castle and I splendour of the knights which dazzled him, insomuch that he