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pains taken by the commissioners to execute the honorable and responsible trust reposed in them by the government. SAML. L. MITCHILL, THOMAS MORRIS, HENRY RUTGERS.
mometer, the temperature of the hold, between the two boilers. The quicksilver, exposed to the radient heat of the burning fuel, rose to 116 degrees of Farenheit's scale. Though exposed thus to its intensity, he experienced no indisposition afterwards. The analogy of potteries, forges, glass houses, kitchens, and other places, where laborers are habitually exposed to high heats, is familiar to persons of business and of reflection. In all such occupations the men, by proper relays, perform their services perfectly well.
The government, however, well understand that the hold of the present vessel could be rendered cooler by other apertures for the admission of air, and that on building another steam frigate, the com-tution, fort of the firemen might be provided for, as in the four ordinary steam boats.
The commissioners congratulate the government and the nation on the event of this noble project. Honourable alike to its author and its patrons, it constitutes an era in warfare and the arts. The arrival of peace, indeed, has disappointed the expectations of conducting her to battle. That last and conclusive act of showing her superiority combat, it has not been in the power of the commissioners to make.
Annexed to the report, you will find, sir, several statements explanatory of the subject. A separate report of our colleague, the honorable Oliver Wolcott, whose removal from New York precluded him from attending to the latter part of the business, with his accustomed zeal and fidelity, is herewith presented.
It is hoped these communications will evince the
LEGISLATURE OF MASSACHUSETTS.
The joint committee appointed to examine the votes for Governor and Lieutenant Governor made their report on the 31st of May, which, being amended, was accepted; by which it appears that the whole number of votes for Governor, re. turned agreeably to the provisions of the constiwere ninety-seven thousand and eightyof which there were,
For the hon. Joux BROOKS,
49,578 47,384 122
Majority for Brooks, 2,194.
The whole number of votes for Lieutenant Goinvernor, returned agreeably to the provisions of the constitution, was ninety-five thousand nine hundred and ninety-one of which his honour WILLIAM PHILIPS had 49,599, and is chosen.
If a continuance of tranquility should be our lot, and this steam vessel of war be not required for Owing to some informality in the return of the public defence, the nation may rejoice that the votes from several towns, 579 votes for Governor fact we have ascert ined is of incalculably greater were rejected, of which 327 were for Brooks, and value than the expenditure-and that if the present || 252 for Dexter. The votes in the several uninstructure should perish, we have the informa-corporated plantations which were rejected were tion, never to perish, how, on a future emergen-576; of which Brooks had 113, and Dexter 463. cy, others may be built. The requisile variations Total number of votes rejected, 1,155. will be dictated by circumstances.
Owing to the cessation of hostilities, it has been deemed inexpedient to finsh and equip her as for immediate and active employ. In a few weeks, every thing that is incomplete could receive the proper adjustment.
After so much has been done, and with such en, couraging results, it becomes the commissioners to recommend that the steam frigate be officered and manned for discipline and practice. A discreet commander, with a selected crew, could acquire experience in the mode of navigating this peculiar vessel. The supplies of fuel, the tending of the fire, the replenishing of the expended water, the management of the mechanism, the heating of shot, the exercise of the guns, and various other matters, can only become familiar by use. It is highly important that a portion of seamen and marines should be versed in the order and economy of the steam frigate. They will augment, diffuse, perpetuate knowledge. When, in process of time another war shall call for more structures of this kind, men, regularly trained to her tactics, may be despatched to the several stations where they may be wanted. If, on any such disposition, the government should desire a good and faithful agent, the commissioners recommend Captain Obed Smith to notice, as a person who has ably performed the duties of in. spector from the beginning to the end of the con
The strength of parties in the senate is 22 federalists to 18 democrats. We do not know precisely what number of members there are in the house of representatives, but believe they amount to about 600. The vote for Speaker will show near enough the relative strength of parties in that body. A ballot being taken for Speaker, on counting the votes, the committee reported the whole number of votes to be 497, of which the federal candidate, Timothy Bigelow, Esq. had 313, and the democratic candidate, Benjamin Green, Esq. 182. The votes of the candidates
Wednesday, June 5.-The joint committee appointed to wait on his excellency the governor, having informed him the two houses were ready to receive communications from him, reported that the governor would meet them this day at 12 o'clock. Accordingly, the two houses being assembled in convention, his excellency, preceded by the sheriff of Suffolk, and accompanied by his honour the Lieutenant Governor, the honourable Council, and the Secretary of State, came in and delivered the following
Gentlemen of the House of Representatives.
The institution of civil government is essential to human happiness-without government existence would cease to be a blessing. But as we cap
discern no ground in nature for the assumption of
That a numerous population should assemble and
To estimate the blessings derived to this people from our constitution, would be difficult-we can scarcely point to any source of enjoyment, that is not deduced from, or enriched, by its benign influence.
I only notice further, among the civil provisions of the constitution for the preservation of liberty, property and characters, trials by jury, and the inThe people of this state have been favored by an dependence of the judges of the supreme judicial indulgent providence, with an opportunity sponta-court. These provisions were ordained by the peoneously of framing for themselves, a constitution of ple, and they operate for, and are essential to their government upon the broad basis of equal rights.safety. What otherwise could protect the weak And we may be permitted to exult in the reflection, from the powerful, the poor from the opulent, the that the great questions involved in forming a sys- simple and uninformed from the crafty and intellitem of rules that must last indefinitely for ages and gent? This branch of the social compact constiinfluence the conditions of millions, were discussedtutes one of its most precious attributes. An inwith a degree of intelligence, and a spirit of can- dependent judiciary not only directly guaranties dor and mutual concession, which mark the period an impartial interpretation and administration of as an age of wisdom and virtue. In that interest- the laws, but has a most auspicious though remote ing discussion, facts and principles were investigat-influence upon science and iiterature, upon chared; the most distinguished forms of civil polity, acter and the embellishments of taste, and more of which ancient and modern times furnished ex- especially upon the science of jurisprudence. The amples, were analyzed, and the effects of each desire of wealth, the love of fame, the hope of upon the character of man, and upon social happi- distinction, and every motive that can operate upness, were explored and elucidated, as might have on an ingenious mind, and give elasticity and force been expected, among men thus informed; men to the human faculties, conspire to ensure to the whose ancestors had suffered under the lash of ty- people a succession of learned jurists. ranny, and who were themselves menaced with similar evils; power was imparted to public agents with caution, and in every practicable instance limited with precision. Such concessions, however, were made in favor of delegated authority as promised to ensure tranquility and a due execution of the laws. It is obviously one of the leading objects of our constitution efficaciously to counteract the tendency of office to accumulate power, and so guard against an abuse of delegated trust.
It is foreign to my intention as it would be to the occasion, to attempt an analysis of the constitu tion. But such provisions of that instrument as are vitally important to the public happiness cannot be too frequently brought to view and impres. sed upon the public mind.
A knowledge of the value of first principles ought to be cultivated.--Avarice and ambition wage eternal war with equal rights and public li berty. This was the doctrine of our fathers, founded in the nature of man; it is the doctrine of the constitution, illustrated by the unequivocal testimony of experience.
Virtue is the great conservative of republics; and coincident with the other profound views developed in the constitution, and as auxiliary to their attainment, that instrument assigns an elevated rank to moral and religious principles. The hap
Frequent elections are deemed necessary for preserving the original principles of the government in their purity; and it is no less requisite to that end, that rulers should thoroughly understand and duly appreciate their importance. Principles are immutable--and our system is so framed as to leave as little as possible for construction. A popular government, destitute of a system of rules and principles, expressly distributing and modify.piness of the people, the good order and preservaing the delegated authority, and prescribing, as tion of civil government are declared essentially. well to legislators as to magistrates, the conditions to depend on piety, religion and morality; and upon which it is to be exercised, must be fluctuat-wisdom and knowledge, as well as virtue, are coning and transitory. The ancient republics afford a sidered as necessary for the preservation of the striking illustration of this remark A division of || rights and liberties of the people. To give the ful the powers of sovereignty into several departments, lest effect to those principles, the constitution the idea of vesting the legislative power in two makes it the duty of legislators and magistrates deliberate assemblies, each having a negative upon in all future periods of the commonwealth to che the other; of separating the executive from the Irish the interest of literature and the sciences, and legislative, with a perfect or qualified negative all seminaries of them; to encourage private socieupon the latter; and of establishing a judiciary in-ties and public institutions, rewards and immuni dependent of both, were desiderata in the ancient ties, for the promotion of agriculture, arts, scien
republics, which time and experience have since disclosed. And it is an happiness, gentlemen, to have our lot cast under a system of government constructed upon these principles. This system, How-being the ordinance of the people, and enacted by them in the exercise of their natural and underived right of self-controul, justly and imperatively claims to be the supreme law of the state. The constitution has been in operation nearly thirty-seven years-it commenced in the midst of the war of the revolution, under circumstances peculiarly trying to its infant strength, and has successfully resisted the shocks to which it has since, from a
ces, commerce, trades and manufactures, to coun- | among equals; a compromise among individuals, tenance and inculcate the principles of humanity who, arrogating no exclusive pre-eminent rights, and benevolence, public and private charity. indus-ackpowledge no superiors. And those compacts try and frugality, honesty and punctuality in their being completed, their administration was entrustdealings, sincerity, good humor, and all social af-ed to agents to exercise that degree of power fections and generous sentiments among the peo- only, which their constituents had seen fit to imple. part. The national compact, like the constituTo what extent the Legislature has from time tions of the individual States, is an emanation from to time fulfilled these benevolent injunctions, your the same pure and legitimate source; and the journals and statute books can honorably attest.|| spirit of freedom that pervades and animates the The establishment of numerous public institutions State constitutions, is carried into the national to countenance the principles of piety, of charity pact; and all powers not expressly given, are deand benevolence; for the encouragement of litera-clared to be retained by the people or the States. ture and the sciences, of agriculture and the me. This distinct reservation of rights, besides being chanic arts, evinces a copious transfusion of the a condition without the introduction of which the same enlightened spirit into our Legislatures that constitution would never have been adopted, forms originated and perfected the constitution. And a check upon the powers vested in the general the various aids in money, in lands, and in valua-government. The sovereignty of the States, ble immunities, which have been granted from time though reduced from its original amplitude, has to time, to the University at Cambridge, the colle- been viewed by the most illustrious statesmen of ges at Williamstown and Brunswick, and the nu- our country, as forming a most safe and effectual, merous Academies and other literary and scientific counterpoise to that mass of power inherent in institutions, bear honorable testimony to the fidelity the United States constitution, and which is inwith which the constitution has been administered. dispensably necessary for the general welfare.
In framing our constitution, provision was wisely From the experience we have had of the opemade for transferring a larger portion of sovereign- rations of the national government, we may infer ty to the United States, than had been conferred its efficiency, and that its continuance may be by the confederation, and the ruinous effects flow-protracted for ages. The machinery, it is true, ing from the impotence of merely a federative com- is complicated; but the several parts, we trust, pact, soon imperiously exacted a fulfilment of that are so well proportioned and adapted to each provision. In the mean time, commerce and cre- other as to render the mighty movements of the dit, both public and private, were nearly extinct; whole equable, salutary, and lasting. We preagriculture, trades and manufactures languished; sume the government will be administered in the and the whole country, that had recently and il- true spirit of it, and that a great and united nalustriously effected their independence after a longtion may be rendered happy under its auspicious and distressing war, was overwhelmed with gloomy influence. Whatever apprehensions may have apprehensions of anarchy and ruin. At length, a been at any former period entertained of the openew frame of government was announced, and af-rations of the national government, the people of ter long and rigorous discussion in the several this commonwealth have but one sentiment as to states, was happily adopted. its continuance. Massachusetts will be among the last to impair the union of the States, as she would be the last silently to abandon her own just rights.
The constitution of the United States is without precedent and without parallel. In its composition and form it partakes of the federative character; but from the extent of its fiscal, executive, and other powers, possesses the essential prerogatives of an integral government. The confederation was a government of courtesy. The national interests demanded one of efficiency and coercion. Regulating commerce, maintaining customary intercourse with other nations, forming treaties, exercising the rights of war and peace, and providing for the national defence, were large concessions made to the government of the United States; but they were then, and are still, believed to be necessary to maintain the stability of government, to command the confidence of our own citizens and the respect of other nations, as well as to preserve the union of the States.be The just mean between a too-limited and an indefinite grant of power, was assiduously sought, and the result cheerfully submitted to the test of experiment.
Regulating commerce and encouraging manufactures fall within the province of the national government. The rights and benefits of the former are probably as extensive as consists with the rights and interests of other nations. The distress which some of our manufacturing citizens have suffered from the astonishing changes that have recently taken place in Europe and America, are undoubtedly great, and excite our sympathy. Congress may probably, in adjusting their new tariff of duties, have done as much for their relief as a due regard to justice and the good of the community at large would allow.
While the renewal of the scenes of war must deprecated by every benevolent and patriotic heart, it must be highly satisfactory to you, gentlemen, to observe that the interests of naval and military establishments are consulted and patronized; and that the formation of respectable military depots is taking place in various parts of the United States, and particularly in the vicinity of this ancient seat of government.
In whatever degree the American systems of government may have been derived in their exterior forms from pre-existing models, their origin is essentially dissimilar. The British constitution, for example, was the product of feudal times, and the people of England were supposed to receiveginia, Ohio, Connecticut, and Louisiana, the Seprivileges from the hands of the king, as thoughcretary will lay them before you, as likewise a power was primitively and inheritently an attri- copy of a law of the United States, passed the 20th bute of royalty. Our constitution originated from day of April last, providing for the appointment a different source, and is strictly a compromise of a colonel, lieutenant colonel, and one major in
Having received sundry letters from the several governments of the States of Rhode-Island, Vir
each regiment of militia, instead of one lieutenant || from its mouth to the Harrison line; New River to colonel to each regiment, and one major to each the North Carolina line; Little Kanawha from the battalion. Considerations of some weight, as it Ohio to Salt Lick Creek; Monongalia to Buckregards the officers who are to be affected by the hanan's River; West Fork to Clarksburg, and operation of this law, may perhaps lead you to Cheat River to Chaver's Fork. As soon as the make some provision for carrying it into effect surveys of the boundaries, mountains and rivers the present session. aforesaid, are completed, under contracts with the Executive, the contractor for the County Charts will be furnished with such parts of the respective surveys as may be necessary to complete the said Charts.
Iam, Gentlemen, with great respect, your hum. ble servant,
W. C. NICHOLAS
Should any thing of sufficient importance to require your immediate attention occur, I shall communicate the same by special message; and 1 shall be happy to co-operate with you, gentlemen, in all your efforts to promote the public good. JOHN BROOKS.
The following addressed to the Members of the County Courts, was not written for the papers; but as it contains matter of public concernment, we have obtained permission to make it public-Enquirer.
From the Richmond Daily Compiler.
AGRICULTURAL AND COMMERCIAL.
Cotton, which clothes nearly half the world, and contributes so much to our furniture, our beds, and our tables, is, luckily for man, as common in its growth as it is in its utility. It is "a native of the tropical regions in every quarter of the world. It is mentioned by Herodotus, as growing in India, at the time he wrote his history. It was found among the Mexicans and Peruvians, on the first exte-discovery of America; and among the latter, the manufacture of it was carried to no inconsiderable extent."
The "Act to provide an accurate Chart of each county and a general map of the Territory of this Commonwealth," directs the Executive "to cause such surveys to be made of the rior boundaries of the Commonwealth, as may be necessary to ensure greater accuracy in the details of the preceding Charts where they present the boundaries of adjacent States, and to cause such surveys to be made of the great divisions of the Territory of the Commonwealth where the same are occasioned by chains of mountains or rivers." For the purpose of carrying into effect this part of the Act, contracts will be immediate-is ly entered into by the executive. It would be a useless expense to have the same lines surveyed twice and in many instances three times. The respective county courts are therefore requested to exclude from the contracts they may enter into for county charts, the lines of their counties that are a part of the boundary of the State, the Blueton Ridge, North Mountain and Allegany Mountains, the Chesapeake Bay, and the following rivers and parts of rivers, to wit: Roanoke to the fork of Dan and Staunton; Dan to the N. Carolina line above Danville and Staunton, to the junction of the North and South forks of Roanoke above Fort Lewis; Maherin to the Charlotte line; Nottway to the line of Prince Edward; Black Water to the line of Prince George; Elizabeth River to Kemps-green seed cotton, or upland cotton, or short staville; Nansemond to Suffolk; Appomattox to its ple, cultivated in the middle and upper counties: source; James River from its mouth to the point and 3, nankeen, or stained, cotton, also grown in of Fork; the Rivanna from its mouth to the first the same parts of the country, the color of which fork above Charlottesville; the Fluvanna from its is deep and durable." The two former are grown mouth to. Jackson's River; Jackson's River to the and shipped in the greatest profusion. The first mouth of Dunlop's Creek; Chickahominy to its grows along the sea-coast, and is said to derive its source; York River from its mouth to the junc-fine quality more from the salt air than the soil; tion of Mattapony to the Caroline line; Pomunky it is easily cleaned from the seed. The second to North Wales; Northanna to the Orange line;"grows on the upland, at a distance from the Piankatank from its mouth, as far as it is the line coast, has a green seed, is of a short staple, and of Essex; North River (Mathews) to its source; until the invention of a machine for the purpose, Rappahannock from its mouth to the fork above was so difficult to be cleaned, or separated from Fredericksburg; the North Fork to its source; the seed, as to be scarcely worth the trouble and the Rapidan to its source; Potomac to the South expense of cultivation. This machine was in Branch; the South Branch to Moorefield; the vented by Mr. Eli Whitney, a native of MassaNorth Branch to the Allegany; Shenandoah to chusetts, who was accidentally in Georgia, in the Port Republic, Occoquan and Bull Run; Kana-year 1795, a gentleman of education, and distinwha from the Ohio to the mouth of Gauley guished for his mechanical genius. This machine
The reader is well enough acquainted with Cotfor the present purpose. He ought to be informed, however, that there are many varieties of the plant-some have enumerated ten species, whose distinctions are to be found in the form of the leaf, and the size of the tree.
But in South-Carolina and Georgia, the greatest Cotton States, three species are recognized:-1. "The black seed, or long staple, which came from Pernambuco about the year 1787 or '88. 2. The
In this desultory description, the reader will not look for learning; or else we might quote at length an account of it, of the same learned nature, with the following definition from the Edinburgh Encyclopædia:
"Cotton is a name, which, in common language, very loosely given to any vegetable filamentous substance; but it is correctly appropriated to that peculiar vegetable matter, consisting of innumerable filaments, arranged together with an external coat, and enveloping the seeds of the genus Gossypium."
has enriched the southern planter by enabling him rics. Great Britain must obtain her supply from to cultivate to the greatest advantage, one of the She lately attempted to dispense with it, by most valuable staples in the world. Before its getting a substitute from South-America; but the invention, very little upland cotton was cultiva-staple was not long and fine enough for her purted, and scarcely a single pound was exported pose. She is yet trying to rival us by the growths from the United States; afterwards the culture of of the Isle of Bourbon-but, it seems almost asthis species of cotton became the principal object certained, tha the production is inferior to our of the planter in South-Carolina and Georgia, and best Sea-Islands. in the year 1807, more than 55,000,000 of pounds of upland cotton were exported, and which was valued at more than eleven and a half millions of dollars." This important machine has thus wrought an immense revolution in the occupations of many thousand people. Mr. Whitney has not been without his reward. South-Carolina has given him and his partner $50,000 for the privilege of using it in the state.
The South may, therefore, congratulate itself upon the possession of an invaluable staple. A new market too is now offered for its produce.Until lately, we made the cotton, and Europe mamufactured it. But now, the North manufactures a great deal of what is made by the South. Some of it is woven into cloth, and some is shipped to Europe, in the form of yarn.
Wherever the spindle whirls, whether in Europe, or America, the southern states are at no loss for a market. They possess a mine of wealth, superior to the silver of Peru, or the diamonds of Golconda.
How rapid has been the increase of this valuable staple in the last few years! The progression is detailed by Mr. Pitkin, from whose statistics we borrow so profusely.
In 1791, the U. States exported 189,316 lbs.in 1794, 1,601,760 lbs.-in 1798, 9,360,005 lbs.—
in 1800, 17,789,803 lbs.-in 1802, 27,501,075 lbs. -in 1804, 38,118,011 lbs.
The following table exhibits the cottons of domestic growth exported from 1804 to 1814.
"By what process have the banks of the Mis8,332,000 sissippi river been formed? This is a curious 55,016,448 14,232,000 question, but it may be answered. The mouth of
2,221,000 this river is about 110 miles from the city, and the 8,515,000 banks from the city to the mouth, have certainly
8,604,078 84,657,384 15,108,000 || been formed by the deposition of the mud from
8,029,578 54,028,660 9,652,000 time to time. How long it has been progressing 4,367,806 14,519,571 3,080,000 from the city, cannot easily be conjectured. One 4,134,849 14,975,167 2,324,000 mile in 50 years would require an era nearly as 2,520,338 15,208,669 2,683,000 old as creation, and as the same phenomena apThe exports for the years 1815 and '16, are pear above the city as far as Natchez, we are oconsiderable, and the prices of cotton very high. bliged to suppose that it progresses much faster. An immense stream of wealth has consequently But as the mouth of the river advances into the poured into S. Carolina and Georgia-exchange, sea, it must progress slower, as there will be a premiums on money, all the symptoms of prospe- greater depth to fill up. rity have been in their favour.
To ascertain by what process the detached mud banks at the mouth of the river are formed, I made the following experiments while lying about one mile below the bar at the mouth of the river. With the log line and glass, I first ascertained the velocity of the current on the surface, and found it to be at the rate of two knots per hour. Then putting more weight on the log, so as to sink it to different depths at pleasure, it was soon found that there was no current at the depth of two fathoms; for at this depth the line floated astern, while the log-board remained stationary. Fr the result of this experiment it was conjectured that the water beneath the surface was sea water. To decide this question a vessel was prepared in the following manner. A glass bottle was secured to the sounding lead, and a line attached. Then a cork was fitted to the mouth of the bottle, and a small line attached to the cork, and held by an assistant on deck, while the sounding lead with the bottle was sunk. When at the depth of ten fathoms, the cork was pulled and after waiting for the jug to fill, it was drawn up, and the water contained in the bottle was found to be salt water, turbid with the sediment of the river. This experiment was repeated at different depths, and the result was, that at one fathom the water was nearly fresh, at two fa
Most of the American cotton has been exported to Great Britain. In 1807, for instance, "more than 53,000,000 lbs. were shipped directly to her, leaving about 13,000,000 for all the other parts of
The following observations, made by a gentleman of this town, while on his passage up the Mis. sissippi to New Orleans, have been communicated to us by a friend for publication.
A calculation has been made, that Great Britain turns 5,000,000 spindles, spinning on an average 1,777,777 lbs. a week; making a consumption of about 7,000 bales per week, or 364,000 bales a year, the bales weighing about 250 or 300 lbs. each.
Our cotton exported to G. Britain constitutes a large proportion of the whole quantity of her imports In 1810, we sent her 240,516 bales, averaging 300 lbs. each-thus forming a total of 72,154,800 lbs. Her whole imports in that year were 561,173 bales, of which 142,946 were from Portugal and her colonies; each of these averaging only about 100 lbs. More than one half was thus procured from the United States.
Europe must look to more genial climes than her own for her cotton wool. Bonaparte attempt-out, ed to encourage the growth by a premium of ten cents on the pound. But the experiment failed. Nature forbad, what man encouraged. Search the world through, there is no cotton superior, or perhaps equal to our sea-island for the finer fab