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sion in Peru reported about a century from this time, discovers that the Indians were reduced to all the rigors of the Flagellants, and that they endured thorns and scourging, and the most cruel postures, but no such system was for a moment admitted among the jesuits. As their numbers increased they formed a yearly congress, in which the jesuits presided, with such honors as they chose to claim. And it is from the knowledge of this congress, the congress of Tucuman takes its instruction and its hopes. Our last news from this country informs us that such an assembly has been
SOUTH-AMERICA,-MISSIONS OF PARAGUAY, &c. (From the Salem Register.)
Never was an institution of missions pursued with greater ability than that of the Jesuits of Paraguay, and if we may judge from some members we have known, never were better talents employ-appointed for a republic, which had as its object their common liberty and government. Not such was the congress of the missions. All the know. ledge was connected with an unconditional submission to the doctrine and rules which had given them. They knew nothing of any laws of possession, in the whole progress of their society. Their labor was at the full disposal of their masters, and all intercourse was most religiously forbidden with strangers, or any persons not under the authority of the missions. The value of this labor we cannot be able to fix. It is enough the European powers were satisfied, and the general procurator every six years had a quiet reckoning, and the sum yet in ready money or exchange transported to Rome without any complaint. How a people could suffer so long without resistance, was a question, even at Rome, and was an apology for the jesuits, that they could reconcile men to such power, by making so severe a yoke easy to them. If we may believe the reports of our own times, those labors have not been lost, and in the congress of Tucuman we may see the execution of the subtle plan of missions converted into the real benefit of mankind. It is to the genius of the men engaged in this work we must attribute any consequences which posterity may find beneficial in it.
ed in any project with a savage people. And yet very little has come to our knowledge. When the work was done, it was too great to be concealed, but, when it was known, jealousy seized it, and destroyed it. In the history it appears beyond probability, in the effect it proves itself a reality. They who accomplished the work, were the persons acquainted with it, and they gave the history as they performed the work, as they pleased. About the time our New-England settlements began, this mission began, and it is the most memorable of all such achievements. It is not in our power to have all the history before us. With the common emblems of the worship in the communion to which the jesuits belonged, they taught the Indians what they thought fit of religion. They enslaved when they converted them. They held the one thing necessary for the other. They formed a republic in which the jesuits ruled, and the Indians were their subjects. They admitted a subjection to Spain to be paid in a tribute, but not under Spanish laws. Philip III. gave them all the Indians they could convert. The plan of government tended to the most entire subordination. All was mildness on the part of the master, and obedience on the part of the converts. They soon consented to cultivate the ground. They raised cattle. They cultivated the arts, and had houses and lands, but no possessions. Success justified the mildness of their discipline, and the missions had all the power. All the authority was administered in the name of religion, but it employed all the cares which could render their condition prosperous. The faith which was claimed was implicit, absolutely so. The converts were grateful, and consented to an absolute authority which seemed kind to them. No outward homage did they refuse to their masters, and their masters were not modest in their claims. The manners of these communities combined with their arts and policy. All laboured, without exemption. Idleness and crimes were really unknown. The men were busy in the labours of the field, the women had their weekly task of flax and woollen assigned them, in which their smallest children were made to partake. The arts came in as they were necded, and with the latest improvements they had received in Europe. They had mills. They had carpenters, coopers, and every kind of artificers. The ministers were by their institution instructed in all the arts they could wish to introduce. When the season of worship came, every thing was adopted to engage the senses. Every spectacle that could associate with religion, was offered to their instruction or amusement, or to interest their passions. And though for their own purposes they introduced some members of the severer orders united to their own, we do not learn that they combined the severity of discipline with the rigor of labor, and the patience of application. A new mis
is said not to be uncommon for one man to mark from one to three thousand calves in a season, and to have from 10 to 20,000 head of fine cattle: The country is as healthy as any in the United States. Ohio Fed.
From a late London paper.
left behind him at Elba, was the following. Every Among the manuscripts of Bonaparte, which he thinking reader will make his own remarks on losophical views of a man, who, for a series of this interesting fragment of the political and phiyears, agitated Europe, and even Africa, Asia,
and America :
PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHTS OF A CI-DEVANT
"The foundations of our society are so defective, that it threatens ruin; its fall will be terrible, and all the nations of our continent will be involv ed in it; no human force is capable of stopping the course of events; as the pear drops when it becomes ripe, so states become putrescent at the end of their autumn. All civilized Europe is now at the same point as Italy was under the Cæsars. The tempest of the revolution, of which some clouds extended themselves over the whole surface of France, will soon cover all the inhabited parts of the globe with a horrible night, and until nature shall have exhausted all her combustible materials, the thunder will not cease to roll, nor a more serene day appear. The whole cannot be saved, but by shedding rivers of blood, and nothing but a terrible storm can purify the infected atmosphere, which envelopes all Europe. If we give ourselves up to the course of events, then we
shall have the same fate that the Romans had to || kind of attainment will be expected from our Laendure from the inundation of the barbarians of dies here-and an opportunity is now given to those of our city, of acquiring the Elements of Botanical Science, by the LECTURES OF THE ABBE CORREA DE SERRA, whose reputation as a Botanist ought to be as extensive here as it is in Europe. The Ladies will find that the vulgar prejudices against Botanical pursuits are without foundation, and its attractions far more numerous than they FLORA. are aware of.
"The latter would have made vain efforts, had not the Romans been degenerate. I alone-I could save the world, and no other. I should have given it a cup of bitterness to empty at a single draught, instead of its being at present compelled to drink it drop by drop. They think themselves delivered by banishing me from the scene of the world; but no man who knows the spirit that governs the nations and the cabinets of Europe, will be of that opinion; he will rather be persuaded to the contrary.-Among the actors at present figure on the stage of the world, there is not one who can conform to the times and circumstances, or who can apply a remedy to them. Were not this the case, would attempts be made to restore on the old footing every thing that ought to perish, or to be buried in the night of oblivion, as entirely unsuitable to the lights of the age, and still more so to our actual position? What is fermenting at present in Spain and at Rome will soon cause a general conflagration over the whole surface of Europe. They are pompously calling up from the depth of the tombs, in which repose those who have been dead for ages, after having endured the miseries and follies of their time, a phantom which they regard as a saving spirit that must bring them wisdom and happiness.
"I foresee that nature, as often happens in the diseases of individuals, will seek a remedy for these evils, whatever the physicians may say of it; when the crisis will be terrible. I know men and my age. I should have hastened the return of happiness, if those with whom I had to act had not been such villains.
The "Boston Patriot" observes, that Brig. Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn, has translated from the French, is now preparing for the press, and will shortly publish, a work on the culture of Pastel or Woad; the manner of extracting the flocculi, and the various processes of dyeing with it and Indigo. This work is calculated to be of great use to the farmers and dyers of the United States, as woad can be raised in every part of our country. It is with woad and indigo that the French dye their fine navy blue cloths.
Paris, Dec. 23.-A young lady named Sophia Germain, has gained from the Institute the prize of Mathematics; the subject of her essay was a solution of the vibrations of elastic surfaces. It was the third time that this question was put for discussion. To M. Cauchy, son of the secretary of the chamber of Peers, was given the prize for his theory of the waves: The prize of physic was divided between M. Brewster, member of the R. S. of London, and M. Sebuk, professor at Nuremburg.
A Polish Jew, named Abraham Stern, has invented an Arithmetical Machine, and has submitted his invention to examination, and had obtained a favorable report. It executes all the four rules in whole numbers and fractions, quicker than can be done upon paper. To use it, nothing more is required than to know the figures. When the machine is set, it performs the operation, and gives
"They accuse me now of having despised and enslaved them. It was their own base souls, their thirst of gold and of destruction that placed them at my feet. Could I move a step without treading on them? In truth, I had no occasion to lay snares for catching them; it was sufficient for me to pre-notice when it is done by a bell. The inventor is sent to them the cup of riches and rapine, full of busy in preparing a machine to find the primary German Paper. empoisoned honey, and they with avidity drank to satiety. The slaves were in want of a master; I was not in want of slaves. This is saying every thing. Forty millions of men complain bitterly of oppression on my part; of me, a single individual, one of those powerful and dangerous geniuses, whom force destroys and aggrandizement throws headlong."
Literature. Three valuable manuscripts, of unpublished works of Cicero, Summachus, & Fronto, were lately discovered in the Ambrosian library, at Milan, which have recently been printed at the Milan royal press. A copy of each of them has been just received from Italy by E. J. CURTISS, Esq. and they are supposed to be the first which have reached England. These manuscripts are of high antiquity, not later than the sixth century. Fronto was preceptor to the emperor M. Antonious.
To the Editor of the Democratic Press. Sir The Science of BOTANY is so amusing, so Extract of a letter from Paris, March 16. instructive, so capable of frequent application in A meeting, I understand, is intended to be caldomestic life, and tends so often to salutary ex-led by the proprietors of the principal journals ercise; and has proved so great a resource to those published in Paris, for the purpose of taking inwho pass part of the summer season in the coun- to consideration a petition to the chamber of Detry, or in travelling, that it has become, as it well puties, praying that a law should be made to fix deserves to be, a very favorite subject of attention and definitely regulate the tax on newspapers. It to the Ladies of Liberal education in Europe; appears, at present, that immense sums are levied very few of whom are ignorant of the Elements of on the journals, without any authority of the leBotanical Science, or of the names and properties gislature, and consequently in direct violation of of those plants that furnish the kitchen garden, or the charter. The following statements, which I adorn the Parterre and the Green-house. believe to be correct, will show the sums which are legally and illegally raised :
The time is fast approaching when the same
360,000 680,000 fr. 1040,000
The money thus exacted by the police is employed in the following manner:
1. Pensions to the ministerial writers and jour-beam. nalists.
2. Pensions to the different posts, among others to those pensioned by Bonaparte. They only received one third of their former pensions during the three months interregnum; at present M. de Gaze pays them their entire pension.
3. Subscriptions to the different papers which the ministers wish to support.
An engine of a four horse power, charged with fuel, may be comprised in the space appropriated to the baggage of a stage; and may be lifted on and off the carriage by four men with the greatest ease; which carriage he can drive by experiment at the rate of fifteen miles per hour, on the bare road, without the use of rail ways, being regula ted to ascend and descend hills with uniform vea-locity, and the greatest safety.
This gentleman is now engaged in the construction of an engine calculated to drive a boat from this, up the Delaware to Easton, and overcome the rapids above tide water: which, in some plaAt Anjengo, on the Malabar coast, there is a ces, exceed the rate of 20 miles per hour. Howcurious small black serpent, called, from the shape ever novel and strange this project may appear, of its head, the crescent snake, though it should there is but little doubt of its succeeding to the rather be classed with the polypus. It is describ-greatest satisfaction. As this experiment will fuled as having teeth on the outer line of the cre- ly elucidate and bring to public view, a phenomescent, small enough to require a microscope to non of infinite advantage to the prosperity of the discern them. The bite is said to be mortal; and country, we will, therefore, forbear entering into a it is added that the slime with which the crea- detailed explanation of its important powers: in ture is covered, and which, like the snail, it leaves order that its uses may be first sufficiently known, along its track, is poisonous. No eyes can be dis- to require an interesting demonstration of its princovered. On cutting off the head, the other end ciples.-Aurora. immediately supplies the loss; it moves in a retrograde manner, and lives after the amputation.
4. The expenses incurred by the Censeur, mounting to about 60,000 francs.
general satisfaction. After encountering a long
Steam Engines.-We understand David Heath, jun. of New-Jersey, has discovered a new era in the economy of steam engines applied to land, as well as water carriage.
His invention consists of an entire new appication of principles in the construction of the boiler or evaporater, which rapidly generates a very high temperature or expansibility of steam, without the employment of condensation; and dispensing entirely with the use of the fly-wheel and lever
IMPROVEMENTS IN THE USEFUL ARTS.
We understand that a Mr. Curtis, of Massachusetts, has invented and constructed a Steam Engine (for which he has obtained a patent) which in the material qualities of that important machine is vastly superior to those of Watt and Bolton, Evans, or any subsequent constructor. The improvement of Mr. Curtis consists in the extreme simplicity of the machinery and the saving of fuel in its operation. The engine is composed only of a cylinder containing a shaft-wheel with valves, without a fly-wheel or other appendage, and is kept in motion 24 hours by one cord of wood, furnishing a power which on the principle of Watt and Bolton would require ten cords: the expense of erecting it being less than five thousand dollars, while others of the same power cost twice that amount. One of these engines is in operation in Messrs. A. and N. Brown's saw-mill, at Manhattan Island, where it has been viewed and examined by several scientific and other respectable characters, with
Wooden Bellows.-Mr. James Proctor of Salisbury has recently invented a wooden bellows, which is now in operation. It is 3 feet 4 inches square, 4 feet 4 inches deep, and is kept air tight by springs and slides-is carried by a breast water wheel about 7 feet in diameter-requires 18 cubic inches of water from a head and fall of about 8 feet; and carries air sufficient, on the smallest calculation, for five blackmiths' fires.—Concord Patriot.
The Wire Bridge.-As the wire bridge seems to have excited considerable curiosity, perhaps a description of it may not be unacceptable to our readers.
It is supported by six wires each 3-8 of an incl in diameter-three on each side of the bridge; these wires extend from the garret windows of the Wire Factory to a tree on the opposite shore, which is braced by wires in three directions. The floor timbers are two feet long, 1 inch by 3, suspended in a horizontal line by stirrups of No 6 wire, at the end of the bridge, and No. 9, in the centre, from the curved wires. The floor is 18 inches wide, of inch board, secured to the floor timbers by nails, except where the ends of two
boards meet; here, in addition to the nails, the
The whole weight of the wires is
"This composition being prepared by a chemical process from metalic and other substances, most effectually preserves the plank, the caulking, and tim-ships' fastenings from decay, and the pernicious effects of the salt water. It presents a smooth hard surface, which never cracks or scales off; water cannot penetrate it-incorporating itself with the plank, it yields with the working of the ship-and as a proof of its extraordinary adhesive quality, it will join together pieces of stone, or iron and stone, so firmly that no violence can separate them.
Total weight of the bridge Four men would do the work of a similar bridge in two weeks of good weather, and the whole expense would be about $300.
We have walked over the Wire Bridge, and feel confident of its security. Where the span would not be so great at the Schuylkill, we apprehend that a Wire Bridge would be cheaper and as safe and durable as any other for foot pas. sengers.-Philadelphia Paper.
"It is also fully ascertained that this Cement resists the destructive attack of the worm-in no instance, where the plank has been covered with it, has a worm hole been seen, although the same plank in parts uncovered has been full of worm holes, and dead worms in abundance found upon the surface of the cemented part.
"This cement being laid on hot with a mop, no injury is done to the plank by nailing, and it is found upon satisfactory trials to resist vegetation more than any other covering whatever in use for ships bottoms; the little that ever adheres, taking no root, cleans off with the greatest ease.
"There are many other great and important
"Price of cementing vessels in the port of Nassau, above 30 tons, 40 dollars.
Navally Important.-In England capt. Wm. La-purposes to which this cement may be successfultham, of the navy, has discovered a process for ||ly applied which will ultimately be made known. making green wood fit for immediate use in ship For the present, the proprietors are content to building, and altogether avoiding the delay occa recommend it for ships' bottoms on account of its sioned by seasoning. Ile has petitioned parlia-great utility in West India and other harbours. ment to appoint a committee to investigate his discovery. And the hon. Mr. Braham, M. P. stated that the board of agriculture had assisted in making experiments with capt. L. and the results had been most extraordinary and satisfactory. A piece of green wood was sawed in halves, one half of which was seasoned by the board, and the other prepared by the petitioner. Independently of the other advantage, the latter was found to possess double the strength of the former. Ad. Hope said || the discovery had not been unnoticed by the admiralty board.
above 30 tons and under 50,
"N. B. Its durability is incalculable."
CARNOCHAN & MITCHEL
Captain Manby, of the British navy, has invented a machine, with which a single individual may extinguish a conflagration-It is filled wi a fluid composed of antiphlogistic ingredients. This fluid extinguishes, wherever it falls, the most ardent flames. The liquid contained in one of these pumps, has as great an effect as 120 buckets of water, in quantity. A case containing three of these pumps, composes the whole of the machine; being 3 feet long, 2 feet in breadth, and 1 foot in depth-it possesses the great advantage of being always ready can be manned by one person, and furnishes a liquid equivalent to many hundred
buckets of water.
Copper Cement.-By the sloop Favorite, from Providence, we are informed of a composition, introduced by the Secretary of the Bahamas, for the preservation of shipping from the pernicious effects of salt water, and the destructive powers of worms. The following advertisement, copied from the Bahama Gazette, will inform merchants, ship owners, and others, of some of its properties and uses:
"The proprietors of the Copper Cement deem it necessary to inform the public, their composition is now brought to that state of perfection that they can with confidence recommend it.
VEGETABLE WONDER OF SOUTH-CAROLINA.
[In a letter to a citizen of New-York.] I believe I did not give you a description of a live oak tree upon Beaufort Island, which we visited, near Dr. Rhodes's. It is situated on a point of land approximating the Broad River. giant of the forest, at some little distance, appeared like a thick clump of woods, rather than a single Its stem is about 14 feet to the branches,
which are like so many huge trees putting off almost horizontally about 60 feet either way, and spreading over a circumference of about 40 yards, or 120 feet diameter. The stem is 32 feet 5 inches in circumference, and nearly all the way of a thickness. The tree never grows very tall, its shape resembles one of our low-spreading full grown apple trees. The age of this mammoth is not known-Mrs. Rhodes, 84 years old, knew it
a monstrous tree when she was in her teens.
ALGIERS AND AMERICA. NEW-YORK, June 20. From the American Squadron in the Mediterranear.' We learn from Captain Summers, of the brig Alexander, from Gibraltar, that the Dey of Algiers had threatened to commence hostilities against the United States, consequence of our
not delivering up the brig according to stipulation in the treaty with Commodore Decatur; which vessel, it will be recollected, was detained by the Spaniards, and for which, we believe, compensation was made by them to the Dey.
Commodore Shaw, hearing of the Dey's threat, immediately sailed to Algiers with the whole of the squadron, (except the Ontario, which was at Marseilles) and a number of fire-ships, with a determination to bombard the town and destroy the fleet. Mr. Shaler, the consul, went with the squadron; and on its coming before Algiers, the Dey, with his troops, immediately retired out of danger, and magnanimously sued for peace, which was granted, on certain conditions.
Consular notices were stuck up at Gibraltar before Capt. Summers sailed, stating that it was again safe for the American trade to proceed up the Mediterranean
wicker basket, and suspended 20 feet, perhaps, by cords from the balloon, with the parachute floating loose between her and the balloon.-At about 20 minutes past 4 the balloon was set at liberty; the wind was very strong from N. yet the balloon was so well charged that it ascended at an angle of about 60 degrees, and at the rate of about a mile in 3 minutes. In two minutes from the time she started, she disengaged herself from the balloon at the height, I should judge, of 2500 feet from the ground, and descended like lightning a short distance, when the parachute opened and she was gently let down to her mother earth, after an absence of about 5 minutes. She lighted near a mile from the champ de mars, and within 2 or 3 rods of the river Seing-Thou sands of people immediately surrounded her, an escorted her on horseback, safe and sound back to her father and half distracted mother and sis ter. There were about 8000 people within the champ de mars, who paid 1 franc admission: a few paid 5 and even 10 francs to go within the enclosures. This money went, it is said, to the distressed inhabitants of Soisons. On the outside of the champ de mars, and near it, I suppose there were not fewer than 25,000 more.-The la dy is a demoiselle about 25 years old, not handpalid, and I thought frightened, though I dare some, and just before she started looked very say much less so than the thousands who were looking at her, but the moment she began to ascend her composure returned, and she waved two white flags which she held in her hands with much grace."
We have received dates to the 31st of May from New-Orleans, at which time the water had fallen in the river, and, consequently, was subsidfrom the town. A writer in the Louisiana Gazette says, "The gentle declivity to the rear of the city tho' of but little advantage at present, enables the police to add much to its cleanliness and salubrity. I would therefore submit, whether pumps should not be placed at the head of each drain and worked regularly six hours in the day during the summer season, or tubes connecting them with the water in the river; so that a constant stream would be found in each street. This would answer the double purpose of carrying off the stagnant water now to be met with, together with the light trash; and by its evaporation reducing the temperature. That this would be the necessary consequence no one can doubt. That something of this sort be adopted, appears to me very necessary."
In consideration of the deep interest manifested by his Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Eng-ing land, for the termination of Christian slavery, his Highness the Bey of Tunis, in token of his sincere desire to maintain inviolable his friendly relations with Great Britain, and in manifestation of his amicable disposition, and high respect towards the powers of Europe, (with all of whom he is desirous of establishing peace,) declares, that in the event of a future war with any European power, (which God forbid,) that none of the prisoners made on either side shall be consigned to slavery, but treated with all humanity, as prisoners of war, until regularly exchanged according to Europem practice in like cases, and that at the termination of hostilities, they shall be restored to their respective countries without ransom.
Done in duplicate, in the Palace of Bardo near Tunis, in the presence of Almighty God, the 17th day of April, in the year of Jesus Christ, 1816, and in the year of the Higera, 1231, and the 19th day of the moon. (Signed,)
EXMOUTH, Admiral and
THE LIFE OF GEN. JACKSON.
We are informed that Mr. John H. Eaton, of Nashville, Tennessee, has been engaged to complete the Life of General Jackson and the History of the War in the South, commenced by the late Major John Reid. Mr. Eaton is spoken of as a gentleman of talents, learning, and industry, and in an eminent degree qualified to do justice to Extract of a letter to a getleman in this city, dated the task he has undertaken. Mr. Eaton hitherto PARIS, March 24. has had his station, with modest merit, in compa"I was yesterday at the Champ de Mars and saw rative obscurity. This call on him by his country Mademoiselle Garnerin ascend into the air by a to step aside from his retirement, we hope, will balloon. It was a most extraordinary and painful-be as grateful to his feelings as it is believed it ly interesting sight.-She was seated in a kind of will be advantageous to the public.
FROM THE EVENING POST.