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25 Dec.

26 Dec. 1135

March, 1141

3

2 Jan.

Dec. 1192

1194

1204 I 208

ENGHIEN or STEENKIRK (S. W. Belgium). Sweyn dies, and Ethelred returns, 1014; dies

1016 Here the British under William III. were defeated Canute the Dane sole monarch .

1017 by the French under marshal Luxemburg, 24 July,

Edward the Confessor king; Saxon dynasty restored 1042

Harold II. crowned, 6 Jan. ; defeats the Norwegians, 1692.--The duc d'Enghien, a descendant of the

25 Sept. ; defeated and slain at Hastings by Wilgreat Condé, was seized in Baden by order of Bona

liam of Normandy

14 Oct. 1066 parte, conveyed to Vincennes, and, after a hasty WILLIAM I. crowned trial, shot by torch-light, immediately after con The northern counties rebel; ravaged from the demnation, 21 March, 1804. The body was ex

Humber to the Tyne

1069-70 humed, 20 March, 1816.

Introiluetion of the feudal system, about

1070 Justices of peace pointe

1076

1085-6 ENGINEERS, Military, formerly called Domesday book compiled

WILLIAM II. crowned .

26 Sept. 1087 Trench-masters. Sir William Pelham officiated as

The crusades begin

1096 trench-master in 1622 ; the chief engineer was HENRY I. crowned ; restores Saxon laws, te called camp-master-general in 1634. Capt. Thomas

5 Aug. 1100 Rudd had the rank of chief engineer to the king Defeats his brother Robert, and gains Normandy 1106 about 1650. The corps of engineers was formerly

STEPHEN Crowned a civil corps, but was made a military force, and

Civil war between the empress Maud, Henry's directed to rank with the artillery, 25 April, 1787.

daughter, and Stephen ; her friends the Scots ile

feated at the battle of the Standari, 22 Aug. 1138 It has a colonel-in-chief, 16 colonels-commandant, She lands in England, and is successful

• 1139 and 16 colonels. Civil Engineering became im- Crowned at Winchester portant in the middle of the last century, when Defeated : retires to France

· 1147 Smeaton began the Eddystone lighthouse, and

Concludes a peace with Stephen ,

1153

HENRY II, crowned Brindley the Bridgewater canal. Since then the

19 Dec. 1154 Rennies, Telford, the Stephensons and Brunels, Arrogance of Becket; murdered

Constitutions of Clarendon enacted

Jan. 1164 29 Dec.

1170 Locke, and others have constructed breakwaters, Conquest of Ireland

1172 docks, bridges, railways, tunnels, &c., which are England divided into six circuits for the administrathe marvel of our age.

tion of justice.

1176 English laws digested by Glanville, about

1181 The first society of Civil Engineers formed by Smea

RICHARD I. crowned

3 Sept. 1189 ton and others, afterwards termed the Smeatonian

He joins the crusades

1991 Society of Civil Engineers 1793 Defeats Saladin

1192 Institution of Civil Engineers established

Made prisoner by Henry VI. of Germany 1818; obtained a charter

3 June, 1828

Ransomed for 400,000l. 1472 members

Jan. 1868
JOHN crowned

27 May, 1199 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, which has its

Normandy lost to England head-quarters in Birmingham, established

1847

England put under an interdict Isambard Kingdon Brunel, projector of the Great

Magna Charta granted

15 June, 1215 Eastern, aged 53, died 15 Sept. ; Robert Stephen

HENRY III. crowned

28 Oct. 1216 son, railway engineer, aged 59, died 12 Oct. 1859 The Barons' war (which see)

1262-8 Engineers’ Amalgamated Society, in 1867, consisted

The first regular parliament.

1265 of above 30,000 members; annual income, 86,000!, ;

EDWARD I. crowned

20 Novi

1272 disbursed to disabled workmen, &c., about 50,000l.; Wales united to England

1283 amassed capital, about 125,000.

Death of Roger Bacon

1 292 Engineer, weekly journal, established 4 Jan. 1856 Scotland subdued, 1296 ; revolts .

1297 Engineering, weekly journal, established. Jan. 1866

EDWARD II, crowned .

Defeated by Bruce at Bannockburn 24 June, 1314 ENGLAND (from Angles and lond, land), so

Insurrection of the barons against his favourites 1308 named, it is said, by Egbert, first king of the

1315, 1325 English in a general council held at Winchester,

EDWARD III, crowned

25 Jan. 1327 829; or by Athelstan, 925. See Anglo-Saxons.

Defeat of the Scots at Hallidown-hili.

Invades France ; victorious at Crecy 26 Aug. 1346 England was united to Wales, 1283; to Scotland in

Takes Calais

1347 1603; they have had the same legislature since 1707,

Order of the Garter instituted .

1349 when the three were styled Great Britain. Ireland Victory at Poictiers

19 Sept. 1356 was incorporated with them, by the act of legislative Peace of Bretigny

8 May, 1360 union, 1 Jan. 1801, and the whole was called the Law pleadings in English

1362

RICHARD II. crowed.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The
British empire is computed to contain about 7,000,000

Insurrection of Wat Tyler suppressed .

15 June, 1381 Death of Wickliffe

1385 square miles of territory, with 200,000,000 inhabi

HENRY IV. crowned

30 Sept. 1399 tants. Statistical details are given under the re Order of the Bath instituted by Henry IV. spective headings; Army, Nary, Rerenue, &c. For Insurrection of the Percies and the Welsh .

1402-5 previous history, see Britain. Histories of England, HENRY V. crowned

21 March, 1413 by Rapin (in English), 1725-31; Thomas Carte, France invaded by Henry V. who gains the battle of 1747-55; David Hume, 1755-62; Tobias Smollett, Treaty of Troyes ; the French crown gained

25 Oct. 1415

· 1420 1757-65; John Lingard, 1819-30; Charles Knight,

HENRY VI. crowned at Paris 1856-62. See Chronicles.

Appearance of the maid of Orleans; the French conquests lost, except Calais .

1429-31 Egbert, “king of the English," 828 ; defeats the Cade's insurrection Welsh, Danes, &c., at Hengestdown 835 War of the Roses (see Roses and Battles)

1455-71 Alfred, king, 871;" after many vicissitudes, van

EDWARD IV. deposes Henry VI.

March, 1401 quishes the Danes . 871-896 | Printing introduced by Caxton

1471 He frames a code of laws, 890 ; forms a militia and

EDWARD V. accession.

9 April, 1453 navy, surveys and subdivides the country, and Murdered in the Tower (soon after) promotes education

896 RICHARD III. deposes Edward V. Athelstan's great victory over the Danes, Scots, &c

Valuable statutes enacted

1484 at Brumanburg

937 HENRY VII. accession; Richard defeated and Predominance of Dunstan ; he promotes monachisin

slain at Bosworth Field

22 Aug. 1485 and the celibacy of the clergy, about

Henry marries Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Iv.. 1486 Ethelred compounds with the Danes for peace

991
Insurrection of Lambert Simnel quelled

1486-7 Causes their massacre .

13 Nov. 1002 Yeomen of the guard, the first appearance of a Avenged by Sweyu, king of Denmark : Ethelred

standing army in England instituted

1485 flees to Normandy. 1003 Court of Star-Chamber instituted

1487

8 July, 1307

1333

22 June, 1377

Dec. 1430

June, 1450

25 June

952

1683 6 Feb. 1685

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16 June, 1722 11 June, 1727

16 June, 1743

May, 1750

· 17 Nov.

Insurrection of Perkin Warbeek quelled .

1492-8 “Rye-house plot ;" William, lord Russell (executed Garlening introduced into England, principally froin

21 July), and Algernon Sydney executed. the Netherlands, about

1507 JAMES II. accession Death of Prince Arthur

2 April,

Duke of Monmouth's rebellion defeated at Sedge. HENRY VIII. accession . 22 April, 1509 moor, 6 July; he is beheaded

15 July, Rise of Wolsey

• 1514
Acquittal of the seven bishops

30 June, 1688 Henry VIII.'s interview with Francis I. at Ardres Abdication of James II.

In Dee. (see "Field of the Cloth of Gold") 4-25 June, 1520 William III, and Mary proclaimed by the conFirst map of England drawn by G. Lilly, about

vention parliament

13 Feb. 1689 Henry VIII, becomes “ Defender of the Faith".

1521 National debt begins. Fall of Wolsey ; he dies 29 Nov. 1530

1692

Bank of England incorporated Henry VIII. marries Anne Boleyn privately, Nov. Death of the queen regnant, Mary

27 July, 1694

28 Dec. 1532 or January 1533 ; divorced from Catherine, Peace of Ryswick.

1697 23 May, 1533 Death of James II. in exile Henry VIII, styled “ Head of the Church

1534 ANNE, accession The pope's authority in England is abolished

Victory of Marlborough at Blenheim Sir Thomas More beheaded

6 July, 1535 Union of the two kingdoms under the title of Great Queen Anne Boleyn beheaded

19 May, 1536 Britain Queen Jane Seymour dies

24 Oct. 1537

Sacheverell riots Monasteries suppressed

1710 1538 Treaty of Utrecht, advantageous to Great Britain Statute of Six Articles passed

1539

11 April, 1713 Abbots of Glastonbury, Reading, &c. expentei

GEORGE I. of Hanover, accession . I Aug. 1714 The first authorised edition of the Bible (Cranmer's) The Scots' rebellion quelled

1715 printed

South-sea bubble

1720 Cromwell, lord Essex, beheaded .

1540 Death of the duke of Marlborough Anne of Cleves divorced

Order of the Bath revived (which see) Queen Catherine Howard beheaded :

1725 1542 GEORGE II. accession. The title of king of Ireland" confirmed to the Eng Death of Newton

20 March, lish sovereigns

1543 Georye 11. at the victory of Dettingen Henry marries Catherine Parr

12 July,

Second Scots rebellion: prince Charles-Edward EDWARD VI, accession, 28 Jan. ; promotes the gains Edinburghi, 17 Sept. ; victor at Prestonpans, Reformation (Somerset, protector) • 1547

21 Sept. 1745 Book of Common Prayer authorised

1548

Victory at Falkirk, 18 Jan. ; defeated totally at CulSomerset deprived of power, 1549 ; behearled .

• 1552

loden MARY, accession, 6 July ; restores propery

Death of prince Frederick Louis, son of George II.

16 April, 1746

1553 Execution of larly Jane Grey and her friends 1554

and father of George III.

20 March, 1751 Mary marties Philip of Spain; persecutes the Pro New style introduced into England, 3 Sept. (made 14) 1752 testants

Seven years' war begins Riley, Latimer, and Cranmer burnt 1555 and 1556 Conquest of India begins, under colonel (afterwards Calais re-taken by the French 7 Jan. 1558

1757 ELIZABETH, accession; the church of England Victory and death of general Wolfe (see Quebec) re-established

GEORGE III. accession

• 1759 Mary, queen of Scots, lands in England, 1568; exe His marriage with Charlotte Sophia, of Mecklen

25 Oct. 1760 tutel.

8 Feb. 1587 burg Strelitz, 8 Sept. ; crowned The Spanish armada repulsei. July, 1588 Peace of Paris ; Canada gained

22 Sept. 1761

10 Feb. 1763 Devereux, earl of Essex, beheaded

25 Feb. 1601 Isle of Man annexed to Great Britain JAMES I. accession; union of the two crowns Death of the old Pretender, the chevalier de st.

1765 24 March, 1603 George" Styled "king of Great Britain” 24 Oct. 1604 Royal marriage act passed

1772 The Gunpowder Plot Nov. 1605 American war begins (see United States)

1773 The present translation of the Bible completed 1611 Death of earl of Chatham

1 May, 1778 Baronets first created

May, " No Popery" riots The Overbury murder 15 Sept. 1613 Separation of America from England .

· 2-7 June, 1780

30 Nov. 1782 Shakespeare dies

23 April, 1616

Margaret Nicholson's atteinpt the life of Raleigh beheaded

29 Oct. 1618

George III. Book of Sports published

Trial of Warren Hastings begins

2 Aug. 1786 CHARLES I. accession 27 March, 1625 Death of the Young Pretender, at Rome, 3 March,

13 Feb. 1788 Death of lori Bacon. 9 April, 1626 The king's illness made known

12 Oct. Duke of Buckingham assassinated

23 Aug. 1628

He recovers, and goes to St. Paul's to make thanksHampen's trial respecting "ship money". 1637 giving Contest between the king and parliament ; impeach First coalition against France

23 April, 1789 ngent and execution of lord Strafford 1641 Habeas Corpus act suspended .

23 May, 1794 “Artist of the five members"

. 4 Jan, 1642 Howe's victory Civil war begins ; see Battles

Marriage of the prince of Wales with the princess

. 1 June, Archbishop Laud heheaded 10 Jan. 1645 Caroline of Brunswick.

8 April, 1795 Charles defeated at Nasehy

Warren Hastings acquitted Heters to the Scotch, 5 May ; is given up, 21 Sept. 1646 Princess Charlotte of Wales born

23 April,

7 Jan. 1796 Ererntion of Charles I. 30 Jan. 1649 Cash payments suspended

25 Feb. 1797 Cromwell's victory at Worcester

3 Sept. 1651 Death of Edmund Burke OLIVER CROMWELL protector of the Common Battle of the Nile ; Nelson victor.

9 July, wealth 16 Dec. 1653

. 1 Aug. 1798 Irish rebellion

May, Naval victories of Blake

1652-7 Habeas Corpus act again suspended RICHARD CROMWELL, protector . 3 Sept. 1658 Hattield's attempt on the king's life. 15 May, 1800 Richard resigns 25 May, 1659 Union of Great Britain with Ireland

1 Jan. 1801 CHARLES 11. : monarchy re-established, 20 May, 1660 Nelson's victory at Copenhagen Act of uniforinity passeil ; church of Englind re Habeas Corpus act again suspended'.

2 April, wtoreri 1662 Peace of Amiens concluded

19 April,

1 Oct. The great plague

1665 War against France under Bonaparte. 18 May, 1803 The Trat tire of London

2, 3 Sept. 1666

Nelson's victory and death at Trafalgar . 21 Oct. 1805 Distrace of lori Clarendon

Nov. 1667
Death of Mr. Pitt

23 Jan, 1806 Deuth of John Milton 8 Nov. 1674 "Delicate investigation" (which sce)

May, Oates's “ popish plot" creates a panic

13 Aug. 1678 Lord Melville impeached, 29 April; acquitted 12 June, Sr Elmond Berry Godfrey found murdered, 17 Oct. | Death of Charles James Fox Muy Roman Catholics executed. 1678-9'Orders in council against Berlin decree

13 Sept.

7 Jan. 1807 The Habeas Corpus act, for protecting English sub Abolition of the slave trade by parliament, 25 Mar. jects against false arrest and imprisonment, pussel Victory and death of sir J. Moore. (See Corunna) 27 May, 1679

16 Jan. 1809

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Duke of York impeached hy col. Wardle

Jan. 1809
Adelaide, queen dowager dies

2 Dec. 1849 Jubilee celebrating king's accession .

“ Exhibition of 1851" announced

3 Jan. 1850 Unfortunate Walcheren expedition Aug-Nov.

Death of Wordsworth (aged 80)

23 April,
Sir Francis Burdett's arrest, and riots 6 April, 1810 Pate's assault on the queen
Death of princess Amelia ; king's malady returns, Death of Sir Robert Peel (aged 62)

. 2 July,
2 Nov.
Duke of Cambridge dies

8 July,
Great commercial embarrassment
Dec. Queen's visit to Belgium

21 Aug. REGENT— The prince of Wales

. 5 Feb, 1811

Great excitement occasioned by the pope's establishLuddite riots

Nov. mentofa Roman Catholie hierarchy in England, Nov. Assassination of Mr. Perceval, premier 11 May, 1812 Sixth census of United Kingdom (see Population) Earl of Liverpool premier

9 June,

(27.637,761) War with America cominencei.

· 30 March, 1851 18 June, The first Great Exliibition " opened

1 May, Peace with France, &c. 14 April, 1814 Australian gold arrives

Dec. Visit of the emperor of Russia and king of Prussia Death of the poet Thomas Moore

26 Feb. 1852 to England

7 June, John Camden Neild, an eccentric miser, bequeathed Centenary of the house of Hanover

1 Aug.
about 250,000l. to the queen ; he died

30 Aug. War with America

Ang

Slight earthquake at Liverpool, &c. Peace with Americal (treaty of Ghent)

Death of Wellington (aged 83), Sept. 14 : public Battle of Waterloo (elose of French war), 18 June, 1815 funeral.

18 Nov. Princess Charlotte inarries prince Leopold, of Suxe

Camp at Chobham

14 June-19 Aug. 1353 Coburg

2 May, 1816 Death of sir Charles Napier, conqueror of Scinde, Death of R. B. Sheridan 9 July,

29 Aug. Spa-fiel is meeting (which see)

2 Dec.

English and French fleets enter Bosphorus, 22 Oct. Green-bag inquiry (achich see)

2 Feb. 1817 Protocol signed between England, France, Austria, Habeas Corpus act suspended

and Prussia, for re-establishment of peace between Caslı payments resuuned

22 Sept.

Russia and Turkey Princess Charlotte dies childbirthi

6 Nov.

Many meetings on eastern question, favourable to
Queen Charlotte dies at Kew

17 Nov. 1818
Turkey

Sept. to Dec.
Queen Victoria born

24 May, 1819 Great strike at Preston ; 14,972 hands unemployed Manchester reform meeting (Peterloo) 16 Aug.

at one time

15 Oct. 1853, to 1 May, 1854 Duke of kent dies 23 Jan. 1820 Queen reviews Baltic fleet

· 11 March, GEORGE IV. accession

Treaty of alliance between England, France, and Cato-street conspirators arrested, 23 Feb. executed,

Turkey signed

12 March, 1 May, War declared against Russia (see Russo-Turkish War) Trial of queen Caroline 19 Aug. to 10 Nov.

28 March, Coronation of George IV.

19 July, 1821
Fast day on account of the war

26 April, Queen Caroline dies at Hammersmith

7 Aug
Marquis of Anglesey dies

28 May,
Lord Byron dies
19 April, 1824 King of Portugal visits England

June, Cominercial panic

1825-6 Crystal Palace opened by the queen 10 June, Duke of York dies

5 Jan, 1827 Cholera prevails in the south and west of London, Mr. Camins, premier, 30 April; dies 8 Aug.

Aug. and Sept.
Battle of Navarino

Thanksgiving for abundant harvest
Roman Catholic Relief bill passed . 13 April, 1829 Great explosion and tire at Gateshead and Newcastle,
Political panic in London ;-riots
Nov.

6 Oct.
WILLIAM IV. accession
26 June, 1830 Meeting of Parliament

12 Dec. Mr. Huskisson killed at the opening of the Liver

Resignation of Aberdeen ministry

29 Jan. 1855 pool and Manchester railway . 15 Sept. Formation of Palmerston ministry

Feb,
Grey administration formed .

Nov,
Death of Joseph Hume (aged 78)

20 Feb. King opens new London bridge .

Aug. 1831 Sebastopol inquiry committee named The cholera morbus in England

26 Oct. Visit of emperor and empress of French, Reform bill rejected by the lords, 7 Oct. ; fatal

16 to 21 April, Bristol riots

Loan of 16 millions agreed to

April, English Reform aet passed 7 June, 1832 Distribution of Crimean medals

19 May, Sir Walter Scott (lies

21 Sept. Metropolitan cattle market opened Assault on William IV. by a discharged pensioner at

13 June,

Agitation and rioting concerning Sunday trading
Ascot.

19 June,
bill, which is withdrawn

2 July,
S. T. Coleridge dies
25 July, 1834 The queen and prince visit Paris

18 Aug; Slavery ceases in the colonies

1 Aug. Peace with Russia proclaimed, 19 April; thanksCorporation reform act passed.

Sept. 1835 VICTORIA, accession", Hanover separated from

giving day, 4 May : illuminations, &c. 29 May, 1856 War with China (which see)

Oct.
Great Britain
20 June, 1837 War with Persia (which see)

Nov.
Coronation of queen Victoria .

28 June, 1838 Dissolution of parliament, 21 March ; new parliaBeginning of war with China

March, 1839
ment meets

30 April, 1857 Penny postage begins

10 Jan. 1840 Death of duchess of Gloucester (aged 81), the last of Marriase of the queen with prince Albert of Saxe

George III.'s children

30 April, Coburg (see p. 244)

10 Feb.

Mutiny of Indian army begins (see inidin)March, Oxford's assault on the queen .

10 June,

Opening of the Fine Arts exhibition at Manchester, Prince of Wales bom 9 Nov. 1841

5 May, King of Prussia visits England

24 Jan. 1842 Educational conference in London, prince Albert in John Francis fires at the queen

the chair

22 June, Bean presents a pistol at her .

3 July,

Victoria crosses (which see) distributed by the queen
Income tax act passed

Aug.
in Hyde-park

26 June, Queen embarks for Scotland (1st visit).

29 Aug.

Meetings for relief of sufferers by the mutiny in Peace of Sankin (with China)

Dec.

India (by 15 Nov. 260,000l. raised] 25 Aug. Death of duke of Sussex

21 April, 1843 Great commercial panic ; relieved by suspension of Queen's visit to the Orleans family at Château d'Eu,

Bank Charter Act of 1844

12 Nov.
2 Sept.
Parliament meets.

3 Dec Emperor of Russia visits England

I June, 1844 Marriage of princess royal to prince Frederick-WilKing Louis Philippe's visit

liam of Prussia Tractarian or Pustrite controversy

1844-5

Excitement respecting attempted assassination of Anti-corn-law agitation

1845

Louis Napoleon, 14 Jan, ; indiscreet addresses of
Queen's visit to Germany

French colonels, published
Peel's new tariff, 1845 ; railway mania Nov. “Conspiracy to Muider" hill (introduced by lord
Commercial panic

March, 1846 Palmerston, 8 Feb.) rejected, 19 Feb. ; Palmerston
Corn laws repealed

26 June,
ministry resigns.

22 Feb.
Chartist demonstration in London
. 10 April, 1848 | Derby-Disraeli administration formed 26 Feb

... Cholera re-appers in England in . 1848 and 1849 Dr. Simon Bernard acquitted of conspiracy against Queen embarks on her visit to Ireland i Aug.

the life of Louis Napoleon .

17 April,

23 Feb.

29 Oct.

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The Jewish Disabilities bill passed 23 July, 1858 The India bill passed

2 Aug. The queen visits Birmingham, 15 June: Cherbourg,

4, 5 Aug. ; the princess royal (at Potsdam), 12
Aug. &c.; and Leeds

Sept. Excitement about the confessional; public meetings held against it

12 July and 18 Sept. The Association for the Promotion of Social Science meet at Liverpool

12 Oct. Excitement respecting the Italian war; proclamation for manning the navy.

30 April, 1859 Thanksgiving for suppression of Indian mutiny, 1 May, Declaration of neutrality of England . 12 May, Proclamation for the organisation of volunteer rifle corps : many formed

May-Oct.
The Derby ministry defeated on the Reform bill ;

dissolve parliament, 23 April ; again defeateil,
they resign 11 June; the Palmerston-Russell ad-
ministration formed

18 June, The Handel commemoration .

20, 22, 24 June, The income tax increased to provide for the defences of the country

July, Lord Macaulay dies (aged 50)

28 Dec. Commercial treaty with France, signed 23 Jan. ; approved by parliament

March, 1860 Sir Charles Barry dies (aged 65)

12 May, The queen reviews 18,000 volunteers in Hyde-park,

23 June, Great failures in the leather trade July, &c. National rifle shooting match at Wimbledon (see

Volunteers) The earl of Derby reviews about 11,000 Lancashire volunteers at Knowsley

1 Sept. The queen and prince visit their daughter in Prussia

Sept. Peace with China signed

24 Oct. Thos. Cochrane, earl of Dundonald, dies (aged 82) Prince of Wales visits Canada and United States,

24 July-20 Oct. ; returns Severe cold (see Cold),

Dec. 1860, and Jan. 1861
Charter granted for Exhibition of 1862
Death of duchess of Kent (aged 75) 16 March,
Excitement about “Essays and Reviews
Serenth census taken (29,192,419). 8 April,
Great excitement through capt. Wilkes (of U.S.

navy) forcibly taking Messrs. Slidell and Mason
from the Royal British Mail steamer Trent (see
Crital States)

8 Nov. King of Sweden and his son visit London

Aug. Death of the prince consort of “typhoid fever,

duration 21 days," 14 Dec. ; buried (see Albert

Memorin!)
The United States' government release Messrs.
Slidell and Mason

28 Dec. Second great International Exhibition opened by the duke of Cambridge

1 May, 1862 Inundations in Norfolk (see Levels).

May, Marriage of princess Alice to Louis of Hesse, 1 July, Prince Alfred declared king of Greece at Athens

(throne declined) Final closing of international exhibition Remains of the prince consort transferred to the mausoleum at Frogmore

18 Dec. Great distress in the cotton manufacturing districts

begins, April : contributions received, central re

lief fund, 407,8301. ; Mansion-house fund, 236,926l. Rupture with Brazil

Jan. 1863 Prince Alfred elected king of Greece. Princess Alexandra of Denmark enters London, 7 March; married to the prince of Wales,

10 March, The British, French, and Austrian governments remonstrate with Russia on cruelties in Poland,

7 April, Inauguration of the Great Exhibition memorial to

the prince consort in the Horticultural gardens,
London

11 June, Arrival of captains Grant and Speke from exploring the source of the Nile

June,
Great decrease of distress in cotton districts Oct.
Earthquake in central and N. W. England 6 Oct.
The government declines the French emperor's pro-
posal for a congress of sovereigns.

Nov.
Death of William Thackeray (aged 52).
Birth of prince Albert-Victor of Wales

8 Jan. 1864 Final judgment of the judicial committee of the

privy council that the government had no authority to seize the Alexandra (Confederate) steamer

8 Feb. 1864 Garibaldi's visit to England.

3-27 April, The Ionian isles made over to Greece 1 June, European conference at London on the Schleswig

Holstein question; no result, 24 April—25 June, Great excitement through the murler of Mr. Briggs

in a first-class carriage on the North-London railway

9 July, Great explosion of gunpowder at the Belvedere magazine, near Woolwich.

i Oct. Death of John Leech (aged 47). Death of Richard Cobden (aged 61) 2 April, 1865 Prince George of Wales born

3 June, Resignation of lord-chancellor Westbury

· 4 July, General election; majority for Palmerston administration

10 July, &c. Visit of Abd-el-Kader ; departs

6 Aug. Prevalence of a cattle plague, June-Oct. ; royai commission appointed ; met

10 Oct. English fleet visits Cherboury, 15 Aug. ; French fleet

visits Portsmouth. Fine art and industrial exhibitions opened in London and the provinces

July-Sept. Death of lord Palmerston, i8 oct. ; public funeral Earl Russell premier

3 Nov. Important commercial treaty with Austria signed

16 Dec. New parliament opened by the queen . 6 Feb, 1866 New reform bill introduced by Mr. Gladstone, 12 Mar. Cominercial panic in London 11 May, et seq. International botanical congress opened 22 May, Defeat of the government on the reform bill,

18 June ; resignation of ministers 26 June, Marriage of princess Helena to prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein

5 July, The third Derby cabinet formed.

6 July, The Atlantic telegraph completely laid, and mes: sages sent to lord Stanley

27 July, The cable of 1865 recovered, and communication established with Valentia, 2 Sept. ; and with Newfoundland.

8 Sept. Projected attack of Fenians on Chester prevented by the authorities

11, 12 Feb. 18677 The queen laid foundation of the Albert hall of arts at S. Kensington

20 May, Visit of the viceroy of Egypt.

6-18 July, Visit of the Belgian volunteers (see Belgium),

10-22 July, Visit of the Sultan (see Turkey). 12-23 July, "Early Years of the Prince Consort,” published end of

July, New Reform act passed (see Reform).

15 Aug Michael Faraday, natural philosopher(nearly 76) died

25 Aug. Preparations for the expedition to Abyssinia (see Abyssinia)

Aug. rescue of prisoners at Manchester Fenian outrages;

(see Fenians) Synod of bishops at Lambeth (see Pan-Anglican)

24-27 Sept. Meeting of parliament respecting Abyssinian war, Fenian explosion at Clerkenwell prison, London,

13 Dec. Special constables called for ; 113,674 (in the U. K.) sworn in by.

28 Jan. 1860 " Leaves from our Journal in Scotland," &c., by the queen, published

Jan. Resignation of earl of Derby, 25 Feb. ; the Disraeli

ministry forined The queen holds a drawing-room again 12 March, Death of lord Brongham, aged 89

7 May, Arrival of the duke of Edinburgh from Australia

26 June, Irish and Scotch reform acts passed

13 July, Mr. Gladstone's resolution for disestablishing the

Irish church ; adopted by the commons, 30 April, Nearly 21,000 extra deaths attributed to the hot summer (23 July said to be the hottest)

1 July--30 Sept. Parliament dissolved in Nov., new parliament meets

Io Dec. Resignation of Disraeli ministry, 2 Dec. ; Gladstone

ministry take office Convention with the United States respectiug the

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Alabama claim signed (afterwards rejected by the
States).

14 Jan. 1869 New parliament meet for business

16 Feb. Irish Church bill introduced into the commons, 1 March ; royal assent.

26 July, The earl of Derby dies (aged 20).

23 Oct. Parliament meets

.8 Feb. 1870 Charles Dickens died (aged 58)

9 June, Earl of Clarendon died (aged 70) Irish land bill brought in, 15 Feb., received royal assent

8 July, Neutrality in Franco-Prussian war (which see) pro

claimed 2,000,000l. voted to increase the army by 20,000 men

19 July,

1 Aug. Foreign enlistment act passed, 1 Aug. ; stringent proclamation of neutrality issued

9 Aug. Parliament prorogued

10 Aug Treaty with Prussia and France for neutrality of Belgium signed

9, II Aug. Long drought : bad hay harvest : good wheat barvest

Mar.-Aug. Earl Granville repels the charge of violating neutralities made by the Prussian government,

1-15 Sept. The queen's consent to the marriage of the princess

Louise to the marquis of Lorue announced Foot and mouth disease prevalent among cattle

Aug.-Nov. Election of elementary school-boards

Nov. Excitement through the Russian note respecting the Black sea (see Russia)

Nov. Foundation of new Post-office laid

16 Dec. Resignation of Mr. Bright announced Parliament meets

. Feb. 1871 Marringe of the princess Louise and the marquis of Lorne

21 March, Royal Albert Hall, Kensington, opened by the queen

29 March, Eighth census taken (31,817,108)

3 April, Death of sir John F Herschel, astronomer and philosopher (aged 79)

11 May, Death of George Grote, historian of Greece (aged 77)

18 June, First annual International Exhibition at South Kensington, opened 1 May, closed .

30 Sept. Black Sea conference met 17 Jan., closed (neutralisation of Black Sea abrogated, &c.)

13 March, Disestablishment of the Church of England bill re

jected in the commons (374-89), 1 May ; parliament prorogued

· 21 Aug. mness of the queen at Balmoral, 4 Sept. ; recovery

13 Sept. Serious illness of the prince of Wales from typhoid

fever, Dec. ; began to recover Letter from the queen and princess to the people, thanking them for sympathy

26 Dec. Thanksgivings for recovery of prince of Wales

21 Jan. 1872 Excitement respecting the American claims under

the treaty of Washington Meeting of parliament.

6 Feb. The queen, prince and princess of Wales, and court

and parliament go in state to St. Paul's : national thanksgiving for recovery of the prince of Wales : London decorated ; illuminations, &c. ; a success.

ful day The queen in a public letter, gazetted 1 March, says,

“Words are too weak for the queen to say how very deeply touched and gratitied she has been by the immense enthusiasm and affection exhibited towards her dear son and herself," dated

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Supplemental treaty proposed ; accepted by U.S.

senate, 25 May ; further discussion in parliament;
unsatisfactory correspondence; the U.S.
gress adjourns

10 June, 1872 Strikes among builders and other trades

June,
Final meeting of arbitrators ; damages awarded ;

see Alabama
Continued rain ; foods in midland counties

Dec. Death of Edward Bulwer Lord Lytton, orator, poet, and novelist, aged 66

18 Jan. 1873 Strikes among colliers, Jan. ; great dearth of coal ;

the best, 528, a ton in London Visit of the Shah of Persia 18 June, 5 July, KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND.

BEFORE THE CONQU'EST. 827. Egbert, styled “ king of England" in 828. 837. Ethelwolf; his son. 857. Ethelbald ; his son. 860. Ethelbert; brother, 866. Ethelredl; brother. 871. Alfred the Great ; brother; died 21 or 28 Oct. gor. 901. Edward the Elder ; son ; died 925. 925. Athelstan; eldest son; died 17 Oct. 940. 940. Edmund I., fifth son of Edward the Elder ; died

from a wound received in an affray, 26 May, 946. 946. Edred ; brother; died 955. 955. Edwy, eldest son of Edmund; died of grief in 958. 958. Edgar the Peaceable; brother; died 1 July, 975. 975. Edward the Martyr, his son, stabbed at Corfe

Castle, at the instance of his step-mother Elfrida,

18 March, 979.
979. Ethelred II. ; half-brother ; retired.
1013. Sweyn, proclaimed king; died

3
1014. Canute the Great ; his son.

Ethelred restored in Canute's absence; died 24 April,

1016. 1016. Edmund Ironside, his son, divided the kingrom

with Canute; murdered at Oxford, 30 Nov, 1016;

reigned seven months. 1017. Canute sole king ; married Emma, widow of Ethel

red; died 12 Nov. 1035. 1035. Harold I. ; son; died 17 Mar. 1040. 1040. Hardlicanute, son of Canute and Einma: died of re

pletion at a marriage feast, 8 June, 1042. 1042. Edward the Confessor, son of Ethelred and Emma;

died 5 Jan. 1066. 1066. Harold II., son of earl Godwin; reigned nine months; killed near Hastings, 14 Oct. 1066.

THE NORMANS.
1066. William the Conqueror ; crowned 25 Dec. : died at

Rouen, 9 Sept. 1087.
Queen, Matilia, daughter of Baldwin, earl of

Flanders ; inarried in 1054 ; died in 1083.
The REGNAL DATES are those given by sir H. Nicolas.
The early Norman and Plantagenet kings reckoned their
reigns from the day of their coronation; the later Plan-
tagenets from the day after the death of their prede-
cessor. With Edward VI, began the present custom of
beginning the reign on the day of the death of the pre-
ceding sovereign.

ROYAL ARMS OF ENGLAND.
William I., William II., and Henry I.-two lions or

leopards passant.
Stephen-sayittarins, the archer, one of the signs of the

zodiac (trouiitional). Henry II. to Edwird II. Three lions passant. Edward VII, and his successors quartered the preceding

with fleurs de lys, the arms of France.
Henry V. used only 3 fleurs de lys.
Mary I. quartered the preceding with the arms of her
husband Philip II. of Spain.

UNITED KINGDOM.
James I. and his successors combined the arms of Eng-

land and France (ist and 4th quarter); and, the lion
rampant of Scotland ; 3rd, the harp of Ireland.

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The queen, while entering Buckingham Palace,

threatened by Arthur O'Counor, aged about 18, who presents an unloaded pistol, with a paper to be signed ; immediately apprehended The queen sailed for Germany, and stayed several weeks.

introduced the wicorn as a supporter of the arms. George I. George II. and George III, introduced the arms

of Brunswick. In 1801 the arms of France were omitted. In 1816 the

arms were moditied through Hanover being made a

kingdom. VICTORIA. In 1837 the arms of Hanover were omitted.

The arms are now: ist and 4th quarters, 3 lions passant for England ; zud, lion rampant for Scotland ; 3rd, harp for Ireland.

23 Mareh--7 April, Strikes among agricultural labourers in Warwick shire and other counties; a union formed,

29 March, Arthur O'Connor pleads guilty (sentenced to imprisonment and flogging).

· 9 April, Correspondence between the British and American

governments respecting the claims for indirect losses, which the foriner rejects . 3 Feb. - May,

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