Page images


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1859. Rubidium

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1774 Oxygen..


was wrecked near Cerigo, and Mr. W. R. Hamilton, who Manganese.

Gahn. Baryti-ium

was on board, remained several months at Cerigo, and

Schecle. 1778. Molybdenum.

recovered them from the sea. 1781. Tungsten

Delhuart. 1782. Telluriuin .. Müller.

Elgueta (N. Spain); near here the Carlists defeated 1789. (l'ranium.

Klaproth. Zirconia ium..

the republicans under gen. Sorna, and took 600 prison

ers, 5-6 Aug. 1873. 1791. Titanium...

Gregor. 1793. Strontia ium.. Hope.

Elis, a Greek state termed the “ Holy Land,” in the 1794. Yttria-ium.


Peloponnesis, founded by the Heraclidæ, 1103 B.C. Here 1797. Chromium. 1798.

Vauquelin. Glucina-um.

Iphitus revived the Olympic games, 884, which were reg1802. Tantalum..


ularly celebrated after Corcebus gained the prize in 776. 1803. Cerium


Elis surrendered many towns to the Spartans in war, | Palladium.


400. After various changes, Elis joined the Achæan Iridium

Descotils and Smithson league, 274; and with the rest of Greece was subjugated Osmium, Tennant.

by the Romans in 146. 1811. Iodine..

Courtois. 1817. Lithium. Arfwedson.

Ell (so named from ulna, the arm) was fixed at 45


inches by king Henry I. in 1101. The old French ell, 1826. Bromine.


or aune, was 46.790 inches. 1828. Thorinum.

Berzelius. 1830. Vanadium.


Ellison Gallery. In April, 1860, Mrs. Elizabeth 1839. Lanthanum.

Ellison (in conformity with the wish of her deceased hus1841. Didymium.


band, Richard), presented to the South Kensington Mu1843. Erbium.. 1844. Ruthenium..


seum a series of 50 original water-color drawings by the 1846. Niobium

H. Rose.

first masters. Cæsium Bunsen.

Ellora, or Elora (Central India); remarkable for its 1861. Thallium.


very ancient rock-cut temple; excavated according to 1863. Indimm...

Reich and Richter.

Hindoo legends nearly 7000 years ago; but more prob1875. Gallium

Lecoq de Boisbaudran..
Daryum (?)

ably about A.D. 800. The town was ceded to the Brit-

ish by Holkar in 1818, and transferred by them to the Ilmenium (?)

nizam of the Deccan in 1822. 1878. Philippium

Delafontaine. 1879. Norwegium Tellef Dahll.

Elmina, and Durcu GUINEA (W. Africa), were ceded Mosandrum (?).. Lawrence Smith.

by the Dutch government by treaty, signed Feb. 1872, Decipium (?)..

Scandium (?)

and consolidated with the West African settlements;
Ytterbium (?).

first governor, Mr. Pope Hennessy, April, 1872; see

A. Guyard.

El Molino del Rey, Battle AT. On the

morning of 8 Sept. 1847, less than 4000 Americans atElephant, in the earliest times trained to war. The tacked over 14,000 Mexicans under Santa Anna, at El history of the Maccabees informs us that “to every ele- Molino del Rey (the King's Mills), near the fortress of phant they appointed 1000 men armed with coats of Chapultepec, close by the city of Mexico. They were mail, and 500 horse: and upon the elephants were strong to the attack, fought desperately for an hour, and con

at tirst repulsed with much slaughter; but, returning towers of wood, etc.” The elephants in the army of Antiochus were provoked to fight by showing them the quered.

The Americans lost about 800 men; the Mex“blood of grapes and mulberries." The first elephant

icans left more than 1000 dead on the field; see Chapulsaid to have been seen in England was one of enormous

tepec. size, presented by the king of France to our Henry III. Elopement. A wife who departs from her husin 1238.- Baker's Chron. Polyænus states that Cæsar band loses her dower by the statute of Westm. 1285– brought one to Britain 54 B.C., which terrified the in- unless her husband, without coercion of the church, be habitants greatly. 13 elephants in lord mayor's proces- reconciled to her. Earlier laws published elopement sivn, 9 Nov. 1876; see Knighthood,

with death when adultery followed. A young elephant brought into Court of Exchequer to show his Elphin (Ireland). St. Patrick founded a cathedral peaceful character, in a suit for damages for frightening a

near Elphin, “ by a river issuing from two fountains," in pony at the Alexandra Palace, 13 July, 1879. Only iwo elephants have ever been born in captivity; one of

the fifth century, and placed over it St. Asicus, whom he these was born in Philadelphia, about 1878; the other in created bishop, and who soon after filled it with monks. Bridgeport, Conn., 2 Feb. 1882.

After many centuries, Roscommon, Ardcarn, Drumclive, Eleusinian Mysteries. The institution of these and others of less note, were also annexed to Elphin,

which became one of the richest sees in Ireland. It is annual secret religious ceremonies (in honor of Ceres) at Athens is attributed to Cadmus, 1550; to Erechtheus, valued in the king's books, by an extent returned 28 1399; or to Eumolpus, 1356 B.C.

Eliz., at 1031. 188. sterling. The see was united to Kilo

If any one revealed then, he was to be put to death. They were intro- more in 1841, under the provisions of the Church Temduced from Eleusis into Rome, lasted about 1800 years, poralities act, passed Aug. 1833. and were abolished by Theodosius A.D. 389. The laws Elsinore (Zealand, Denmark), formerly the station were-1. To honor parents; 2. To honor the gods with for receiving the Sound dues (which see). the fruits of the earth; 3. Not to treat brutes with

Ely, an island in Cambridgeshire, on which a church cruelty. Cicero makes the civilization of mankind one

was built about 673, by Etheldreda, queen of Egfrid, of the beneficial effects of the Eleusinian mysteries.

king of Northumberland; she also founded a religious Elgin Marbles, derived chiefly from the Parthe house, filled it with virgins, and became herself first non, a temple of Minerva, on the Acropolis at Athens, abbess. The 1200th anniversary was celebrated 17-21 of which they formed part of the frieze and pediment, Oct. 1873; about 60,0001, had then been spent on the the work of Phidias, under the government of Pericles, restoration of the cathedral. The Danes ruined the about 440 B.C. Thomas lord Elgin began the collection convent about 870; but a monastery was built in 879, on of these marbles during his mission to the Ottoman which king Edgar and succeeding monarchs bestowed Porte, in 1802; and from him they were purchased by great privileges and grants of land; whereby it became the British government for 35,0001. and placed in the the richest in England. Richard, the eleventh abbot, British Museum, in 1816. The ship conveying them I wishing to free himself from the bishop of Lincoln, made great interest with Henry I. to get Ely erected into a | 1809, and the Non-intercourse act passed. Another bishopric, 1108, and his successor Hervæus was the first embargo, for 90 days, was laid in April, 1812; see Armed prelate, 1109. It is valued in the king's books at 21341. Neutrality. 188. 5d.; present stated income, 55001.

Ember-weeks, instituted, it is said, by pope CaRECENT BISHOPS.

lixtus I. (219-223) to implore the blessing of God on the 1781. James York, died 26 Aug. 1808.

produce of the earth by prayer and fasting, in which 1808. Thomas Dampier. died 13 May, 1812. 1812. Bowyer Edward Sparke, died 4 April, 1836.

penitents used to sprinkle the ashes (enbers) of humilia1836. Joseph Allen, died 20 March, 1845.

tion on their heads. In the English church the Ember 1845. Thomas Turton, died 7 Jan. 1864.

days are the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after the 1864. Edward Harold Browne, translated to Winchester Aug. following days: the first Sunday in Lent, Whitsunday,

1873. 1873. James Russell Woodford, Aug.

14 Sept. (Holy Cross), and 13 Dec. (St. Lucia). Ely Chapel, Holborn, London, erected in the four- Embroidery is usually ascribed to the Phrygians; teenth century, sold for 5250l., 29 Jan. 1874; acquired by but the Sidonians excelled in it, and it is mentioned in the Roman Catholic fathers of the order of Charity, 1491 B.C. (Exod. xxxv. 35, and xxxviii. 23); see Buyeur 1874; and finely restored at the expense of the duke of Tapestry. Embroidery is now done by machinery. The Norfolk and others, opened as St. Etheldreda's chapel, first embroidery machine is said to have been invented 23 June, 1876.

by John Duncan, of Glasgow, in 1804. Heilman's emElzevir, or ELSEVIER, a family of printers, in Hol- broidery machine was patented by Köchlin. Berlin land, whose reputation is based on fine pocket editions wool-work has been much improved of late years by the of the classics.

production of more elegant patterns, tirst published by

Mr. Wittich in Berlin, about 1810. Louis, the founder, was born in 1540; began business at Ley

den in 1580; he printed about 150 works, and died 4 Feb. Emerald, a precious stone, of a green color, found in 1617. His sons (especially Bonaventure) and grandsons the East and in Peru. It has been erroneously alleged were celebrated for their work.

that there were no true emeralds in Europe before the Emancipation, see Roman Catholics and Slavery. conquest of Peru; but there is one in the Paris Museum, The Emancipation Society for slaves lasted 1862-5.

taken from the mitre of pope Julius II., who died in Emanuel Hospital, Westminster, founded in 1518, and Peru was not conquered till 1515. 1594 by lady Anne Dacre for aged people and children. Its original annual income had increased from 3601. to

Emesa, now Hems, Syria, renowned for a temple of about 40001. in 1870, when changes in the disposition of the sun, the priest of which, Bassianus, was proclaimed the funds were proposed by the charity commissioners, His atrocities led to his assassination, 11 March, 222.

emperor with the name Heliogabalus or Elagabalus, 218. and some effected. Embalming. The ancient Egyptians, believing

Emigrants. The French aristocracy anıl clergy that their souls, after many thousand years, would re

(émigrés) began to leave their country in July, 1789, at inhabit their bodies, if preserved entire, embalmed the the breaking-out of the revolution: their estates were

confiscated in Dec. dead. Some of the bodies, called mummies, buried 3000

A large number returned in 1802 years ago, are still perfect. “The physicians embalmed by an amnesty granted after the peace of Amiens. Many Israel,” 1689 B.C. (Gen. 1. 2); see Mummies. Carbolic were indemnitied after the restoration in 1815. acid was successfully employed by prof. Seely in Ameri- Emigration. Phænician and Greek emigrants ca, in 1868.

colonized the coasts of the Mediterranean and the The most perfect specimens of modern embalming are pre- Black Sea; see Magna Græcia, Marseilles, etc. The

served in the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, one discovery of America opened a vast field for emigration, being the body of the wife of Van Butchell, preserved by which was restrained by Charles I. in 1637. It has been John Hunter by injecting camphorated spirits of wine, etc., into the arteries and reins; and the other the body of a greatly encouraged since 1819. Regulations for emigrayoung woman, who died about 1780 of consumption, in the tion were made in 1831, and in Jan, 1840 the Colonial Lock hospital. The method of embalming royal personages Land and Emigration Board was established. Emigrain modern times is fully described in Hunter's Posthu. tion much promoted through want of employment in mous Works." He died in 1793. -During the American war (1861-5), many soldiers' bodies were embalmed and sent London, 1869-70. home.

The "Society of the Sons of St. George," at l'hiladelphia, Embankments of earth were erected by the an

which was established to succor emigrants, still exists. cients for preservation from their enemies and the inun

It published a letter dissuading unsuitable emigration, dations of the tide. Those of the Egyptians and Baby- Emigration from the United Kingdom, in 1815, 2081; in 1820,

31 July, 1874 lonians are described by Herodotus and Strabo. To the 25,729; in 1830, 56,907; in 1840, 90,743; in 1850, 280,843; in Romans are attributed the first dikes of Holland, and

1860, 128, 469; in 1866, 204,882; in 1867, 195, 953; in 1868

196,325; in 1869, 258,027; in 1870, 256,910; in 1871, 252, 435; the embankments of Romney Marsh, considered to be

1872, 295,213; 1873, 310,612; 1874, 241,014; 1875. 173.803; the oldest in Britain. In 1250, Henry III. issued a writ 1876 (of British origin only), 109,469; 1877, 95, 195; 1878, enforcing the support of these works, and his successors 112, 902; 1879, 164, 274; see Immigration. followed his example. James I. greatly encouraged the

1846. 1851 From England

86,611 254.970 embankment of the Thames. Sir W. Dugdale's “His


3.427 18.646 tory of Embanking” first appeared in 1662; see Drain- Ireland..

38,813 62.350 age, Levels, and Thames. Since 1830, millions of pounds

128, 851 335.966 have been expended in embankments for railways.

Emigration to North American colonies, West Indies, Cape

of Good Hope, New South Wales, Swan River. Van Diemen's Embargo, from the Spanish embargar, to detain, Land. etc., in 1820–30, 154,291; in 1830-40, 277,695. applied to the restraining ships from sailing. This pow- To North American Colonies, in 1842, 54, 123, in 1847, 109,680; er is vested in the crown, but is rarely exercised except

in 1856, 16,378; in 1861, 12, 707; in 1863, 18.083; in 1864,

12,721; in 1866, 12,355; in 1867, 15,503; in 1868. 21,062; in in extreme cases, and sometimes as a prelude to war. 1869, 33, 891; in 1870, 35,295; 1871, 32,671; 1872, 32, 205; The most memorable instances of embargo were those 1873, 37,208; 1874, 25, 450; 1876 (of British origin), 9335; for the prevention of corn going out of the kingdom in to United States, in 1842, 63, 852; in 1847, 142, 154 ; in 1857,

1877, 7720; 1878, 10,652; 1879, 17,952. 1766; and for the detention of all Russian, Danish, and

126,905; in 1861, 49,764; in 1863, 146,813; in 1864, 147,042; Swedish ships in the several ports of the kingdom, in 1866, 161,000; in 1867, 159, 275; in 1868, 155, 52; in 1869, owing to the armed neutrality, 14 Jan. 1801. On

203,001; in 1870, 196,075 ; 1871. 198.843; 1872, 233,747; 1873,

233,073, 1874, 118,161; 1876 (of British origin), 54,55t; 1877, account of insults to the American flag by British

45, 481; 1878, 54.694; 1879, 91,806. cruisers, the congress of the United States, in Dec. 1807, To Australia and New Zealand, in 1842, 8534; in 1845, 830: in decreed an embargo, detaining all vessels, American and 1850. 16,037; in 1852 (gold discovery), 87.881; in 1853, 6),401; foreign, in their ports, and ordering all American vessels

in 1854, 83, 237; in 1855, 52,309; in 1856, 44.584; in 1857,

61,248; in 1861, 23,738; in 1863, 53,054; in 1864, 40.942; in home. The embargo decree was repealed in March, 1866, 24,097; in 1867, 14, 466; in 1868, 12,809; in 1869,





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14,901; in 1870, 17,055; in 1871, 12,227; 1872, 15,876; 1873, 20 killed and 75 wounded. The Creeks lest 190 war26,4:25; 1874, 53,950; 1876 (of British origin), 32,196; 1877, riors dead on the field.

30,138; 1878, 36, 479, 1879, 10,959. To other places, in 1854, 3366; in 1859, 12, 427; in 186S, 6922; Enamelling was practised by the Egyptians, Chi

in 1870, 8505; 1871, 8694; 1872, 13,385; 1873, 13,903; 1874, 13,415; 1875, 173, 603; 1876 (of British origin), 13,384; 1877, nese, and other nations, and was known in England in 11,856; 1878, 11,077; 1879, 13,557.

the time of the Saxons. At Oxford is an enamelled Emily St. Pierre, see United States, 1862.

jewel, which belonged to Alfred, and which, as appears

by the inscription, was made by bis order, in his reign, Eminence, a title conferred upon cardinals by pope about 887. Limoges enamelled ware was popular in the Urban VIII., 10 Jan. 1631, as more honorable than ex- sixteenth century. Magnificent specimens by Lepec, cellency." Previously cardinals had the title of illus- Elkington, Emanuel, and others appeared at the exhibitrissimi.--Ashe. The grand-master of Malta also ob- tion at Paris, 1867; see Mosuic. On 19 June, 1862, madtained this title.-Pardon.

ame Rachel (Levison or Leverson) sued capt. Carnegie Emir, a title of the caliphs among the Turks and for 9281. for enamelling his wife's face, and was nonsuited; Persians, first awarded to the descendants of Mahomet's see Trials, 1868. She was convicted of fraud in 1878; daughter Fatima, about 650. To such only was original- and died in prison, 12 Oct, 1880; see Triuls. ly given the privilege of wearing the green turban.

Encænia, Greek festivals kept on days on which Emission Theory of Light (advocated by New- cities were built and temples consecrated; and in later ton, about 1672) supposes that individual particles pass times, as at Oxford, at the celebration or commemoration from the luminous body to the eye, and that each ray of of founders and benefactors.Oldisworth. The public light passes from the sun to the earth. It is opposed to the commemoration at Oxford suspended in 1875; restored, Undulatory Theory (which see) now generally received.

21 June, 1876. They were the origin of church-wakes Emly, an Irish see, said to have been founded by St. in England, about 600. They were also feasts celebrated Patrick. Emly was called Imelaca-Ibair: St. Ailbe was by the Jews on the 25th of the ninth month, in comthe first bishop, in 448. In 1568 the see was united to memoration of the Maccabees cleansing the temple, which Cashel (which see). is now an inconsiderable village. had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes, 131 B.C.

Empalement. This mode of executing criminals, Encaustic Painting, enamelling by fire. Paintmentioned by Juvenal, and often inflicted in Rome, is ing with burnt wax is said to have been known to still used in Turkey and Arabia. In England, the dead Praxiteles about 360 B.C. This art was revived by bodies of murderers were sometimes staked in this man- M. Bachelier, 1749; by count Caylus, 1765; and by Miss ner, previously to being buried; abolished 1823; see Greenland, 1785 and 1792. Suicide.

Enclosure, see Inclosure. Emperor, from imperator (ruler), a title conferred

Encratites, followers of Titian, about 170, deon victorious Roman generals.

nounced marriage, and abstained from flesh, and from Augustus Cæsar the first Roman emperor..

wine even at the Lord's supper. Valentinian I. first emperor of the west, and Valens, first emperor of the east....

Encumbered Estates Act, passed July, 1819, Charlemagne first emperor of Germany, crowned by Lco

to enable owners of land or leases in Ireland, subject to Othman I. founder of the Turkish empire, the first em- encumbrance, to apply to commissioners appointed under peror of Turkey........

1299 it to direct a sale of such property. These commissionThe czar the first einperor of Russia..

..22 Oct. 1721

ers held their first court in Dublin, 24 Oct. 1849, and their Napoleon Bonaparte tirst emperor of the French... Napoleon III., his nephew, founded the second French last 28 July, 1858, a new court being established under empire, Dec. 1852; deposed..

...4 Sept. 1870 the Landed Estates act. The number of estates sold up Iturbide, emperor of Mexico, Feb. 1822; shot....19 July, 1824 to 1858 was 2380, producing twenty-two millions of Dom Pedro IV. of Portugal the first emperor of Brazil... 18:25 Faustin I. the first emperor of Hayti, in 1849; deposed.: 1859 pounds. In 1854 a similar act was passed for the West Maximilian I. emperor of Mexico, 10 April, 1861; shot,

Indies. 19 April, 1867

Encyclical LETTER, see Rome, 1864. Emperor's Hymn (of Austria), words by L. L.

Encyclopædia or CYCLOPÆDIA, a general dictionHaschka, music by Joseph Haydn, tirst sung 12 Feb. 1797. ary of art, science, and literature. This name has been Empire City, a name given to New York.

given to a work by Abulpharagius in the thirteenth cenEmpirics, a sect of physicians, formed in the third tury. century before Christ, who contended that all reasoning Alsted's Encyclopædia...

Louis Moreri's Dictionnaire Historique. respecting the animal economy was useless, and that ex

Hofmann's Lexicon Universale. perience and observation were the only foundations of Corneille's Dictionnaire des Arts medicine. The sect adopted the principles of Acron of Bayle's Dictionnaire... Agrigentum, who flourished about 430 B.C.

Lexicon Technicum of John Harris (earliest English en. cyclopædia), 1704; supplements..

.1710, 1741 Employers and Workmen Act, passed 13 Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopædia.

Zedler's Universal Lexicon.... Aug. 1875, relates to legal settlement of disputes, etc.

Encyclopédie (by Diderot and D'Alembert).

1751-80 Employers' Liability Act (to make compensa- (The contributors were termed ENCYCLOPEDISTES, and tion for personal injuries suffered by workmen), passed 7

their daring writings are believed to have hastened the

French revolution in 1789.) Sept. 1880.

Encyclopædia Britannica (1st edition by William Smel. Employers of Labor, National Federation of lie)

1771 Associated, formed in London about 10 Dec. 1873. The Encyclopédie Méthodique (by Pancoucke).

[The 8th completed, 1861; 9th begun, 1875.]

.1782-1832 founders were said to employ about 2,000,000, principal- Chainbers's Cyclopædia (ediied by Rees). ly in N. W. and N. England. Their object was to coun- Rees's Cyclopædia..... teract the influence of trade unions. The tirst annual Brockhaus's Conversations Lexicon, 1st edition..

(New editions frequent.) meeting held 24 Feb, 1875.

Encyclopædia Metropolitana...

.1817-45 Iron Trades Employers' Association issued a circular Encyclopædia Americana (by F. Lieber, etc.). 1829-32 proposing increase in hours of labor...

.Dec. 1878 Cabinet Cyclopaedia (a collection of treatises). ..1829-46 (See Strikes.)

Penny Cyclopædia..

Knight's English Cyclopædia (4 divisions). .1853-61-79 Empress of India (Imperatrix India), addition to Duvekinck's Cyclopedia of American Literature.. the royal titles, proclaimed in London, 1 May, 1876. Allibone's Dictionary of Authors..


New American Cyclopædia, begun.. Emucfau and Eccanachoco, BATTLES on, on Homans's Cyclopædia of Commerce. 22 and 24 Jan. 1814. These were fought by 930 Ten- Zell's Popular Cyclopædia......

.1972 et seq. nessee volunteers and 200 or 300 friendly Indians, under Meclintock and Strong's Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theolog

ical, and Ecclesiastical Literature gen. Jackson, against 900 Creeks. The Americans lost Chambers's C'yclopedia.......

1859-68; 1874-5


1620 1673 1677 1694 1696

1728 .1732-50

1785 .1802-19




1858 1859

.1867 et se 1 835


Appletons' Annual Cyclopædia....

.1861 et seq.

Institution of Civil Engineers, established 2 Jan. 1818; Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyclopädie, began 1818;

obtained a charter.

..3 June, 1828 153' vols. published.. 1881 1472 members..

.Jan. 1868 Chinese Cyclopædia, 6109 vols. (all the valuable books Institution of Mechanical Engineers, which had its headthen existing), printed by order of the emperor be

quarters in Birmingham, moved to London, 1877; estween.. .1661-1721 tablished.

1847 A copy bought for British Museum,

1877 Isambard Kingdom Brunel, projector of the Great EastAmerican Cyclopædia, by George Ripley and Charles A. ern, aged 53, died 15 Sept.; Robert Stephenson, railway Dana, 16 vols. 1873-8 engineer, aged 59, died...

.12 Oct. 1859 Globe Encyclopædia, completed.

1879 Engineers’ Amalgamated Society, in 1867, consisted of Lossing's Cyclopædia of American History.

1881 above 30,000 members; annual income, 86,0001. ; dis

bursed to disabled workmen, etc., about 50,0001; Enderby Land, see Southern Continent.

amassed capital, about 125,0001.

4 Jan. 1856

Engineer, weekly journal, established.. Endosmosis. M. Dutrochet, about 1826, found Engineering, weekly journal, established. .Jan. 1866 that if two fuids, gases or vapors, of unequal density, Newcastle strike (see Newcastle)..

.May-Oct. 1871 are separated by an animal or vegetable membrane, the Strike of engineers in London (18 firms)... 7 Feb.-4 Oct. 1879 denser will attract the less dense through the medium. England (from Angles and lond, land), so named, it This property he called endosmose, when the attraction is said, by Egbert, first king of the English, in a general is from the outside to the inside, and erosmose when it council held at Winchester, 829; or by Athelstan, 925; operates from the inside to the outside. Many natural see Anglo-Saxons. England was united to Wales, 1283 ; phenomena are thus more clearly understood.--Brande.

to Scotland in 1603; they have had the same legislature Endowed School Commission (consisting of since 1707, when the three were styled Great Britain. lord Lyttelton, canon Robinson, and others ) was ap- Ireland was incorporated with them, by the act of legis

pointed under the act 32 & 33 Vict. c. 56 (2 Aug. 1869). lative union, 1 Jan. 1801, and the whole was called the . It tbrew open many endowments to the nation, and car- United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The

ried out reforms, being frequently much opposed. By British empire is computed to contain about 7,000,000 an act passed 7 Aug. 1874, its duties were transferred to square miles of territory, with 200,000,000 inhabitants. the charity commissioners, two new commissioners (Mr. Statistical details are given under the respective headiLongley, lord Clinton) and canon Robinson being ap- ings Army, Nary, Revenue, etc. For previous history, pointed. The commissioners had dealt with 74 schools, see Brituin, Histories of England, by Rapin (in English), prepared schemes for 66, leaving about 660 to be dealt 1725-31; Thomas Carte, 1747–55; David Hume, 1753– with, Aug. 1874.

62; Tobias Smollett, 1757-65; John Lingard, 1819-30; Endowed Schools Act, containing the “ Con- Charles Knight, 1856-62; J. R. Green, 1874-80. Parts science Clause," passed 1860; another similar act passed by T. B. Macaulay, earl Stanhope, J. A. Froude, Miss H. 2 Aug. 1869.

Martineau, and others; see Chronicles. Enfida Case, see Tunis.

Egbert,“ king of the English," 828; defeats the Welsh,

Danes, etc., at Hengestdown.. Enfield (N. Middlesex), a manor belonging to the Alfred, king, 871; after many vicissitudes, vanquishes the duchy of Lancaster, is mentioned in Domesday, and was


.871-596 given to De Mandeville by William I. after 1066. After He frames a code of laws, 890; forms a militia and navy,

surveys and subdivides the country, and promotes edvarious changes it became the property of the crown by

896 the marriage of Mary, heiress of the Bohuns, to Henry, Athelstan's great victory over the Danes, Scots, etc., at duke of Lancaster, afterwards king Henry IV. (1999). Predominance of Dunstan; he promotes monachism and

Edward VI. gave it to his sister Elizabeth, who resided the celibacy of the clergy.

.about 972 here in 1552, in a palace, part of which still remains Ethelred compounds with the Danes for peace... (1878). The grammar-school was founded about 1586: Avenged by Sweyn, king of Denmark; Ethelred flees to

Causes their massacre..

13 Nov. 1002 The ancient chase was dischased and enclosed after 1


10013 Jan. 1779.

Sweyn dies, and Ethelred returns, 1014; dies...

Canute, the Dane, sole monarch. Enfield Musket, see Firearms.

Edward the Confessor, king; Saxon dynasty restored... 1012 Engen, Baden. Here Moreau defeated the Austri- Harold II, crowned, 6 Jan. ; defeats the Norwegians, 25

Sept.; defeated and slain at Hastings by William of ans, 3 May, 1800.


.14 Oct. 1066 Enghien, or STEENKIRK (S.W. Belgium). Here

WILLIAM I, crowned.

.25 Dec. the British, under William III., were defeated by the The northern counties rebel; ravaged from the Humber

to the Ty ne..

1069-70 French under marshal Luxemburg, 24 July, 1692.- Introduction of the feudal system

about 10.0 The duc D'Enghien, a descendant of the great Condé, Justices of peace appointed. .

1076 was seized in Baden by order of Bonaparte, conveyed to

Domesday book compiled..

1085-6 WILLIAM II. crowned...

..26 Sept. 1087 Vincennes, and, after a hasty trial, shot by torchlight, The crusades begin. immediately after condemnation, 21 March, 1804. The HENRY I. crowned, restores Saxon laws, etc...5 Aug. 1100

Defeats his brother Robert and gains Normandy. body was exhumed, 20 March, 1816.

Prince Willian) and nobles drowned.

.25 Nov. 11:20) Engineers, Military, formerly called trench-mas- STEPHEN Crowned..

.. 26 Dec. 1135 ters. Sir William Pelham officiated as trench-master in Civil war between the empress Maud, Henry's daughter,

and Stephen; her friends, the Scots, defeated at the 1622; the chief-engineer was called camp-master-general battle of the Standard..

.....22 Aug. 1138 in 1634. Capt. Thomas Rudd had the rank of chief-en- She lands in England and is successful.

1139 gineer to the king about 1650. The

Crowned at Winchester.
of engineers

.3 March, 1141 was formerly a civil corps, but was made a military force Concludes a peace with Stephen..

Defeated; retires to France... and directed to rank with the artillery, 25 April, 1787. HENRY II. crowned...

19 Dec. 1154 It has a colonel-in-chief, 16 colonels-commandant, and Constitutions of Clarendon enacted.

.Jan. 1164 16 colonels. Civil Engineering became important in the

29 Dec, 1170 Arrogance of Becket; murdered. Conquest of Ireland..

.1171, 1172 middle of the last century, when Smeaton began the England divided into six circuits for the administration Eddystone light-house, and Brindley the Bridgewater of justice...

.about 1181 canal. Since then the Rennies, Telford, the Stephensons English laws digested by Glanville.

RICHARD I. crowned..

.3 Sept. 1189 and Brunels, Locke, and others have constructed break- He joins the crusades,

1191 waters, docks, bridges, railways, tunnels, etc., which are Defeats Saladin..

1192 the marvel of our age.

Made prisoner by duke of Austria, and sold to Henry VI. of Germany...

Dec. "Engineering is the art of directing the great sources of Ransomed for about 300,0001..

1194 power in nature for the use and convenience of man"

John crowned.

May, 1199 (Thomas Tredgold, died 1829).

Normandy lost to England.. The first Society of Civil Engineers formed by Smeaton England put under an interdict. and others, afterwards terined the Smeatonian Society Magna Charta granted...







1147 1153


.15 Juno, 1215 of Civil Engineers...... 1793 HENRY III. crowned..

28 Oct. 1216

1204 1203

... 1283

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.. 1487



The Barons' war (which see)..
.1262-8 Duke of Buckingham assassinated..

23 Aug. 1628 The first regular parliament. 1265 Hampden's trial respecting "ship money",

1637 EDWARD I. crowned...

. 20 Nov. 1272 Contest between the king and parliament; impeachment Wales subdued, united to England.

and execution of lord Strafford..

1641 Death of Roger Bacon.....

1292 Attempted “arrest of the five members". ..4 Jan. 1642 Scotland subdued, 1296; revolts..

1297 Civil war begins (see Battles). ..

23 Oct. EDWARD II. crowned. .8 July, 1307 Archbishop Laud beheaded...

.10 Jan. 1645 Defeated by Bruce at Bannockburn. .24 June, 1314 Charles defeated at Naseby.

14 June, Insurrection of the barons against his favorites, 1303, 1315, 13:25 He tiees to the Scotch, 5 May; is given up. .21 Sept. 1646 EDWARD III. crowned.. 25 Jan. 1327 Execution of Charles I.

..30 Jan, 1649 Defeat of the Scots at Hallidown-hill.

1333 Cromwell's victory at Worcester,

.3 Sept. 1651 Invades France; victorious at Crecy.. ...... 26 Aug. 1346 OLIVER CROMWELL, protector of the Commonwealih, Takes Calais..


16 Dec. 1653 Order of the Garter instituted. 1349 Naval victories of Blake....

.1652-7 Victory at Poictiers. ..19 Sept. 1356 Richard CROMWELL, protector...

...3 Sept. 1658 Peace of Bretigny.... .8 May, 1360 Richard resigns..

.25 May, 1659 Law pleadings in English.

1362 CHARLES II. ; monarchy re-established. ,29 May, 1660 RICHARD II. crowned.

.22 June, 1377 Act of uniformity passed; church of England restored.. 1662 Insurrection of Wat Tyler suppressed. 15 June, 1381 The great plague...

1665 Death of Wickliffe...

1385 The great tire of London..

2, 3 Sept. 1666 HENRY IV. crowned.. .30 Sept. 1399 Disgrace of lord Clarendon..

Nov. 1607 Order of the Bath instituted by Henry IV.

Death of John Milton..

..8 Nov. 1674 Insurrection of the Percies and the Welsh.

1402–5 | Oates's “ popish plot” creates a panic. 13 Aug. 1678 HENRY V. crowned....

21 March, 1413 Sir Edmond Berry Godfrey found murdered......17 Oct. France invaded by Henry V., who gains the battle of Many Roman Catholics executed..

.1678-9 Agincourt...

. 25 Oct. 1415 The Habeas Corpus act, for protecting English subjects Treaty of Troyes; the French crown gained..

1420 against false arrest and imprisonment, passed 27 May, 1679 HENRY VI, crowned at Paris.

...Dec. 1430 “Rye-house plot;" William, lord Russell, executed 21 Appearance of the Maid of Orleans; the conquests in July, and Algernon Sydney executed...

1683 France lost, except Calais... 1429-31 JAMES II. accession...

....6 Feb. 1685 Cade's insurrection.....

June, 1450 Duke of Monmouth's rebellion defeated at Sedgemoor, War of the Roses (see Roses and Battles). 1455-71 6 July; he is beheaded..

15 July, EDWARD IV. deposes Henry VI. .4 March, 1461 Acquittal of the seven bishops.

.30 June, 1688 Printing introduced by Caxton

1471 Abdication of James II...

.11 Dec. EDWARD V. accession..

.9 April, 1483 WILLIAM III. and Mary proclaimed by the conven. Murdered in the Tower (soon after)

tion parliament.

.13 Feb. 1689 RICHARD III. deposes Edward V.

. 25 June,
National debt begins..

1692 Valuable statutes enacted..

1484 Bank of England incorporated

.27 July, 1694 HENRY VII, accession; Richard defeated and slain at Death of the queen regnant, Mary.

28 Dec. Bosworth Field... ....22 Aug. 1485 Peace of Ryswick..

1697 Yeomen of the guard, the first appearance of a standing Death of James II. in exile..

..16 Sept. 1701 army in England instituted..

ANNE, accession,

.8 March, 1702 Henry marries Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV. 1486 Victory of Marlborough at Blenheim.

.2 Aug. 1704 Insurrection of Lambert Simuel quelled..

.1486-7 Union of the two kingdoms under the title of Great BritCourt of Star Chamber instituted..

1 May, 1707 Insurrection of Perkin Warbeck quelled.. .1492-8 Sacheverell riots.

1710 Gardening introduced into England, principally from the Treaty of Utrecht, advantageous to Great Britain, 11 Apr. 1713 Netherlands. . about 1502 GEORGE I. of Hanover, accession.

.1 Aug. 1714 Death of prince Arthur... .2 April, The Scots' rebellion quelled

1715 HENRY VIII. accession. .22 April, 1509 South-sea bubble.

1720 Rise of Wolsey..

1514 Death of the duke of Marlborough

..16 June, 1722 Heury VIII.'s interview with Francis I. at Ardres (sce Order of the Bath revived (which see).

1725 " Pield of the Cloth of Gold'').. 4-25 June, 1520 GEORGE II. accession...

...11 June, 1727 First map of England drawn by G. Lilly. .about Death of Newton.

.20 March, Henry VIII. becomes Defender of the Faith".

1521 George II. at the victory of Dettingen.. 16 June, 1743 Fall of Wolsey; he dies...

..29 Nov. 1530 Second Scots' rebellion: prince Charles - Edward gains Henry VIII. marries Anne Boleyn privately, Nov. 1532, Edinburgh, 17 Sept. ; victor at Prestonpans... 21 Sept. 1745

or Jan. 1533; divorced from Catherine. ..23 May, 1533 Victory at Falkirk, 18 Jan.; defeated totally at Culloden, Henry VIII. styled - Head of the Church


16 April, 1746 The pope's authority in England is abolished.

Death of prince Frederick Louis, son of George II. and Sir Thomas More bebeaded.. .6 July, 1535 father of George III...

20 March, 1751 Queen Anne Boleyn beheaded.

...19 May, 1536 New style introduced into England, 3 Sept. (made 14)... 1752 Qucen Jane Seymour dies... .24 Oct. 1537 Seven years' war begins.

. May, 1756 Monasteries suppressed..

1538 Conquest of India begins, under col. (afterwards lord) Statute of Six Articles passed. 1539 Clive (see India)...

1757 Abbots of Glastonbury, Reading, etc., executed..

Victory and death oi gen. Wolfe (see Quebec).

1759 The first authorized edition of the Bible (Cranmer's)

GEORGE III.accession.

25 Oct. 1760 printed..

His marriage with Charlotte Sophia, of Mecklenburg-Strel. Cromwell, lord Essex, beheaded.

1540 itz, 8 Sept. ; crowned..

.22 Sept. 1761 Anne of Cleves divorced..

Peace of Paris; Canada gained

10 Feb. 1763 Queen Catherine Howard beheaded. 1542 Isle of Man annexed to Great Britain.

1765 The title of “king of Ireland" confirmed to the English Death of the Old Pretender,the " chevalier de St. George,'' sovereigns... 1543

30 Dec. Henry marries Catherine Parr. .12 July, Royal Marriage act passed

1772 Edward VI. accession, 28 Jan. ; promotes the Refor- American war begins (see United States)..

1775 mation (Somerset, protector). 1547 Death of earl of Chatham...

11 May, 1778 Book of Common Prayer authorized.

1548 “No Popery" riots...

2-7 June, 1780 Somerset deprived of power, 1549; beheaded.,

1552 Preliminary treaty recognizing the independence of the Mary, accession. 6 July; restores popery. 1553 United States, signed.

30 Nov. 1782 Execution of lady Jane Grey and her friends.

1554 Definitive treaty signed...

.3 Sept. 1783 Mary marries Philip of Spain; persecutes the Protes- Margaret Nicholson's attempt on the life of George III. tants.

2 Aug. 1786 Ridley, Latimer, and Cranmer burned....... .1555 and 1556 Trial of Warren Hastings beg ns ...

13 Feb. 1788 Calais retaken by the French...

.7 Jan. 1558 Death of the Young Pretender at Rome.. .3 March, ELIZABETH, accession; the church of England re-es- The king's illness made known..

.12 Oct. tablished.

.17 Nov. He recovers, and goes to St. Paul's to make thanksgiving, Mary, queen of Scots, lands in England, 1568; cxecuted,

23 April, 1789 8 Feb. 1587 First coalition against France

.26 June, 1792 The Spanish armada repulsed.... ..July, 1588 Habeas Corpus act suspended.

23 May, 1794 Devereux, earl of Essex, beheaded.. .25 Feb. 1601 Howe's victory.

.1 June, JAMES L.accession; union of the two crowns, 24 March, 1603 Marriage of the prince of Wale; with the princess Caro. Styled “king of Great Britain”. .. 24 Oct 1604 line of Brunswick..

.8 April, 1795 The Gunpowder Plot...... Nov. 1605 Warren Hastings acquitted.

. 23 April, The present translation of the Bible completed.

Princess Charlotte of Wales born.

.7 Jan. 1796 Baronets first created.. . May, Cash payments suspended....

25 Feb. 1797 The Overbury murder.. 15 Sept. 1613 Death of Edmund Burke.

.9 July, Shakespeare dies... .23 April, 1616 Irish rebellion...

May, 1793 Raleigli beheaded..

.29 Oct. 1618 Habeas Corpus act again suspended Book of Sports published. .24 May, Battle of the Nile; Nelson victor

.1 Aug CHARLES I. accession. .27 March, 1625 Hatfield's attempt on the king's life.

..15 May, 1800 Death of lord Bacon.. ...9 April, 1626 | Union of Great Britain with Ireland.

.1 Jau. 1801


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