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ridiculous notion we may have embraced ? out having read her works, or examinAnd is it not evident, ihat the proper the passages in holy writ upon reason the balk of mankind onglit to which she rested her divine mission. assign for their profession of a particular I have that zeal and enthusiasm in the religion is, that I ain a good Mahon-1 cause of truth, that I will make no scrumetan, because I was born at Constantin plein declaring my opinion on this case, nople, and a true Christian, becau:e ! though I should be thought a was bora ai London ?-\'hea ve refcct Soutlicoierian in disguise, and be loaded upon the history of man, €3! we be sur- with every species of opprobrium. I do prised at any thing he does under the roundly assert, without the fear of influence of religion ?- There is no prin contradiction, that the texts selected ciple so powerful over the human mind! by Mrs. Southcott for the illustration as superstition, when enforced and di- of her doctrines, are as pointed and as lected by a Priest. It is quite immaterial applicable as any of those upon which whether it is the worship of the most we ground the christian system. To hilleous idol to which the poor benighted those who say that her death proved lodian vows the knee, or the more ration the fallacy of her scheme, and her fole al adoration of a Supreme Being, as the lowers will no longer exist as a sect, Author of Nature.-Their effects will be it is answered that her disciples know the same wherever a Priesthood have the the Almighty has changed bis miird beliberty of modifying them to answer their fore; lie had repented that he had made own interested purposes---Let us then man, that be called Jesus Christ to heabe moncrate and charitable, and avoid ven before he had caused the Lion and exposing our shallow knowledye of self, the Lamb to lay down together, and by abusing othera, even if they should the land to flow with milk and honey; be in error.

But God forbid that I and may be not, say the true believers, should say they are because they see have some wise and mysterious end in inore in my Bible than I have been view in taking the holy propheless to taught to see. Is every other science bonseit, without blessing us with the to be extended and improvedl, and Shilol. Perhaps the crying sins of this zot that of religion ?--The Jews nerer great Babylon have offended him. But discovered that our system was predicted | be ibis as it may, wliatever is, is right; in their books and will not believe it to it is all for the best, and must at last this day. The language of oracles and work together for good. Let'us then prophecies has never been direct ani cordially unite in offering up those senperspicuous, but, on the contrary, dark timents of praise, which are the emanaand mysterious. The fertile imagination tion of a true and loval heart, to our of St. Augustine could see the whole of good and gracious Prince Regent, for his the New Testament in the Old: he dis-mild and generous conduct towards this covered that even the piece of red rag new sect of christians, which, I have Held out as a signal by a barlot, was no doubt will flourish to the end of time; typical of the blood of our blessed Sa- it being iny most serious persuasion, viour, and the two wives of Abraham that, according to critical evidence, this meant the synagogue and the catholic system and our own only holy and inchurch. Trė protestants, in our expo- tallible faith must stand or fall together. sitious, make the man of sin to be the

ESRASMUS PERKINS, pope, tlse Romish religion antichristian: and the more enlighteved Southuolerianis London, Feb. 17, 1815. can see still farther than us. They find that Jesns went off without making the tartii a paradise as was promised, and quote passages from scripture to prove his second coming in the child SHILOH, The American Documents to be continued to fulfil what he left undone, Hundreds have condemned the prophetess with

in the ncxt Vumber.

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VOL. XXVII. No. 9.]


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[ 253 DELIVERANCE OF SPAIN. darc say, it will be pursued all over Eu

rope. Napoleon put down the InquisiThe following REFLECTIONS place in tion and drove out the Monks. Those a clear right the Change, which have who now suffer from having fought and taken place in Spain, since the return of wrote against Napoleon and for FerdiFerdinand, the beloved, in consequence nand must take the fruit of their exertions of the Deliverance of that country. For for their pains. Spain is Delivered; we my part, I have very little feeling for were, as we say, her Deliverers. I will those, who endeavoured 10 restore him. I pity no one, who was for the Deliver's They well knew him and his fanily; ance, and who yet complains of its consethes weil knew the sort of government quences. which they had under that fanıily; they had so reason to expect beiter govern

REFLECTIONS ment than before; they wrote and fought for him; they have him; and much good Onlle Political Changes which hare taken may lie do them. There were many per

place in Spain since the return of For. solis, of whom I was one, who did not

dinand. wish to see Europe under the sway of My object in presenting these reflecNapoleon, but who feared, that his be- tions to the public, is to throw some ing overilirown would produce evil, by light on a subject of the greatest importreplacing all the nations of Europe under ance to the tranquillity of Lurope. their old masters, with a despotism, on My homage is due only to justice and the part of the latter, to rule the people to virtue, for in whatever country or inwith a rod of iron. As to supposing, as dividual they may be found, the friend of some meu did, that the old families would liberty musi honour and respect them. be more mild in their government than Wishing to divest myself of all national formerly; that the lesson, as it was called, and party spirit, which never fail to blind would make them gentle in future, and the eyes of those who are under their inallow their people more liberti; than thiey fuence, I will express with the utnost enjoyed before, nothing could, it ap- frankness, ny ideas on erents of such peared to me, be more foolisti

, nothing importance as those which have lately more opposite to the general practice of' happened in Spain, and which, in my mankind. Who, as I once before asked, ' opinion, have not yet been considered in that has cattle or sleep which break over, their true light. For this purpose I will or through his fences, lour or weaken the give a brief historical recapitulation of fences upon bringing back the flock or the then, without which it will be impossible berd? Does a fiorse break bis haller? We to form a just opinion of their origin and put a chuin in its stead. I have a gang of future consequences. leaping Mares and Colts, which have The Spanish Nation, invaded by Nabroken out, several times this winter, (poleon and deserted by Ferdinand in a from rough pasture into my meadoivs and way, if not the most criminal, at least the fields, allured by the sight.of belter most impolitic, nobly resisted so unjust living. What have I cwne? Have I an aggression. That this desertion was patted them and caressed them? llave contrary to the wish of the Spaniards, is I given them a greater and farther range? evident from the meats taken by the peoNot I, faith! I have sought out the places ple of Vittoria to binder bis ill-judged of their escape; and baving driven them journey, for they unharnessed his carback, lave constantly redoubled the var. riage, notwithstanding his utmost renonrier; and have, at last, made it impos- strances, and those of his stupid advisers sible for them to get out with their lives. and followers. In order to oppose the Ferdinand is pursuing my plan, and, I' most effectual resistance to the invasion

of Napoleon, the people appointed new monstrous phenomenon, the Treaty of authorities, because the former were cor- Valeney, a treaty so shameful and inderupted or intimidated by the orders of cent, that Ferdinand himself, in order to Ferdinand bimself, and as such, unwil- hide the ignominy of it, pretended that ling to resist the yoke that was about ti he had no other intention than to outwit be imposed on them by the conqueror. Bonaparte: (see the puerile and ridicuAll the authorities, established during this lous Pamphlet of the Canoni Escoiquiz, a period of the revolution, were recognized worty companion of Ferdinand, and his by England and by all the other powers counsellor in making the above treaty) of Europe, who dared to oppose the arms as it' following Bonaparte on his throne, of Napoleon, and they shewed not the he who had so often degraded liimself by least hesitation to form treaties of alliance submission, was now bold enough not to and friendship with them. In short, to fulfil the stipulations, or as if foreseeing doubt the legality of the new Spanish his fall, he would have given 1'e worlu Government, would be to condemn a re- sufficient ground to suspect his veracity, volution, more generally approved than merely to anticipate his freedom by in any one of which we have any example. days, if that lite can be called ficedom Nothing could more strongly prove the which is spent among nuns, in passing legitimacy of the government, than the from convent to convent. elections for representatives which took In order to guard against the effects of place in all the provinces unoccupied by so shameful a treaty, in which Ferdinand the enemy, and among the individuals of bound bimself without delay, to restore those that were, who met at Cadiz, then to Bonaparte all the prisoners made by the capital of the Spanish Empire, in the Spaniards, which were either in the order to form the extraordinary Cortes ; Peninsula, Eugland, or America, and to an assembly which the government of this cause those English troops who were then country, by its agent the Marquis of tighting so gloriously for his personal Wellesley, wisely promoted, knowing that liberty, to evacuate Spain, the ordinary the Spaniards could make no progress in Cortez issued the decree of the 2d of Fedefending their independence, without bruary, 1814,to annuil the said convention. procuring at the same time their internal The decree was immediately transliberty. This assembly, notwithstanding mitted to all the Spanish authorities, the desertion of Ferdinand and bis base and to Lord Wellington, who, nominated acts of submission, as those of soliciting by the Cortez generalissimo of the Spato be adopted a son of Napoleon, aud nish Armies, was, above all other persons, asking him the command of a division in responsible for its being complied with; his armies for his brother Charles, while because, by a charge of such importance, Spain was suffering under every sacrifice the safety and defence of the Cortez, and to redeem him from captivity, decreed even the national liberty, were committed that he was their King, that a Regency to bis care, and the representatives of should be appointed in his room, but that the Spanish people had sliewn themselves on his return he should not be recognized satisfied with idis contidence, inasmuch till he liad sworn to the Coustitution in as they had honoured him with titles, the bosom of the Cortez, and that any estates and distinctions. The decree act or treaty he might make, should be was also communicated to the Engli-la null and void, till the said conditions mbassador, and by means of the Spashould be performed. The Extraordinary uish Ambassadors, to all the Allied PowCortez ordered the Constitution to be ers; they all, as well as Lord Wellington, transmitted to all the Allied Powers, and expressed themselves satistied with a deby whom the different Regencies were cree so honorable to the representatives recognized as legitimate. Napoleon who had issued it, as well as useful to the pressed hy the entrance of the Allies into powers who were interested in the inde. France, sought to diminish the number pendence of Europe. And how could it of his enemies and increase that of his be otherwise, when they saw themselves friends : as he well kuew the meanness freed from so shameful and dangerous a and baseness of Ferdinand, he took care compromise, as that of furnishing Napoto make him an ally of his own, and the leon with a numcrous and warlike army, eneiny of those who were defending his diminishing the number of his enemies cause in Spain, ilence followed that and increasing that of his ailles, coin

pelling Lord Wellington either to retire to assist in making prisoners the regents from the Peninsula or to fight with that and the members of the Cortez, and to very Spanish army then under his com- execute the other orders of Ferdinand. mand, -d the united forces of Soult and it is lamentable to reflect that such a Suchet ! On the 26tii of arch, after commission was executed by an officer having secretly ratified the Treaty of bora in a free country; such a commisValency, Ferdinand arrived on the fron-sion he ought to have disdained to actiers of Spain. Napoleon was deprived cept, and be accepted it no doubt with of his throne on the oth of April, and fer- a view to that command which he afterdinand stopping at Valencia, where he wards received from Ferdinand. These received the foreign Ambassadors, Gene- facts being established, I conceive it is rals and Chiefs of a faction hostile to the allowable to make such reflections as Cortez, without the nation having ex- naturally arise on these great political pressed any determination contrary to changes in Spain, on the violent means that which it had sworn to follow, Fer- by which Ferdinand has been raised to dinand having concerted his scheme, an empire above that of the law, as well and provided the meaus for its execution, as on the injustice with which the Spaon the 4ib of May, published that fatal nish nation is censured for submitting to decree for the destruction of that con- so detestable a despotism, without consipact, by which the nation had granted dering the difficulty of getting rid of a him the Crown. Not satisfied with the yoke once imposed, nor of the many sacrifices which the people had volun- circumstances which have conspired as tarily undergone in order to secure him a gainst Spanish liberty. throne, more bonorable than that which It is not my intention to make all the he had lost both bv desertion and by his reflections on the subject that might be resiguation, prepossessed with the idea expected from a historian; the limits of that be owed every thing to heaven, and a pamphlet will not allow it; a few renothing to nien, and educated in ideas marks will be sufficient to throw light on whiclı made him wish to reign only over this business, and my principal intention slaves ; after having formed a party from is to place it in a point of view in whicla among those who were stained with the it may be duly examined and appreciated foul crime of having all more or less con- | by others. I forbear to agitate the questributed to support ile throne of Josephi, tion, whether the legitimacy of the Spahe declared for the extermination of all wish Government being acknowledged by those who had shewn the smallest dispo- other nations, they ought to acknowledge sition to unite the interests of the throne Ferdinand, in opposition to the constituto those of the people; thus giving an tion sanctioned by the representatives example, not ouly of the most complete of Spain. I will content myself with incapacity, and ihe basest malevolence, saying, that if this is answered in the but of the nost monstrous and horrible affirmative, it will go so far as to shake the ingratitude. Like all tyrants in similar throne of every sovereign in Europe, and circumstances, bis first means, of ven- give room to perpetual convulsions. Pergeance were the imprisonment of all haps, in order to confound the Spanish those disaffected to his government, the constitution with the recognition of destruction of the freedom of the press, Ferdinand, they will say that no nation in order to conceal the atrocity of his has a right to interfere with the interconduct, and represent things as suited nal government of another. But this is his purpose, promising the people a sem- not the matter under consideration. blance of future freedom, the more ef- | Without meddling with the Spanish fectually to dazzle their eyes, and those constitution, they had no right to acof all Europe, impudently pretending knowledge Ferdinand till he had been ace that he had published to the Cortez the knowledged by the Spanish Nation, unless act of their dissolution, at a time when they will maintain that a monarch being their principal members were shut up in ackuowledged to day under one state of separate prisons without communication. circumstances, and these circumstances Having taken these measures, a division remaining the same, he may be acknowof ten thousand men, whose van guard ledged to-morrow in a light totally differwas commanded by General Whitting- ent. For other nations to have prknowham, was sent from Valencia to Madrid, I ledged Ferdivapd at so unseasonable &


period, is doubtless to interfere with the Could then the foreign Ambassado:s, if internal government of Spain, particu- Napoleon had not been deposed and larly as the nation had declared by it, Ferdinand had not sworn to the constiagents at foreign courts that he should tution, have acknowledged him? If not be considered as king till he had they had, they would have been traitors accepted the constitution, and not to to iheir country, inasmuch as contrary liave acknowledged him, was by no to that which determined and means to guarantee that constitution. stipulated by a friendly Nation, they And where would be the security for would liave recrignized an ally of the the liberty of any nation, if others have enemy an illegitimate King, and when, the right of acknowledging for its chief by such an acknowledgment, they would him whom the laws liave not acknow-have converted into an eneiny of his ledged ? Another proof of the injury country. If then the deposition of die whicb has arisen from this acknowledg- poleou did not constituie the right of ment, is that Ferdinand makes use of it Ferdinand, and if it had not happened, as an irrefragable testimony of his right. the foreign Ambassadørs would not have See the horrible declaration of the 28111 acknowledged Ferdinand till he badcomof August, issued by the sanguinary plied with the conditions of t!ie Co:tez. Villavicencio, then Captain General of By ubat titie can they recognize liim, Cadiz.

now that Napoleon is dethroned, and I will next pass to the observations Ferdinand bas not sworn to the constiwhich arise from the Decree of the tution? Perhaps it may be said that the Cortez, on thc 2d of February, 1814, Spanish Nation has recognized him, and since, altho' they partly belong to the thercfore other nations ought to do the discussion which I have purposely omit- same, To this I will answer, that no ted, they contain matter less difficult, act or document of the Nation can be and this in a manner less delicate.--The produced to pieve it; a truth of which Cortez might have consented to the no one can doubt, when it is remembered Treaty of Valencey, leaving as it was the ihal Perdinand destroyed ilie constituliberty of the Spanish People, since ton befire his entry into Madrid. I will L'ucnapare, ro doubt, on consideration aver also, that the state of discontent of cliain n; that consent, would lave and of fermentation whicb tlie Nation has compelled ferdinand 10 swear to that been in ever since the first attempt of constitution. But acting with the great- Ferdinaud to restore despotism, is eviest possible candour and delicacy, the deat testin:ony, that a forved subinission, Cortez would not allow any alliance to the effect of surprize and the operation exist between the future Monarch of of a factiu, composed perbaps me of Spain and the enemy of Great Britain; toreigrers ilian ofuatives, is no valid rcand therefore, with the exception of four coupitivu. or five individuals, (1:09 ile most fa- Suppening the facts which I have menvoured courtiers of Ferdinand) they loved, and others which I could proissued the decree already incationed. vuce. to be true, have not the Spaniards Tlie Spanish Nation and its Allies had reason suficient to believe that any rea reciprocral interest in observing it. sistance io their present government Once comr u ticated, the common inter- would be a rush unertaking, and that ests constituied a mutual obligation, all the stales of Europe weulid unite in which could not fail to bind then all, supporting Ferdinand without a constiwhile the interest of any part of them tution? How could they believe that the was depending. To prove this, let me ambassadors would assist in destroying ak a question, which, tho' apparently so fundamentai a law of an ally, without unconnected, will instan:ly resolve every the finsitive orders of their governments ? duulit which in a diplomatic light may, and if such orders existed, how


albe opposed to moral principles so clear teration in them, or any successful reand evident. Did the opposition of sistance to Feritinand on the part of the Napoleon constitute the right of Fer Spaniards, against the will of almost dinand to the crown of Spaiu? every Government in Europe, could have honest men will say, No. They will been expected ? Despairalorie could inconfess that his right to it arose only since the Spaniards so einirace a refrom his coinpact with the Nation. I solution, in all probability so inesec.

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